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Encyclopedia > Techniscope
A Techniscope camera film frame.
A Techniscope camera film frame.

Techniscope or 2-Perf is a 35mm motion picture camera film format introduced by Technicolor Italia in 1963[1]. The Techniscope format uses a two film-perforation negative pulldown per frame, instead of the standard four-perforation frame usually exposed in 35mm film photography. Techniscope's 2.33:1 aspect ratio is easily cropped to the 2.35:1 anamorphic widescreen ratio, [2] because it uses half the amount of 35mm film stock and standard spherical lenses, thus Techniscope release prints are made by anamorphosizing and enlarging each frame by a factor of two. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (879x570, 10 KB) Summary A frame of Techniscope 35 mm 2 perf film. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (879x570, 10 KB) Summary A frame of Techniscope 35 mm 2 perf film. ... Film perforations, also known as perfs, are the holes placed in the film stock during manufacturing and used for transporting (via sprockets and claws) and steadying (via pin registration) the film. ... A comparison of 4 perf, 3 perf and 2 perf 35 mm film formats. ... Simulated 35 mm film with soundtracks _ The outermost strips (on either side) contain the SDDS soundtrack as an image of a digital signal. ... Anamorphic widescreen is a cinematography and photography technique for capturing a widescreen picture on standard 35mm film. ...

Contents

Techniscope vs. anamorphic: advantages and disadvantages

Techniscope's advantages over anamorphic CinemaScope are:

  • More economical: half the film stock used in 4-perforation frame cinematography; half the stock, same running time, less negative to develop.
  • Cinematography requires simpler, but technically superior, spherical lenses.
  • Film stock loads last twice as long; 2-perf stock shoots at 45fpm (24fps), while 4-perf stock shoots at 90fpm.

Techniscope's disadvantages against CinemaScope:

  • The narrower film's enlarged-frame, 35mm print image is grainier; although, some cineastes sought this visual feel for the story; e.g. westerns so photographed appear unpolished, older, thereby enhancing the period setting's verisimilitude.
  • Two-perforation cameras and telecine installations are rare.
  • The narrower frame line (between frames) emphasises imperfections (i.e. hairs in the gate, lens flares).
  • Enlarging and anamorphosizing the image to 35mm release print size requires an extra optical development step, reduces the image's sharpness, and is an additional production cost.


Note: When transferring a Techniscope film to a digital video format, the 2-perf negative or 2-perf interpositive A/B rolls can be used, bypassing any blown-up 4-perf element. Many DVD editions have been transferred this way and the results have frequently been stunning, ie. Blue Underground's, The Bird with the Crystal Plumage and MGM's special editions of Sergio Leone's Westerns. Telecine (IPA pronunciation: . Phonetic: tel-e-Sin-ee; tel-e-Sin-a as cine is the same root as in cinema; also tele-seen.) is the process of transferring motion picture film into electronic form, or the machine used in this process. ... Telecine (IPA pronunciation: . Phonetic: tel-e-Sin-ee; tel-e-Sin-a as cine is the same root as in cinema; also tele-seen.) is the process of transferring motion picture film into electronic form, or the machine used in this process. ... As of July 2007, distributor Blue Underground had released, or had announced the future release of, the following titles and films on DVD: 99 Women (Unrated Director’s Cut) Addio Zio Tom (Directors’ Cut) Africa Addio (Directors’ Cut) Africa Addio (English Version) The Alan Clarke Collection Amazon Jail Autopsy Baba... Luccello dalle piume di cristallo, also called The Bird with the Crystal Plumage, is a suspense thriller directed by Dario Argento (his directorial debut) and released in 1970. ... Sergio Leone (January 3, 1929 – April 30, 1989) was an Italian film director. ...


Specifications

  • Film: 35mm film running vertically using two perforations per frame, running at 24 frames per second.
  • Film area: .868" (22 mm) x .373" (9.47 mm)
  • Film aspect ratio: 2.33:1
  • Print aspect ratio 2.35:1 (2.39:1 after 1970 SMPTE revision)

Techniscope's commercial revival

In 1999, in Australia, MovieLab film laboratory owner Kelvin Crumplin revived the Techniscope format renamed as MultiVision 235, attempting to commercialise it as a cinematography format alternative to the Super 16mm format. His proposition was that it yielded a 35mm-quality image (from which could be derived natural 2.35:1 and 1.85:1 aspect ratio images) for the same cost as Super 16mm cinematography. 16 mm film was initially created in the 1920s as an inexpensive amateur alternative to the conventional 35 mm film format. ...


Mr Crumplin established MovieLab to provide telecine and film processing and printing services, and, with engineer Bruce McNaughton of The Aranda Group, Victoria, Australia, engineered and produced Arriflex BL1 and Arriflex IIC 35mm cameras for the Techniscope 2-perf format.[3]


Techniscope-photographed films: a partial list

During its primary reign, 1960–1980, more than 350 films were photographed in Techniscope; [3] The Pharoah's Woman (released 10 December 1960) was the first.[4] Given its considerable production cost economy, but lesser image quality, Techniscope was primarily an alternative format used by low-budget cineastes, mainly in the horror and western genres. Since it originated in Italy, most Techniscope format films were Italian, generally European. In the U.S., Techniscope, again, was mainly the format of low-budget studios, e.g. New World Pictures, yet Universal Studios briefly used it in the mid- to late 1960s. // New World Communications Company Info •This company no longer exists. ... This article is about the American media conglomerate. ...


Apropos diminished image quality, film reviewer Roger Ebert wrote about the film Counterpoint (1968): "The movie is shot in Techniscope, a process designed to give a wide-screen picture while saving film and avoiding payment of royalties to the patented processes like Panavision. In this film, as in The Secret War of Harry Frigg, Techniscope causes washed-out color and a loss of detail. Universal shouldn't be so cheap."[5] Roger Joseph Ebert (born June 18, 1942) is a Pulitzer Prize-winning American film critic. ... For other uses, see Counterpoint (disambiguation). ... Panavision is a motion picture equipment company specializing in camera, lens, and grip equipment, along with related accessories. ... The Secret War of Harry Frigg is a 1968 comedy film, directed by Jack Smight and starring Paul Newman. ...


Some Techniscope films:

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into List of Goosebumps books. ... A Fistful of Dollars (Per un pugno di dollari in Italy and officially on-screen in the U.S. and UK as simply Fistful of Dollars) is a 1964 film directed by Sergio Leone and starring Clint Eastwood. ... Robinson Crusoe on Mars is a 1964 science fiction film retelling of the classic novel by Daniel Defoe. ... For a Few Dollars More (Italian: Per qualche dollaro in più) is a 1965 spaghetti western film directed by Sergio Leone and starring Clint Eastwood, Lee Van Cleef and Gian Maria Volonté. German actor Klaus Kinski also plays a supporting role as a secondary villain. ... Directed by Frederic Goode, Pop Gear is a music review film released in 1965. ... The Ipcress File is a 1965 film adaptation of Len Deightons novel the The IPCRESS File. ... A 1966 film starring Marlon Brando, Anjenette Comer and John Saxon. ... Beau Geste is a 1966 film based on the novel by P. C. Wren. ... Deadlier Than the Male is one of the many take-offs of James Bond 007 produced during the 1960s. ... The Ghost and Mr. ... The Good, the Bad and the Ugly (Italian: ) is a 1966 Italian epic spaghetti Western directed by Sergio Leone, starring Clint Eastwood, Lee Van Cleef and Eli Wallach in the title roles. ... Nashville Rebel is a 1966 motion picture starring Waylon Jennings, Mary Frann, Gordon Oas-Heim, and CeCe Whitney. ... Thunderbirds Are GO (DVD cover) Thunderbirds Are GO! was the first feature film to be made from the highly successful Supermarionation series Thunderbirds. ... Tobruk is a 2nd World War film shot in Spain and the United States starring Rock Hudson and George Peppard. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... Thunderbird 6 was a British science fiction-adventure motion picture released in 1968. ... Luccello dalle piume di cristallo, also called The Bird with the Crystal Plumage, is a suspense thriller directed by Dario Argento (his directorial debut) and released in 1970. ... THX 1138 was George Lucas first full length movie. ... Two-Lane Blacktop is a 1971 road movie starring James Taylor, Dennis Wilson, Laurie Bird, and Warren Oates. ... American Graffiti is a 1973 film directed by George Lucas. ... For the UK progressive metal band, see The Beyond (band). ... Titanic is a 1997 American romantic drama film directed, written, and co-produced by James Cameron about the sinking of the RMS Titanic. ...

See also

This is a list of film formats known to have been developed for shooting or viewing motion pictures since the development of such photographic technology towards the end of the 19th century. ... A comparison of 4 perf, 3 perf and 2 perf 35 mm film formats. ...

References

  1. ^ Konigsberg, Ira (1987). The Complete Film Dictionary Meridian / NAL Books p.372. ISBN 0-452-00980-4
  2. ^ NOTE: In 1970, the SMPTE revised the 2.35:1 aspect ratio to 2.39:1 (now known as 2.40:1), however, before standardization, most Techniscope films were photographed and released in the 2.35:1 aspect ratio
  3. ^ a b Holben, Jay & Bankston, Douglas (February 2000). "Inventive New Options for Film" American Cinematographer Magazine Vol. 81, No. 2, pp.96-107.
  4. ^ The Pharoah's Woman at the Internet Movie Database—retrieved 2007-03-19
  5. ^ Roger Ebert, Chicago Sun-Times review for Counterpoint

The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers or SMPTE (pronounced simptee or sometimes sumptee) is a US professional association of engineers. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


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