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Encyclopedia > Team

A team comprises a group of people or animals linked in a common purpose. Teams are especially appropriate for conducting tasks that are high in complexity and have many interdependent subtasks. The River Team is a tributary of the River Tyne in Gateshead, England. ... For the River in the North-East of England, see River Team. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ...


A group in itself does not necessarily constitute a team. Teams normally have members with complementary skills and generate synergy through a coordinated effort which allows each member to maximize his or her strengths and minimize his or her weaknesses.


Thus teams of sports players can form (and re-form) to practice their craft. Transport logistics executives can select teams of horses, dogs or oxen for the purpose of conveying goods. Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ...


Theorists in business in the late 20th century popularized the concept of constructing teams. Differing opinions exist on the efficacy of this new management fad. Some see "team" as a four-letter word: overused and under-useful. Others see it as a panacea that finally realizes the human relations movement's desire to integrate what that movement perceives as best for workers and as best for managers. Still others believe in the effectiveness of teams, but also see them as dangerous because of the potential for exploiting workers — in that team effectiveness can rely on peer pressure and peer surveillance. In mathematics, theory is used informally to refer to a body of knowledge about mathematics. ... In economics, a business is a legally-recognized organizational entity existing within an economically free country designed to sell goods and/or services to consumers, usually in an effort to generate profit. ... The term team building can refer generally to the selection and motivation of teams, or more specifically to group self-assessment in the theory and practice of organizational development. ... For other uses, see Management (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see FAD (disambiguation). ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... In the history of the field of organizational development, the Human Relations Movement is the name given to the period following the Hawthorne Studies, where the OD movement found its focus on topics such as social relations, motivation, and employee satisfaction. ... For other uses, see Management (disambiguation). ... Peer pressure comprises a set of group dynamics whereby a group in which one feels comfortable may override personal habits, individual moral inhibitions or idiosyncratic desires to impose a group norm of attitudes and/or behaviors. ... For other uses, see Surveillance (disambiguation). ...


Compare the more structured/skilled concept of a crew, and the advantages of formal and informal partnerships. For other uses, see Crew (disambiguation). ... A partnership is a type of business entity in which partners share with each other the profits or losses of the business undertaking in which all have invested. ...

Contents

Team size, composition, and formation

Team size and composition affect the team processes and outcomes. The optimal size (and composition) of teams is debated and will vary depending on the task at hand. At least one study of problem-solving in groups showed an optimal size of groups at four members[1]. Other works estimate the optimal size between 5-12 members.[citation needed] Less than 5 members results in decreased perspectives and diminished creativity. Membership in excess of 12 results in increased conflict and greater potential of sub-groups forming.


David Cooperrider suggest that the larger group, the better. This is because the larger groups is able to address concerns of the whole system. So while it may not be effective at solving a given task, Cooperider asks us to consider the relevance of that task: "effective at what?" In Organizational development (OD), David Cooperrider developed the methodology for organizational renewal known as Appreciative Inquiry. ... For other uses, see System (disambiguation). ...


Regarding composition, all teams will have an element of homogeneity and heterogeneity. The more homogeneous the group, the more cohesive it will be. The more heterogeneous the group, the greater the differences in perspective and increased potential for creativity, but also the greater potential for conflict.


Team members normally have different roles, like team leader and agents. Large teams can sub-divide into sub-teams according to need.


Many teams go through a life-cycle of stages, identified by Bruce Tuckman as: forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning. The Forming – Storming – Norming – Performing model of team development was first proposed by Bruce Tuckman in 1965, who maintained that these phases are all necessary and inevitable - in order for the team to grow, to face up to challenges, to tackle problems, to find solutions, to plan work, and to...


Types of Teams

Independent and Interdependent Teams

Of particular importance is the concept of different types of teams. A bright line is usually drawn between "independent" and "interdependent" teams. To continue the sports team example, a football team is clearly an interdependent team: no significant task can be accomplished without the help of essentially all team members; team members typically specialize in different tasks (running the ball, goal kicking & scrum feeding), and the success of every individual is inextricably bound to the success of the whole team. No Rugby player, no matter how talented, has ever won a game by playing alone. Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1440 KB)rugby union scrum File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1440 KB)rugby union scrum File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Concept (disambiguation). ... Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... A typical rugby league team consists of thirteen players on the field plus four substitutes on the bench. ... A field goal, in rugby union and rugby league, is a play that, if attempted successfully, will score a number of points. ... A rugby union scrum. ... Look up success in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... Wally Lewis passing the ball in Rugby League State of Origin. ...


On the other hand, a tennis team is a classic example of an independent team: matches are played and won by individuals or partners, every person performs basically the same actions, and whether one player wins or loses has no direct effect on the performance of the next player. If all team members each perform the same basic tasks, such as students working problems in a math class, or outside sales employees making phone calls, then it is likely an independent team. They may be able to help each other — perhaps by offering advice or practice time, by providing moral support, or by helping in the background during a busy time — but each individual's success is primarily due to each individual's own efforts. Tennis players do not win their own matches merely because the rest of their teammates did, and math students do not pass tests merely because their neighbors know how to solve the equations. For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ... Alternate uses: Student (disambiguation) Etymologically derived through Middle English from the Latin second-type conjugation verb stŭdērĕ, which means to study, a student is one who studies. ... Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. ... Look up neighbour, neighbor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about equations in mathematics. ...


Coaching an 'interdependent" team like a football team necessarily requires a different approach from coaching an "independent" team because the costs and benefits to individual team members — and therefore the intrinsic incentives for positive team behaviors — are very different. An interdependent team benefits from getting to know the other team members socially, from developing trust in each other, and from conquering artificial challenges (such as offered in outdoors ropes courses). A coach is a person who supports people (clients) to achieve their goals, with goal setting, encouragement and questions. ...


Independent teams typically view these activities as unimportant, emotion-driven time wasters. They benefit from more intellectual, job-related training. The best way to start improving the functioning of an independent team is often a single question, "What does everyone need to do a better job?" Training refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relates to specific useful skills. ...


Self-managed Teams

Normally, a manager acts as the team leader and is responsible for defining the goals, methods, and functioning of the team. However, interdependencies and conflicts between different parts of an organization may not be best addressed by hierarchical models of control.


The main idea of the self-managed team is that the leader does not operate with positional authority. In a traditional management role, the manager is responsible for providing instruction, conducting communication, developing plans, giving orders, and disciplining and rewarding employees, and making decisions by virtue of his or her position. In this organizational model, the manager delegates specific responsibility and decision-making authority to the team itself, in the hope that the group will make better decisions than any individual. Neither a manager nor the team leader make independent decisions in the delegated responsibility area. Decisions are typically made by consensus in successful self-managed teams, by voting in very large or formal teams, and by hectoring and bullying in unsuccessful teams. The team as a whole is accountable for the outcome of its decisions and actions. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Vote redirects here. ... Bullying is the tormenting of others through verbal harassment, physical assault, or other more subtle methods of coercion such as manipulation. ...


Self-managed teams operate in many organizations to manage complex projects involving research, design, process improvement, and even systemic issue resolution, particularly for cross-department projects involving people of similar seniority levels. While the internal leadership style in a self-managed team is distinct from traditional leadership and operates to neutralize the issues often associated with traditional leadership models, a self-managed team still needs support from senior management to operate well.


Self-managed teams may be interdependent or independent. Of course, merely calling a group of people a self-managed team does not make them either a team or self-managed.


As a self-managed team develops successfully, more and more areas of responsibility can be delegated, and the team members can come to rely on each other in a meaningful way.[2]


Project Teams

A team used only for a defined period of time and for a separate, concretely definable purpose, often becomes known as a project team. Managers commonly label groups of people as a "team" based on having a common function. Members of these teams might belong to different groups, but receive assignment to activities for the same project, thereby allowing outsiders to view them as a single unit. In this way, setting up a team allegedly facilitates the creation, tracking and assignment of a group of people based on the project in hand. The use of the "team" label in this instance often has no relationship to whether the employees are working as a team. For alternative meanings see definition (disambiguation) A definition may be a statement of the essential properties of a certain thing, or a statement of equivalence between a term and that terms meaning. ... A period is an arbitrary interval of time. ... A project team is a team used for grouping people based on a common function. ... A project is a temporary endeavour undertaken to create a product or service[1]. // The word project comes from the Latin word projectum from projicere, to throw something forwards which in turn comes from pro-, which denotes something that precedes the action of the next part of the word in... Look up relationship in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Sports Teams

A sports team is a group of people which play a sport together. Members include all players (even those who are waiting their turn to play) as well as support members such as a team manager.


Virtual Teams

A virtual team consists of members joined together electronically, with nominal in-person contact. Virtual teaming is made possible with technology tools, especially the Internet. This allows teams to be formed of players otherwise unavailable. Research can be performed using input from the best minds around the world. Work projects can be completed by spreading the workload among long-distance players. Many businesses build their competitive edge on the capabilities and efficiencies of virtual teams. A Virtual Team — also known as a Geographically Dispersed Team (GDT) — is a group of individuals who work across time, space, and organizational boundaries with links strengthened by webs of communication technology. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Electronics is the study and use of electrical devices that operate by controlling the flow of electrons or other electrically charged particles in devices such as thermionic valves and semiconductors. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... ... The virtual is a concept applied in many fields with somewhat differing connotations, and also denotations. ...


Not All Groups are Teams

Some people also use the word "team" when they mean "employees." A "sales team" is a common example of this loose or perhaps euphemistic usage, though interdependencies exist in organisations, and a sales team can be let down by poor performance on other parts of the organisation upon which sales depend, like delivery, after-sales service, etc.. However "sales staff" is a more precise description of the typical arrangement. Sales are the activities involved in providing products or services in return for money or other compensation. ... A euphemism is a word or phrase used in place of a term that originally could not be spoken aloud (see taboo) or, by extension, terms which they consider to be disagreeable or offensive. ... Alternative meaning: Organisation (band). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


See also

The Air-defense experiments were a series of management science experiments performed between 1952 and 1954 by RANDs Systems Research Laboratory. ... A coalition is an alliance among entities, during which they cooperate in joint action, each in their own self-interest. ... A community is a social group of organisms sharing an environment, normally with shared interests. ... The Forming – Storming – Norming – Performing model of team development was first proposed by Bruce Tuckman in 1965, who maintained that these phases are all necessary and inevitable - in order for the team to grow, to face up to challenges, to tackle problems, to find solutions, to plan work, and to... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Albert Humphrey was a business and management consultant who specialised in Organisational Management and cultural Change, and devised the SWOT analysis technique. ... Teamwork is the concept of people working together cooperatively, as in a sports team. ... The term team building can refer generally to the selection and motivation of teams, or more specifically to group self-assessment in the theory and practice of organizational development. ... A player of a game is a participant therein. ... A Virtual Team — also known as a Geographically Dispersed Team (GDT) — is a group of individuals who work across time, space, and organizational boundaries with links strengthened by webs of communication technology. ...

External links

Look up Team in
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