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Developer: TeX Donald Knuth 3.141592 / December, 2002 Cross-platform Typesetting freely modifiable, as long as the resulting program is not called TeX http://www.tug.org/

TeX is considered by some[1] to be the best way to typeset complex mathematical formula but is now also being used for many other typesetting tasks, especially in the form of LaTeX and other template packages. The LaTeX logo, typeset with LaTeX LATEX, written as LaTeX in plain text, is a document markup language and document preparation system for the TeX typesetting program. ...

When the first volume of Knuth's The Art of Computer Programming was published in 1969, it was typeset using Monotype, a technology from the 19th century which produced a “good classic style” appreciated by Knuth. When the second edition of the second volume was published, in 1976, the whole book had to be typeset again because the Monotype technology had been largely replaced by photographic techniques, and the original fonts were not available any more.[2] However, when Knuth received the galley proofs of the new book on 30 March 1977, he found them awful.[3] Around that time, Knuth saw for the first time the output of a high-quality digital typesetting system, and became interested in digital typography. The disappointing galley proofs gave him the final motivation to solve the problem at hand once and for all by designing his own typesetting system. On May 13, 1977, he wrote a memo to himself describing the basic features of TeX.[4] Cover of books The Art of Computer Programming[1] is a comprehensive monograph written by Donald Knuth which covers many kinds of programming algorithms and their analysis. ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ... Monotype Imaging, Inc is a typesetting and typeface design company (type foundry) responsible for many developments in printing technology â€” in particular the Monotype machine which was the first fully mechanical typesetter â€” and the design and production of typefaces in the 19th and 20th centuries. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century &#8212; 19th century &#8212; 20th century &#8212; more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... In printing, galley proofs are preliminary versions of publications, usually uncut and unbound. ... March 30 is the 89th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (90th in a leap year). ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... May 13 is the 133rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (134th in leap years). ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ...

He planned to finish it on his sabbatical in 1978, but as it happened the language was frozen only in 1989, more than ten years later. Guy Steele happened to be at Stanford during the summer of 1978, when Knuth was developing his first version of TeX. When Steele returned to MIT that fall, he rewrote TeX's I/O to run under the ITS operating system. The first version of TeX was written in the SAIL programming language to run on a PDP-10 under Stanford's WAITS operating system. For later versions of TeX, Knuth invented the concept of literate programming, a way of producing compilable source code and high quality cross-linked documentation (typeset in TeX, of course) from the same original file. The language used is called WEB and produces programs in Pascal. 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Guy Lewis Steele, Jr. ... The Leland Stanford Junior University, commonly known as Stanford University (or simply Stanford), is a private university located approximately 37 miles (60 kilometers) southeast of San Francisco and approximately 20 miles northwest of San JosÃ© in an unincorporated area of Santa Clara County. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private, coeducational research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... ITS, the Incompatible Timesharing System, was an early, revolutionary, and influential MIT time-sharing operating system; it was developed principally by the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory at MIT, with some help from Project MAC. ITS development was initiated in the late 1960s by those (the majority of the MIT AI Lab... SAIL, the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Language, was developed by Dan Swinehart and Sproull of the Stanford AI Lab in 1970. ... The PDP-10 was a computer manufactured by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from the late 1960s on; the name stands for Programmed Data Processor model 10. It was the machine that made time-sharing common; it looms large in hacker folklore because of its adoption in the 1970s by many... WAITS was a heavily modified variant of the Digital Equipment Corporations TOPS-10 operating system for the PDP-10 mainframe computer, used at the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (SAIL) up until 1990; the mainframe computer it ran on also went by the name of SAIL. There was never an... Literate programming is the writing of computer programs primarily for human beings to read, similar to a work of literature; hence the name literate programming. ... Source code (commonly just source or code) is any series of statements written in some human-readable computer programming language. ... Look up web in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Pascal is an imperative computer programming language, developed in 1970 by Niklaus Wirth as a language particularly suitable for structured programming. ...

A new version of TeX, rewritten from scratch and called TeX82, was published in 1982. Among other changes, the original hyphenation algorithm was replaced by a new algorithm written by Frank Liang. TeX82 also uses fixed-point arithmetic instead of floating-point, to ensure reproducibility of the results across different computer hardware,[5] and includes a real, Turing-complete programming language, following intense lobbying by Guy Steele.[6] 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A hyphen ( - ) is a punctuation mark. ... It has been suggested that Binary scaling be merged into this article or section. ... A floating-point number is a digital representation for a number in a certain subset of the rational numbers, and is often used to approximate an arbitrary real number on a computer. ... In computability theory, an abstract machine or programming language is called Turing complete, Turing equivalent, or (computationally) universal if it has a computational power equivalent to a universal Turing machine (a simplified model of a programmable computer). ... Guy Lewis Steele, Jr. ...

In 1989, Donald Knuth released new versions of TeX and METAFONT.[7] Despite his desire to keep the program stable, Knuth realised that 128 different characters for the text input were not enough to accommodate foreign languages; the main change in version 3.0 of TeX is thus the ability to work with 8-bits inputs, allowing 256 different characters in the text input. 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... METAFONT is a programming language used to define vector fonts. ...

However, since the source code of TeX is essentially in the public domain (see below), other programmers are allowed (and explicitly encouraged) to improve the system, but are required to use another name to distribute the modified TeX, meaning that the source code can still evolve. For example, the Omega project was developed after 1991, primarily to enhance TeX's multilingual typesetting abilities. Donald Knuth himself created “unofficial” modified versions, such as TeX-XeT, which allows a user to mix texts written in left-to-right and right-to-left writing systems in the same document.[9] The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge&#8212;writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others&#8212;in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Omega is an extension of the TeX typesetting system that uses Unicode, specifically UTF-16. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Writing systems of the world today. ...

## The typesetting system

TeX commands commonly start with a backslash and are grouped with curly braces. However, almost all of TeX's syntactic properties can be changed on the fly which makes TeX input hard to parse by anything but TeX itself. TeX is a macro- and token-based language: many commands, including most user-defined ones, are expanded on the fly until only unexpandable tokens remain which get executed. Expansion itself is practically side-effect free. Tail recursion of macros takes no memory, and if-then-else constructs are available. This makes TeX a Turing-complete language even at expansion level. First introduced in 1960 by Bob Bemer, the backslash, , is a typographical mark (glyph) used chiefly in computing. ... Various brackets in Arial // In writing Brackets are punctuation marks, used in pairs to set apart or interject text within other text. ... A macro in computer science is an abstraction, that defines how a certain input pattern is replaced by an output pattern according to a defined set of rules. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Tokenizing. ... In computer science, tail recursion is a special case of recursion that can be easily transformed into an iteration. ... In computability theory, an abstract machine or programming language is called Turing complete, Turing equivalent, or (computationally) universal if it has a computational power equivalent to a universal Turing machine (a simplified model of a programmable computer). ...

The system can be divided into four levels: in the first, characters are read from the input file and assigned a category code (sometimes called “catcode”, for short). Combinations of a backslash (really: any character of category zero) followed by letters (characters of category 11) or a single other character are replaced by a control sequence token. In this sense this stage is like lexical analysis, although it does not form numbers from digits. In the next stage, expandable control sequences (such as conditionals or defined macros) are replaced by their replacement text. The input for the third stage is then a stream of characters (including ones with special meaning) and unexpandable control sequences (typically assignments and visual commands). Here characters get assembled into a paragraph. TeX's paragraph breaking algorithm works by optimizing breakpoints over the whole paragraph. The fourth stage breaks the vertical list of lines and other material into pages.

The TeX system has precise knowledge of the sizes of all characters and symbols, and using this information, it computes the optimal arrangement of letters per line and lines per page. It then produces a DVI file (“DeVice Independent”) containing the final locations of all characters. This dvi file can be printed directly given an appropriate printer driver, or it can be converted to other formats. Nowadays, PDFTeX is often used which bypasses DVI generation altogether. DVI (DeVice Independent) is the output file format of the TeX typesetting program, designed by Donald Knuth in 1979. ... pdfTeX is a variant of the TeX typesetting program originally written by Hàn Th&#7875; Thành. ...

The base TeX system understands about 300 commands, called primitives.[10] However, these low-level commands are rarely used directly by users, and most functionality is provided by format files (predumped memory images of TeX after large macro collections have been loaded). Knuth's original default format, which adds about 600 commands, is Plain TeX (available from CTAN). The most widely used format is LaTeX, originally developed by Leslie Lamport, which incorporates document styles for books, letters, slides, etc, and adds support for referencing and automatic numbering of sections and equations. Another widely used format, AMS-TeX, is produced by the American Mathematical Society, and provides many more user-friendly commands, which can be altered by journals to fit with their house style. Most of the features of AMS-TeX can be used in LaTeX by using the AMS “packages”. This is then referred to as AMS-LaTeX. Other formats include ConTeXt, used primarily for desktop publishing and written mostly by Hans Hagen at Pragma. The LaTeX logo, typeset with LaTeX LATEX, written as LaTeX in plain text, is a document markup language and document preparation system for the TeX typesetting program. ... Leslie Lamport Dr. Leslie Lamport (born 1941) is an American computer scientist. ... The AMS-TeX logo AMS-TeX (or AMSTeX) is a TeX macro package originally written from 1983 to 1985 by Michael Spivak for the American Mathematical Society. ... The American Mathematical Society (AMS) is dedicated to the interests of mathematical research and education, which it does with various publications and conferences as well as annual monetary awards to mathematicians. ... , written as AMS-LaTeX or AmS-LaTeX in plain text, is a collection of (LaTeX) document classes and packages developed for the American Mathematical Society. ... ConTeXt is a document preparation system based on the TeX typesetting system. ... The developer of ConTeXt, a macro package for the TeX typesetting system. ...

### Examples of TeX

A sample page produced using TeX with the LaTeX macros.

To write the traditional Hello world program in plain TeX, create a file myfile.tex with the following content: Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1275x1650, 62 KB)A sample page of LaTeX, rasterized into a nice, antialiased PNG by dvipng. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1275x1650, 62 KB)A sample page of LaTeX, rasterized into a nice, antialiased PNG by dvipng. ... The LaTeX logo, typeset with LaTeX LATEX, written as LaTeX in plain text, is a document markup language and document preparation system for the TeX typesetting program. ... A hello world program is a software program that prints out Hello world! on a display device. ...

` Hello, World bye % marks the end of the file; not shown in the final output `

By default, everything that follows a percent sign on a line is a comment, ignored by TeX. Running TeX on this file (for example, by typing `tex myfile.tex` in a command line interpreter, or by calling it from a graphical user interface) will create an output file called myfile.dvi, representing the content of the page in a device independent format (DVI). The results can either be printed directly from a DVI viewer or converted to a more common format such as PostScript using the dvips program. This was because TeX natively uses bitmap fonts, which are only designed to display well at one particular size, whereas PostScript typically uses scalable Type 1 fonts. It is now possible to make dvips output scalable fonts with a bit of tweaking (newer versions of Ghostscript support it). TeX variants such as PDFTeX produce PDF files directly. A command line interpreter is a computer program which reads lines of text that the user types and interprets them in the context of a given operating system or programming language. ... A graphical user interface (or GUI, often pronounced gooey), is a particular case of user interface for interacting with a computer which employs graphical images and widgets in addition to text to represent the information and actions available to the user. ... DVI (DeVice Independent) is the output file format of the TeX typesetting program, designed by Donald Knuth in 1979. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In computing, dvips is the most widely used program for converting the output of the TeX typesetting system into a printable form. ... An assortment of bitmap fonts from the first version of the Macintosh operating system A bitmap font is one that stores each glyph as an array of pixels (that is, a bitmap). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... pdfTeX is a variant of the TeX typesetting program originally written by Hàn Th&#7875; Thành. ...

To see TeX further in action, look at its formatting of mathematical formula. For example, to write the well-known quadratic formula, try entering In mathematics, a quadratic equation is a polynomial equation of the second degree. ...

` The quadratic formula is \$-b pm sqrt{b^2 - 4ac} over 2a\$ bye `

Use TeX as above, and you should get something that looks like

The quadratic formula is $textstyle{-b pm sqrt{b^2 - 4ac} over 2a}$

Notice how the formula is printed in a way a person would write by hand, or typeset the equation. In a document, entering mathematics mode is done by starting with a \$, then entering a formula in TeX semantics and closing again with another \$. Knuth explained in a jest that he chose the dollar sign to indicate the beginning and end of mathematical mode in plain TeX because typesetting mathematics was traditionally supposed to be expensive.[11] Display mathematics, or mathematics presented centered on a new line is done by using \$\$. For example, the above with the quadratic formula in display math:

` The quadratic formula is \$\$-b pm sqrt{b^2 - 4ac} over 2a\$\$ bye `

renders as

$-b pm sqrt{b^2 - 4ac} over 2a$

## Novel aspects of TeX

The TeX software incorporates several aspects that were not available, or were of lower quality, in other typesetting programs at the time when TeX was released. Some of the innovations are based on interesting algorithms, and have led to a number of theses for Knuth's students. While some of these discoveries have now been incorporated into other typesetting programs, others, such as the rules for mathematical spacing, are still unique.

### Mathematical spacing

Mathematical text typeset using TeX and the AMS Euler font.

Since the primary goal of TeX was the high-quality typesetting of his book The Art of Computer Programming, Knuth gave a lot of attention to the choice of proper spacing rules for mathematical formula. He took three bodies of work that he considered as standards of excellence for mathematical typography: the books typeset by Addison-Wesley, the publisher of The Art of Computer Programming, in particular the work done by Hans Wolf; editions of the mathematical journal Acta Mathematica dating from around 1910; and a copy of Indagationes Mathematicae, a Dutch mathematics journal. Knuth looked closely at these examples to derive a set of spacing rules for TeX.[12] While TeX provides some basic rules and the tools needed to specify proper spacing, the exact parameters depend on the font used to typeset the formula. For example, the spacing for Knuth's Computer Modern fonts has been precisely fine-tuned over the years and is now frozen, but when other fonts, such as AMS Euler, were used by Knuth for the first time, new spacing parameters had to be defined.[13] Image File history File links AMS_Euler_sample. ... Image File history File links AMS_Euler_sample. ... AMS Euler is a upright cursive typeface, commissions by the American Mathematical Society and designed and created by Hermann Zapf with the assistance of Donald Knuth. ... Pearson can mean Pearson PLC the media conglomerate. ... Acta Mathematica is a journal publishing original research papers in all fields of mathematics. ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Sample text in Computer Modern Computer Modern is the family of typefaces used by default by the typesetting program TeX. It was created by Donald Knuth with his METAFONT program, and was most recently updated in 1992. ... AMS Euler is a upright cursive typeface, commissions by the American Mathematical Society and designed and created by Hermann Zapf with the assistance of Donald Knuth. ...

### Hyphenation and justification

In comparison with manual typesetting, the problem of justification is easy to solve with a digital system such as TeX, which, provided that good points for line breaking have been defined, can automatically spread the spaces between words to fill in the line. The problem is thus to find the set of breakpoints that will give the most pleasing result. Many line breaking algorithms use a first-fit approach, where the breakpoints for each line are determined one after the other, and no breakpoint is changed after it has been chosen.[14] Such a system is not able to define a breakpoint depending on the effect that it will have on the following lines. In comparison, the total-fit line breaking algorithm used by TeX and developed by Donald Knuth and Michael Plass considers all the possible breakpoints in a paragraph, and finds the combination of line breaks that will produce the most globally pleasing arrangement.

Formally, the algorithm defines a value called badness associated with each possible line break; the badness is increased if the spaces on the line must stretch or shrink too much to make the line the correct width. Penalties are added if a breakpoint is particularly undesirable: for example, if a word must be hyphenated, if two lines in a row are hyphenated, or if a very loose line is immediately followed by a very tight line. The algorithm will then find the breakpoints that will minimize the sum of squares of the badness (including penalties) of the resulting lines. If the paragraph contains n possible breakpoints, the number of situations that must be evaluated naively is 2n. However, by using the method of dynamic programming, the complexity of the algorithm can be brought down to O(n2). Further simplifications (for example, not testing extremely unlikely breakpoints such as a hyphenation in the first word of a paragraph) lead to an efficient algorithm whose running time is almost always order of n. However, in general, a thesis by Michael Plass shows how the page breaking problem can be NP-complete because of the added complication of placing figures.[15] A similar algorithm is used to determine the best way to break paragraphs across two pages, in order to avoid widows or orphans (lines that appear alone on a page while the rest of the paragraph is on the following or preceding page). In computer science, dynamic programming is a method of solving problems exhibiting the properties of overlapping subproblems and optimal substructure (described below) that takes much less time than naÃ¯ve methods. ... In complexity theory, the NP-complete problems are the most difficult problems in NP, in the sense that they are the ones most likely not to be in P. The reason is that if you could find a way to solve an NP-complete problem quickly, then you could use... In typesetting, a widow appears if the first line of a paragraph is appearing at the bottom of a page with the remainder appearing on the following page. ... Example of an orphan In typesetting, an orphan is a single word or short last line of a paragraph. ...

TeX's line breaking algorithm has been adopted by several other programs, such as Adobe InDesign desktop publishing application[16], and the GNU fmt Unix command line utility.[17] Adobe InDesign is a desktop publishing (DTP) application produced by Adobe Systems. ... Apple Pages being used with one of the included templates Desktop publishing (also known as DTP) combines a personal computer and page layout software to create publication documents on a computer for either large scale publishing or small scale local economical multifunction peripheral output and distribution. ... Application has the following meanings: In general, an application is using something general to some more conrete. ... GNU (pronounced ) is a computer operating system - consisting of a kernel, libraries, system utilities, compilers, and end-user application software - composed entirely of free software. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIXÂ®) is a computer operating system originally developed in the 1960s and 1970s by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... A command line interface or CLI is a method of interacting with a computer by giving it lines of textual commands (that is, a sequence of characters) either from keyboard input or from a script. ...

If no suitable line break can be found for a line, the system will try to hyphenate a word. The original version of TeX used a hyphenation algorithm based on a set of rules for the removal of prefixes and suffixes of words, and for deciding if it should insert a break between the two consonants in a pattern of the form vowelconsonantconsonantvowel (which is possible most of the time).[18] TeX82 uses a new hyphenation algorithm, designed by Frank Liang in 1983, to assign priorities to breakpoints in letter groups. A list of hyphenation patterns is first generated automatically from a corpus of hyphenated words (a list of 50,000 words). If TeX must find the acceptable hyphenation positions in the word encyclopedia, for example, it will consider all the subwords of the extended word .encyclopedia., where . is a special marker to indicate the beginning or end of the word. The list of subwords include all the subwords of length 1 (., e, n, c, y, etc), of length 2 (.e, en, nc, etc), etc, up to the subword of length 14, which is the word itself, including the markers. TeX will then look into its list of hyphenation patterns, and find subwords for which it has calculated the desirability of hyphenation at each position. In the case of our word, 11 such patterns can be matched, namely 1c4l4, 1cy, 1d4i3a, 4edi, e3dia, 2i1a, ope5d, 2p2ed, 3pedi, pedia4, y1c. For each position in the word, TeX will calculate the maximum value obtained among all matching pattern, yielding en1cy1c4l4o3p4e5d4i3a4. Finally, the acceptable positions are those indicated by an odd number, yielding the acceptable hyphenations en-cy-clo-pe-di-a. This system based on subwords allows the definition of very general patterns (such as 2i1a), with low indicative numbers (either odd or even), which can then be superseded by more specific patterns (such as 1d4i3a) if necessary. These patterns find about 90% of the hyphens in the original dictionary; more importantly, they do not insert any spurious hyphen. In addition, a list of exceptions (words for which the patterns do not predict the correct hyphenation) are included with the plain TeX format; additional ones can be specified by the user.[19][20] A hyphen ( -, or â€ ) is a punctuation mark. ... One of the reasons for the complexity of the rules of word-breaking, or hypenation algorithm, is that different dialects of English tend to differ on the rule: American English tends to work on sound, while British English tends to look to the origins of the word and then to... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In mathematics, the parity of an object refers to whether it is even or odd. ...

### METAFONT

Main article: METAFONT

METAFONT, not strictly part of TeX, is a font description system which allows the designer to describe characters algorithmically. It uses Bezier curves in a fairly standard way to generate the actual characters to be displayed, but Knuth devotes lots of attention to the rasterizing problem on bitmapped displays. Another thesis, by John Hobby, further explores this problem of digitizing “brush trajectories”. This term derives from the fact that METAFONT describes characters as having been drawn by abstract brushes (and erasers). METAFONT is a programming language used to define vector fonts. ... In the mathematical subfield of numerical analysis a Bézier curve is a parametric curve important in computer graphics. ... Suppose the smiley face in the top left corner is an RGB bitmap image. ...

It is possible to use TeX and LaTeX without METAFONT. Adobe PostScript (“Type 1”) fonts may be used instead. (La)TeX expects fonts to be supplied as bitmaps at specific point sizes, while PostScript is a vector (outline) description scalable over a wide range, so this does introduce some minor complications. Nonetheless, with the help of some prewritten packages, (La)TeX can be made to use PostScript fonts. Further note that “Type 1” or “T1” can refer in documentation to two very different things: the TeX T1 character encoding scheme to map byte values to glyphs, and Adobe PostScript fonts.

### TeX macro language

TeX provides an unusual macro language; the definition of a macro not only includes a list of commands but also the syntax of the call. Macros are completely integrated with a full-scale interpreted compile-time language that also guides processing. A macro in computer science is an abstraction, that defines how a certain input pattern is replaced by an output pattern according to a defined set of rules. ...

TeX's macro level of operation is lexical, but it is a built-in facility of TeX, that make use of syntax interpretation. Comparing with most widely used lexical preprocessor like M4 (computer language), it differs slightly, as the body of a macro gets tokenized at definition time, that is, it is not completely raw text. Except from a few very special cases, this gives the same behaviour. In computer science, a preprocessor is a program that processes its input data to produce output that is used as input to another program. ... m4 is a macro processing language designed by Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie. ...

The TeX macro language has been successfully used to extend TeX to, for instance, LaTeX. The LaTeX logo, typeset with LaTeX LATEX, written as LaTeX in plain text, is a document markup language and document preparation system for the TeX typesetting program. ...

## Software

The original source code for the current TeX software is written in WEB, a mixture of documentation written in TeX and a quite restricted Pascal subset in order to ensure portability. For example, TeX does all of its dynamic allocation itself from fixed-size arrays and uses only fixed-point arithmetic for its internal calculations. As a result, TeX has been ported to almost all operating systems, usually by using the web2c program to convert the source code into C instead of directly compiling the Pascal code. TeX is usually provided in the form of a distribution, an easy-to-install bundle of TeX itself along with METAFONT and all the necessary fonts, documents formats, and utilities needed to use the typesetting system. On UNIX-compatible systems, including GNU/Linux and Mac OS X, TeX is distributed in the form of the teTeX distribution. On Windows, there is the MiKTeX distribution (enhanced by ProTeX ) and the fpTeX distribution. Look up web in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Pascal is an imperative computer programming language, developed in 1970 by Niklaus Wirth as a language particularly suitable for structured programming. ... It has been suggested that Binary scaling be merged into this article or section. ... An operating system (OS) is a computer program that manages the hardware and software resources of a computer. ... C is a general-purpose, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating system. ... A software distribution is a installer of a specific software (or a collection of multiple, even an entire operating system) , already compiled and configured. ... METAFONT is a programming language used to define vector fonts. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIXÂ®) is a computer operating system originally developed in the 1960s and 1970s by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... Linux (IPA pronunciation: ) is a Unix-like computer operating system family that uses the Linux kernel. ... Mac OS X (official IPA pronunciation: ) is a line of proprietary, graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... Microsoft Windows is the name of several families of proprietary software operating systems by Microsoft. ... The TeX mascot, by Duane Bibby TEX, written as TeX in plain text, is a typesetting system written by Donald Knuth. ...

Several document processing systems are based on TeX, notably jadeTeX, which uses TeX as a backend for printing from James Clark's DSSSL Engine, and Texinfo, the GNU documentation processing system. TeX has been the official typesetting package for the GNU operating system since 1984. Clark, (February 23, 1964) is the author of groff and expat and has done much work with open-source software and XML. Born in London, Charterhouse School|Charterhouse]] and Merton College, Oxford, Clark has lived in Bangkok, Thailand since 1995, and is now a permanent resident. ... GNU Texinfo is a free computer program for generating documentation in multiple formats from a single source file. ... GNU (pronounced ) is a computer operating system - consisting of a kernel, libraries, system utilities, compilers, and end-user application software - composed entirely of free software. ... GNU (pronounced ) is a computer operating system - consisting of a kernel, libraries, system utilities, compilers, and end-user application software - composed entirely of free software. ...

XeTeX is a new TeX engine that supports Unicode. Originally making use of advanced Mac OS X-specific font technologies, it now supports OpenType and is available on Linux and Microsoft Windows. In computing, XeTeX is an alternative TeX typesetting engine for the Mac OS X operating system. ... Unicode is an industry standard designed to allow text and symbols from all of the writing systems of the world to be consistently represented and manipulated by computers. ... Mac OS X (official IPA pronunciation: ) is a line of proprietary, graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... OpenType is a scalable computer font format initially developed by Microsoft, later joined by Adobe Systems. ...

Knuth has kept a very detailed log of all the bugs he has corrected and changes he has made in the program since 1982; as of 2005, the list contains 419 entries, not including the version modification that should be done after his death as the final change in TeX.[21][22] Donald Knuth offers monetary awards to people who find and report a bug in TeX. The award per bug started at \$2.56 (one "hexadecimal dollar"[23]) and doubled every year until it was frozen at its current value of \$327.68. This has not made Knuth poor, however, as there have been very few bugs claimed. In addition, people have been known to frame a check proving they found a bug in TeX instead of cashing it.[24][25] 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... One of Donald Knuths reward checks In the preface of each of his books and on his website[1], computer scientist Donald Knuth offers to cheerfully pay a reward of \$2. ... A computer bug is an error, flaw, mistake, failure, or fault in a computer program that prevents it from working as intended, or produces an incorrect result. ...

Donald Knuth has indicated several times[26][27] that the source code of TeX has been placed into the public domain, and he strongly encourages modifications or experimentations with this source code. However, since he highly values the reproducibility of the output of all versions of TeX, any changed version must not be called TEX, TeX, or anything confusingly similar. To enforce this rule, the American Mathematical Society has registered a trademark for TeX, and any implementation of the system must pass a test suite called the TRIP test (available on CTAN) before being allowed to be called TeX. The question of license is somewhat confused by the statements included at the beginning of the TeX source code[28], which indicate that “all rights are reserved. Copying of this file is authorized only if (...) you make absolutely no changes to your copy”. However, this restriction should be interpreted as a prohibition to change the source code as long as the file is called tex.web. This interpretation is confirmed later in the source code when the TRIP test is mentioned (“If this program is changed, the resulting system should not be called ‘TeX’”). The American Mathematical Society (AMS) is dedicated to the interests of mathematical research and education, which it does with various publications and conferences as well as annual monetary awards to mathematicians. ... A trademark or trade mark[1] is a distinctive sign of some kind which is used by an individual, business organization or other legal entity to uniquely identify the source of its products and/or services to consumers, and to distinguish its products or services from those of other entities. ...

## Use of TeX

In several technical fields, in particular computer science, mathematics and physics, TeX has become a de facto standard. Many thousands of books have been published using TeX, including books published by Addison-Wesley, Cambridge University Press, Elsevier, Oxford University Press or Springer. Numerous journals in these fields are produced using TeX or LaTeX, allowing authors to submit their raw manuscript written in TeX.[29] Pearson can mean Pearson PLC the media conglomerate. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... Elseviers logo. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Springer Science+Business Media or Springer (IPA: ) is a worldwide publishing company based in Germany which focuses on academic journals and books in the fields of science, technology and medicine. ...

While many publications in other fields, including dictionaries and legal publications, have been produced using TeX, it has not been as successful as in more technical fields, in particular because TeX was primarily designed for mathematics. When he designed TeX, Donald Knuth did not believe that a single typesetting system would fit everyone's needs; instead, he designed many hooks inside the program so that it would be possible to write extensions, and released the source code, hoping that publishers would design versions tailored to their needs. While such extensions have been created (including some by Knuth himself[9]), most people have extended TeX only using macros and it has remained a system associated with technical typesetting.[30][31]

## Pronouncing and writing TeX

The name TeX is intended to be pronounced “tekh” (IPA: /tɛx/), where “kh” represents European Spanish j, the sound at the end of Scottish loch, or the name of the German composer Bach or Polish ch or Arabic خ. Knuth himself once said in jest that if you pronounced TeX correctly your computer screen would be wet. The X is meant to represent the Greek letter χ (chi). TeX is the abbreviation of τέχνη (ΤΕΧΝΗ – technē), Greek for “art” and “craft”, which is also the source word of technical. English speakers often pronounce it “tek”, like the first syllable of technology. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words see here. ... Scottish English is usually taken to mean the standard form of the English language used in Scotland, often termed Scottish Standard English. ... View across Loch Lomond, towards Ben Lomond. ... Johann Sebastian Bach (pronounced ) (21 March 1685 O.S. â€“ 28 July 1750 N.S.) was a prolific German composer and organist whose sacred and secular works for choir, orchestra and solo instruments drew together the strands of the Baroque period and brought it to its ultimate maturity. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Chi (upper case Î§, lower case Ï‡) is the 22nd letter of the Greek alphabet. ...

The name is properly typeset with the “E” below the baseline and reduced spacing between the letters[32] (this is done, as Donald Knuth mentions in his TeXBook, to distinguish ΤΕΧ from other system names such as TEX, the Text EXecutive processor developed by Honeywell Information Systems); systems that do not support subscript layout and backspacing use the approximation “TeX”. Fans like to proliferate names from the word “TeX” — such as TeXnician (user of TeX software), TeXpert, TeXhacker (TeX programmer), TeXmaster (competent TeX programmer), TeXhax, and TeXnique.

 free software Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... MetaPost is both a programming language and the only known interpreter of the MetaPost programming language. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Comparison of document markup languages. ... The following tables compare general and technical information for a number of document markup languages. ... Mathematical Markup Language (MathML) is an application of XML for representing mathematical symbols and formulae, aimed at integrating them into World Wide Web documents. ... The LaTeX logo, typeset with LaTeX LATEX, written as LaTeX in plain text, is a document markup language and document preparation system for the TeX typesetting program. ... A formula editor is a name for a computer program that is used to typeset mathematical works or formulae. ... The TeX Users Group (TUG) was founded in 1980 for educational and scientific purposes, to provide an organization for those who have an interest in typography and font design, and are users of the TeX typesetting system invented by Donald Knuth. ... Texvc (TeX validator and converter) is a program which validates AMSLaTeX math expressions and converts them to HTML, MathML, or PNG graphics. ... MediaWiki is a wiki software package licensed under the GNU General Public License. ... PSTricks is a set of macros that allow the inclusion of PostScript drawings directly inside TeX or LaTeX code. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

## Notes

1. ^ Claudio Beccari. Typesetting mathematics for science and technology according to ISO31XI. TUGboat, vol. 18 (1), 1997.
2. ^ Donald E. Knuth. Digital Typography. Commemorative lecture for the Kyoto Prize, Kyoto, 1996. Reprinted as chapter 1 of the book Digital Typography.
3. ^ Digital Typography, p. 5. “I had spent 15 years writing those books, but if they were going to look awful I didn't want to write any more.
4. ^ Donald E. Knuth. TEXDR.AFT, chapter 24 of the book Digital Typography.
5. ^ Knuth and Plass, p. 144
6. ^ Donald E. Knuth, Questions and Answers, III, NTG: MAPS. 16 (1996), 38–49. Reprinted as chapter 33 of Digital Typography, p. 648.
7. ^ Donald E. Knuth. The New Versions of TeX and METAFONT, TUGboat 10 (1989), 325–328; 11 (1990), 12. Reprinted as chapter 29 of Digital Typography.
8. ^ Donald E. Knuth. The future of TeX and METAFONT, NTG journal MAPS (1990), 489. Reprinted as chapter 30 of Digital Typography, p. 571.
9. ^ a b Donald E. Knuth and Pierre MacKay. Mixing Right-to-Left Texts with Left-to-Right Texts, TUGboat 8 (1987), 14–25. Reprinted as chapter 4 of Digital Typography.
10. ^ The TeXbook, p. 9.
11. ^ Donald E. Knuth, The TeXbook, Ch. 16: Typing Math Formulas, p. 127.
12. ^ Donald E. Knuth. Questions and Answers II, TUGboat 17 (1996), 355–367. Reprinted as chapter 32 of Digital Typography, p. 620.
13. ^ Donald E. Knuth. Typesetting Concrete Mathematics, TUGboat 10 (1989), 31–36, 342. Reprinted as chapter 18 of Digital Typography.
14. ^ Michael P. Barnett. Computer Typesetting: Experiments and Prospects. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1965.
15. ^ Knuth and Plass
16. ^ Advogato. Interview of Donald E. Knuth (PDF file, also available in HTML at [1]), TUGboat 21 (2000), 103–110.
17. ^ GNU Project, GNU text utilities manual, 4.1 fmt: Reformat paragraph text. 2000.
18. ^ Liang, p. 3
19. ^ Liang, PhD thesis
20. ^ The TeXbook, Appendix H: Hyphenation, pp. 449–455.
21. ^ Donald E. Knuth, List of updates to the TeX82 listing published in September 1982, available on CTAN.
22. ^ Donald E. Knuth, Appendix to the Errors of TeX paper, available on CTAN, last modified in January 2003.
23. ^ Frequently Asked Questions on Don Knuth's webpage
24. ^ Kara Platoni, Love at First Byte. Stanford Magazine, May-June 2006
25. ^ The History of TeX
26. ^ The future of TeX and METAFONT, p. 572 of the book Digital Typography.
27. ^ Donald E. Knuth. Computers and Typesettings (available online split into 2 files: [2] [3]), TUGboat 7 (1986), 95–98. Reprinted as chapter 28 of Digital Typography, p. 560.
28. ^ Donald E. Knuth, TeX: The Program.
29. ^ Beebe, p.10
30. ^ Donald E. Knuth. Questions and Answers I, TUGboat 17 (1996), 7–22. Reprinted as chapter 31 of Digital Typography, p. 598.
31. ^ Donald E. Knuth. Questions and Answers II, TUGboat 17 (1996), 355–367. Reprinted as chapter 32 of Digital Typography, p. 616–617.
32. ^ Donald E. Knuth. The TeX Logo in Various Fonts, TUGboat 7 (1986), 101. Reprinted as chapter 6 of Digital Typography.

## References

This article was originally based on material from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing, which is licensed under the GFDL. The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing (FOLDOC) is an online, searchable encyclopedic dictionary of computing subjects. ... GNU logo (similar in appearance to a gnu) The GNU Free Documentation License (GNU FDL or simply GFDL) is a copyleft license for free content, designed by the Free Software Foundation (FSF) for the GNU project. ...

• Donald E. Knuth. The TeXbook (Computers and Typesetting, Volume A). Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley, 1984. ISBN 0-201-13448-9. The source code of the book in TeX (and a needed set of macros [4]) is available online on CTAN. It is provided only as an example and its use to prepare a book like The TeXbook is not allowed.
• Donald E. Knuth. TeX: The Program (Computers and Typesetting, Volume B). Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley, 1986. ISBN 0-201-13437-3. The full source code of TeX; also available on CTAN at [5]. Being written using literate programming, it contains plenty of human-readable documentation.
• Donald E. Knuth. Digital Typography (CSLI lecture notes, no 78). Center for the Study of Language and Information, 1999. ISBN 1-57586-010-4.
• Donald E. Knuth and Michael F. Plass. Breaking Paragraphs Into Lines, Software — Practice and Experience 11 (1981), 1119–1184. Reprinted as chapter 3 of Digital Typography, p. 67–155.
• Franklin Mark Liang. Word Hy-phen-a-tion by Com-put-er, PhD thesis, Department of Computer Science, Stanford University, August 1983.
• M.D. Spivak. The Joy of TeX (2nd edition). American Mathematical Society, 1990. ISBN 0-8218-2997-1. Reference on AMS-TeX.
• Nelson H.F. Beebe. 25 Years of TeX and METAFONT: Looking Back and Looking Forward, TUGboat 25 (2004), 7–30.
• Michael Vulis, Modern TeX and Its Applications, CRC Press, 1992. ISBN 0-8493-4431-X

Computers and Typesetting is a 5-volume set of books by Donald Knuth describing the TeX and Metafont systems for Digital typography. ... CTAN is an acronym for the Comprehensive TeX Archive Network. ... CTAN is an acronym for the Comprehensive TeX Archive Network. ... Literate programming is the writing of computer programs primarily for human beings to read, similar to a work of literature; hence the name literate programming. ... Leslie Lamport Dr. Leslie Lamport (born 1941) is an American computer scientist. ... The LaTeX logo, typeset with LaTeX LATEX, written as LaTeX in plain text, is a document markup language and document preparation system for the TeX typesetting program. ... PhD usually refers to the academic title Doctor of Philosophy PhD can also refer to the manga Phantasy Degree This is a disambiguation page â€” a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... The Leland Stanford Junior University, commonly known as Stanford University (or simply Stanford), is a private university located approximately 37 miles (60 kilometers) southeast of San Francisco and approximately 20 miles northwest of San JosÃ© in an unincorporated area of Santa Clara County. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Results from FactBites:

 TeX - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4214 words) TeX is a macro- and token-based language: many commands, including most user-defined ones, are expanded on the fly until only unexpandable tokens remain which get executed. The original version of TeX used a hyphenation algorithm based on a set of rules for the removal of prefixes and suffixes of words, and for deciding if it should insert a break between the two consonants in a pattern of the form vowel–consonant–consonant–vowel (which is possible most of the time). TeX is usually provided in the form of a distribution, an easy-to-install bundle of TeX itself along with METAFONT and all the necessary fonts, documents formats, and utilities needed to use the typesetting system.
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