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Encyclopedia > Tbilisi
Tbilisi
თბილისი

Flag
Official seal of Tbilisi თბილისი
Seal
Tbilisi თბილისი (Turkmenistan )
Tbilisi
თბილისი
Location of Tbilisi in Georgia
Coordinates: 41°43′0″N 44°47′0″E / 41.71667, 44.78333
Country Georgia
Established c. 450 A.D.
Government
 - Mayor Giorgi (Gigi) Ugulava
Area
 - City 726 km² (280.3 sq mi)
Elevation 380-770 m (-2,146 ft)
Population (2005)
 - City 1,093,000
 - Metro 1,300,293
Time zone GMT (UTC+4)
 - Summer (DST) GMT (UTC)
Website: www.tbilisi.gov.ge
The Tbilisi Marriott Hotel
The Tbilisi Marriott Hotel

Tbilisi (IPA: [ˌtbiˈliːsi], in Georgian: თბილისი), is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Mtkvari (Kura) River. Tbilisi is sometimes called Tiflis (or Tifflis), which is its Medieval non-native name. The city covers an area of 726 km² (280.3 square miles) and has 1,093,000 inhabitants. Image File history File links Tbilisi_Flag. ... Flag of Tbilisi The flag of Tbilisi, capital of Georgia is a rectangular while banner with a blue Nordic-type cross outlined in amber that extends to edges of the flag. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Variants of the Seal of Tbilisi The emblem of the City of Tbilisi, Georgia, was designed in the late 1980s and reconfirmed as an official seal of the city on June 8, 2005. ... Image File history File links Red_pog2. ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... The information that follows below is represented as a CV of the Mayor of Tbilisi. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 1,000 km² and 10,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... GMT redirects here. ... Moscow Summer Time Category: ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... GMT redirects here. ... ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Capital City is a 60-minute television show produced by Euston Films that ran for 13 episodes in 1989 on ITV. This drama focused on the lives of investment bankers in London living and working on the corporate trading floor for the fictional international bank Shane-Longman. ... Mtkvari (Kura) River near Old Town, Tbilisi Kura (Georgian მტკვარი - Mtkvari, Azerbaijani Kür) is a river in the Caucasus Mountains. ...


Founded in the 5th century AD by Vakhtang Gorgasali, the Georgian King of Kartli (Iberia), and made into a capital in the 6th century, Tbilisi is a significant industrial, social, and cultural center. The city is also emerging as an important transit route for global energy and trade projects. Located strategically at the crossroads between Europe and Asia and lying along the historic Silk Road routes, Tbilisi has often been the point of contention between various rivaling powers and empires. The history of the city can be seen by its architecture, where the Haussmannized Rustaveli avenue and downtown are blended with the narrower streets of the medieval Narikala district. Look up AD, ad-, and ad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Saint King Vakhtang I Gorgasali (440 – 502) was the Georgian king (mepe) of Kartli (Iberia) in 452–502 who led a lengthy anti-Persian liberation war and founded Tbilisi, Georgia’s modern capital city. ... Kartli is the largest and most populated province of Eastern Georgia. ... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Iberia was a name given by the ancient Greeks and Romans to the ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli (4th century BC-5th century AD) corresponding roughly to the eastern and southern parts of the present day Georgia. ... Social refers to human society or its organization. ... The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning to cultivate, generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ... Haussmann, circa 1865 Georges-Eugène Haussmann (March 27, 1809 – January 11, 1891), who called himself Baron Haussmann, was a French civic planner whose name is associated with the rebuilding of Paris. ... Vintage photo of the fortress Narikala is an ancient fortress overlooking Tbilisi and the Kura river. ...


The demographics of the city is diverse and historically it has been home to peoples from different cultures, religions and ethnicities. Despite being overwhelmingly Orthodox Christian, Tbilisi is one of the few places in the world where a synagogue and a mosque are located next to each other, in the ancient Bath district several hundred meters from the Metekhi Church. In recent times, Tbilisi has become known for the peaceful Rose Revolution, which took place around Freedom Square and nearby locations after the contested parliamentary elections of 2003 led to the resignation of the Georgian President Eduard Shevardnadze. Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... Abanotubani district Abanotubani (Georgian: ), in English translated as Bath District is the ancient district of Tbilisi, which is famous of its baths fed by the sulfric hot springs. ... The Metekhi Church and the equestrian statue of King Vakhtang Gorgasal Metekhi (Metechi; Georgian: მეტეხი) is a historical cliff located in Tbilisi, Georgia. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Tavisuplebis Moedani, Tbilisi Tavisuplebis Moedani - in English, Freedom Square - (formerly known as Lenin Square) is located in the center of Tbilisi at the end of Rustavelis Gamziri. ... A parliamentarian is a specialist in parliamentary procedure. ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Tbilisi has one international airport. Notable tourist destinations include Tbilisi Sameba Cathedral, Freedom Square, Sioni Cathedral, Metekhi, Narikala, Parliament of Georgia, Rustaveli Avenue, Tbilisi Opera and Ballet Theatre, Anchiskhati Basilica, Mtatsminda (Holy Mountain), Kashveti Church along with the National and Historic Museums of Georgia and numbers of art galleries. Tbilisi is the home of famous artists. The city life was immortalized in their art by Niko Pirosmani and Lado Gudiashvili. Tbilisi International Airport (Georgian: ) (IATA: TBS, ICAO: UGTB) is a main international airport in Georgia located near the capital Tbilisi. ... The Tbilisi Holy Trinity Cathedral commonly known as Sameba (Georgian: for Trinity) is the main Georgian Orthodox cathedral, located in Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia. ... Freedom Square under Construction Freedom Square (formerly known as Lenin Square) is located in the center of Tbilisi at the end of Rustaveli Avenue. ... The Tbilisi Sioni Cathedral at night. ... The Metekhi Church and the equestrian statue of King Vakhtang Gorgasal Metekhi (Metechi; Georgian: მეტეხი) is a historical cliff located in Tbilisi, Georgia. ... Vintage photo of the fortress Narikala is an ancient fortress overlooking Tbilisi and the Kura river. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Rustaveli Avenue is an avenue in central Tbilisi named after the medieval Georgian poet, Shota Rustaveli. ... The Anchiskhati Church as it looks like today The Anchiskhati Basilica of St Mary is the oldest surviving church in Tbilisi, Georgia. ... The Kashveti Church of St. ... Feast with Organ-Grinder Datiko Zemel, 1906, State Museum of Fine Arts of Georgia. ... Lado Gudiashvili (1896–1980) was a 20th century Georgian painter. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Tbilisi
Panorama view of Tbilisi, showing Metekhi church, statue of the 5th century Georgian King Vakhtang Gorgasali and Mtkvari river
Panorama view of Tbilisi, showing Metekhi church, statue of the 5th century Georgian King Vakhtang Gorgasali and Mtkvari river

The history of Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia, dates back to early 5th century AD. // Legend has it that the present-day territory of Tbilisi was covered by forest as late as the AD 458. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (900x320, 53 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tbilisi ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (900x320, 53 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tbilisi ...

Early history

According to an old legend, the present-day territory of Tbilisi was covered by forests as late as 458 AD. One widely accepted variant of the legend of Tbilisi's founding states that King Vakhtang I Gorgasali of Georgia went hunting in the heavily wooded region with a falcon (sometimes the falcon is either substituted by a hawk or other small birds of prey in the legend). The King's falcon allegedly caught/injured a pheasant during the hunt, after which both birds fell into a nearby hot spring and died (from the burns received in the hot water). King Vakhtang became so impressed with the hot springs that he decided to cut down the forest and build a city on the location. The name Tbilisi derives from the Old Georgian word "Tpili", meaning warm. The name Tbili or Tbilisi ("warm location") therefore was given to the city because of the area's numerous sulfuric hot springs that came out of the ground. Saint King Vakhtang I Gorgasali ( 440- 502) was the Georgian king (mepe) of Kartli ( Iberia) in 452- 502 who led a lengthy anti-Persian liberation war and founded Tbilisi, Georgia’s modern capital city. ... For other uses, see Falcon (disambiguation). ... Genera Accipiter Micronisus Melierax Urotriorchis Erythrotriorchis The term hawk refers to birds of prey in any of three senses: Strictly, to mean any of the species in the bird sub-family Accipitrinae in the genera Accipiter, Micronisus, Melierax, Urotriorchis, and Megatriorchis. ... If you are looking for other meanings of the term, refer to Bird of prey (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Falcon (disambiguation). ... Genera Ithaginis Catreus Rheinartia Crossoptilon Lophura Argusianus Pucrasia Syrmaticus Chrysolophus Phasianus † See also partridge, quail Pheasants are a group of large birds in the order Galliformes. ... Green Dragon Spring at Norris Geyser A hot spring is a place where warm or hot groundwater issues from the ground on a regular basis for at least a predictable part of the year, and is significantly above the ambient ground temperature (which is usually around 55~57 F or... Georgian (, kartuli ena) is the official language of Georgia, a country in the Caucasus. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16 (VIA), 3 , p Density, Hardness 1960 kg/m3, 2 Appearance Lemon yellow at STP Atomic properties Atomic weight 32. ... Green Dragon Spring at Norris Geyser A hot spring is a place where warm or hot groundwater issues from the ground on a regular basis for at least a predictable part of the year, and is significantly above the ambient ground temperature (which is usually around 55~57°F or...

Night on Rustaveli Avenue , Tbilisi

Archaeological studies of the region have revealed that the territory of Tbilisi was settled by humans as early as the 4th millennium B.C. The earliest actual (recorded) accounts of settlement of the location come from the second half of the 4th century A.D, when a fortress was built during King Varaz-Bakur's reign. Towards the end of the 4th century the fortress fell into the hands of the Persians after which the location fell back into the hands of the Kings of Kartli (Georgia) by the middle of the 5th century A.D. King Vakhtang I Gorgasali (reigned in the middle and latter halves of the 5th century) who is largely credited for founding Tbilisi was actually responsible for reviving and building up the city and not founding it. The present-day location of the area which Gorgasali seems to have built up is spread out around the Metekhi cliff and the latter-day Abanot-Ubani neighborhood. The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Kartli is the largest and most populated province of Eastern Georgia. ... Saint King Vakhtang I Gorgasali ( 440- 502) was the Georgian king (mepe) of Kartli ( Iberia) in 452- 502 who led a lengthy anti-Persian liberation war and founded Tbilisi, Georgia’s modern capital city. ... The Metekhi Church and the equestrian statue of King Vakhtang Gorgasal Metekhi (Metechi; Georgian: მეტეხი) is a historical cliff located in Tbilisi, Georgia. ...


Tbilisi becomes a capital

View of Tbilisi as per French traveller Jean Chardin, 1671

King Dachi I Ujarmeli (beginning of the 6th century A.D.), who was the successor of Vakhtang I Gorgasali, moved the capital from Mtskheta to Tbilisi according to the will left by his father. It must be mentioned that Tbilisi was not the capital of a unified Georgian state at that time (therefore did not include the territory of Colchis) and was only the capital of Eastern Georgia/Iberia. During his reign, King Dachi I was also responsible for finishing the construction of the fortress wall that lined the city's new boundaries. Beginning from the 6th century, Tbilisi started to grow at a steady pace due to the region's favorable and strategic location which placed the city along important trade and travel routes between Europe and Asia. Image File history File links Tbilisi_1671_by_Chardin. ... Image File history File links Tbilisi_1671_by_Chardin. ... Sir John Chardin Jean Chardin, born Jean-Baptiste Chardin, also known as Sir John Chardin, (November 16, 1643 – January 5, 1713) was a French jeweller and traveller whose ten-volume book The Travels of Sir John Chardin is regarded as one of the finest works of early Western scholarship on... Saint King Vakhtang I Gorgasali ( 440- 502) was the Georgian king (mepe) of Kartli ( Iberia) in 452- 502 who led a lengthy anti-Persian liberation war and founded Tbilisi, Georgia’s modern capital city. ... Mtskheta is one of oldest cities of the republic of Georgia (in Kartli province of Eastern Georgia), near Tbilisi. ... In ancient geography, Colchis or Kolchis (Georgian/Laz: კოლხეთი, kolkheti; Greek: , Kolchís) was an ancient Georgian [1][2][3], state[4] [5]kingdom and region[6] in the Western Georgia (Caucasus region), which played an important role in the ethnic and cultural formation of the Georgian nation and its subgroups. ... Map outlining the territory of Eastern Georgia Eastern Georgia commonly refers to the eastern part of the nation of Georgia, which in historic times included the kingdom of Iberia in the Caucasus. ... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Iberia was a name given by the ancient Greeks and Romans to the ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli (4th century BC-5th century AD) corresponding roughly to the eastern and southern parts of the present day Georgia. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


Foreign domination

Narikala Fortress in the fall
Narikala Fortress in the fall

Tbilisi's favorable and strategic location did not necessarily bode well for its existence as Eastern Georgia's/Iberia's capital. Located strategically in the heart of the Caucasus between Europe and Asia, Tbilisi became an object of rivalry between the region's various powers such as Persia, The Byzantine Empire, Arabia, and the Seljuk Turks. The cultural development of the city was therefore heavily dependent on who ruled the city at various times. Even though Tbilisi (and Eastern Georgia in general) was able to maintain a certain degree of autonomy from its conquerors, the foreign domination of the city began in the latter half of the 6th century and lasted well into the 10th century A.D. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1632x1232, 512 KB) Summary photo by: D.Papuashvili Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1632x1232, 512 KB) Summary photo by: D.Papuashvili Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Map outlining the territory of Eastern Georgia Eastern Georgia commonly refers to the eastern part of the nation of Georgia, which in historic times included the kingdom of Iberia in the Caucasus. ... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Iberia was a name given by the ancient Greeks and Romans to the ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli (4th century BC-5th century AD) corresponding roughly to the eastern and southern parts of the present day Georgia. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Byzantine redirects here. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; in Arabic سلجوق Saljūq, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning to cultivate, generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ...


From 570-580 A.D., the Persians took over Tbilisi and ruled it for about a decade. In the year 627 A.D., Tbilisi was sacked by the Byzantine/Khazar armies and later from 736-738, Arab armies entered the town under Marwan II Ibn-Muhammad. After this point, the Arabs established an emirate in Tbilisi. It must be noted that the Arab domination brought a certain order to the region and introduced a more formal/modernized judicial system into Georgia. In 764, Tbilisi was once again sacked by the Khazars, which was still under Arab control. In the year 853 A.D., the armies of Arab leader Bugha Al-Turki (Bugha the Turk) invaded Tbilisi in order to establish a Caliphate. The Arab domination of Tbilisi continued until about 1050 A.D, because local Georgians were unsuccessful in their drive to expel the Arabs. In 1068, the city was once again sacked, only this time by the Seljuk Turks under Sultan Alp Arslan. The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Combatants Sassanid Empire Western Turkic Khaganate Byzantine Empire Commanders Khosrau II Shahrbaraz Buri-sad Heraclius The Third Perso-Turkic War was the third and final conflict between the Sassanian Empire and the Western Turkic Khaganate. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... The Khazars were a Turkic semi-nomadic people from Central Asia who adopted Judaism. ... The Califate in 750 From The Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, 1923 Courtesy of The General Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin Marwan ibn Muhammad ibn Marwan or Marwan II (750-688) (Arabic: مروان ابن محمد ابن مروان) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 744 until 750 when he was killed. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... The Emirs of Tbilisi ruled over the parts of today’s eastern Georgia from their base in the city of Tbilisi (Tiflis), from 736 to 1080 (nominally to 1122). ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; in Arabic سلجوق Saljūq, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... Muhammed ben Daud (1029 – December 15, 1072), the second sultan of the dynasty of Seljuk Turks, in Persia, and great-grandson of Seljuk, the founder of the dynasty. ...


Tbilisi as the capital of a unified Georgian state

In 1122, after heavy fighting with the Seljuks that involved at least 60,000 Georgians and up to 300,000 Turks, the troops of the King of Georgia David the Builder entered Tbilisi. After the battles for Tbilisi concluded, David moved his residence from Kutaisi (Western Georgia) to Tbilisi, making it the capital of a unified Georgian State. From 12-13th centuries, Tbilisi became a dominant regional power with a thriving economy (with well-developed trade and skilled labour) and a well-established social system/structure. By the end of the 12th century (A.D.), the population of Tbilisi had reached 80,000. The city also became an important literary and a cultural center not only for Georgia but for the larger civilized world as well. During Queen Tamar's reign, Shota Rustaveli worked in Tbilisi while writing his legendary epic poem, The Knight in the Panther's Skin. This period is often referred to as "Georgia's Golden Age"[1] or the Georgian Renaissance [2]. The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; in Arabic سلجوق Saljūq, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... The Georgians (ქართველი ერი (Kartveli Eri) or ქართველები (Kartvelebi) in the Georgian language) are a nation or an ethnic group, originating in the Caucasus. ... David the Builder (David IV Bagrationi) (1073 - January 24, 1125) was a King of Georgia (1089-1125). ... Kutaisi (Georgian: ; ancient names: Aea/Aia, Kutatisi, Kutaïssi ) is Georgias second largest city in the western province of Imereti. ... Literature is literally an acquaintance with letters as in the first sense given in the Oxford English Dictionary (from the Latin littera meaning an individual written character (letter)). The term has, however, generally come to identify a collection of texts. ... The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning to cultivate, generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... For other uses, see Civilization (disambiguation). ... Tamar Bagrationi was Queen of the kingdom of Georgia from 1184-1213. ... Shota Rustaveli, an artistic notion of the poet by Sergo Kobuladze (1937). ... King Rostevan and Avtandil go hunting. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ...

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 399 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (450 × 676 pixel, file size: 111 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 399 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (450 × 676 pixel, file size: 111 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free...

Mongol domination and the following period of instability

Tbilisi, ca. 1890-1900
Tbilisi, ca. 1890-1900

Tbilisi's "Golden Age" did not last for more than a century. In 1236 A.D., after suffering crushing defeats to the Mongols, Georgia came under Mongol domination. The nation itself maintained a form of semi-independence and did not lose its statehood, but Tbilisi was strongly influenced by the Mongols for the next century both politically and culturally. In the 1320s, the Mongols were forcefully expelled from Georgia and Tbilisi became the capital of an independent Georgian state once again. An outbreak of the plague struck the city in 1366. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (942x688, 325 KB) 19th-century vintage postcard of Tbilisi Status: Public Domain / Source: Library of Congress / Site: Library of Congress File links The following pages link to this file: Tbilisi ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (942x688, 325 KB) 19th-century vintage postcard of Tbilisi Status: Public Domain / Source: Library of Congress / Site: Library of Congress File links The following pages link to this file: Tbilisi ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... The medieval kingdom of Georgia first clashed with the advancing Mongol armies in 1220. ... This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ...


From the late 14th until the end of the 18th century, Tbilisi came under the rule of various foreign invaders once again and on several occasions was completely burnt to the ground. In 1386, Tbilisi was invaded by the armies of Tamerlane (Timur). In 1444, the city was invaded and destroyed by Jahan Shah (the Shah of the town of Tabriz in Persia). From 1477 to 1478 the city was held by the Ak Koyunlu tribesmen of Uzun Hassan. In 1522 A.D., Tbilisi came under Persian control but was later freed in 1524 by King David X of Georgia. During this period, many parts of Tbilisi were reconstructed and rebuilt. From the 17-18th centuries, Tbilisi once again became the object of rivalry only this time between the Ottoman Turks and Persia. King Erekle of Georgia tried on several occasions, successfully, to free Tbilisi from Persian rule but in the end Tbilisi was burnt to the ground in 1795 by Shah Agha-Mohammad Khan. At this point, sensing that Georgia could not hold up against Persia alone, Erekle sought the help of Russia. For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ... Jahan Shah (died 1467), was a leader of Turkmen tribal federation Kara Koyunlu. ... Tabriz (Azeri and Persian: تبریز; is the largest city in north-western Iran with an estimated population of 1,597,319 (2007 est. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Flag of the Ak Koyunlu (Colours are speculative) The Akkoyunlu or the White Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: Ağqoyunlular/Akkoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled present-day Azerbaijan, eastern Anatolia, northern Iraq and western Iran from 1378 to 1508. ... Uzun Hasan (1423 - January 6, 1478), prince of the Ak Koyunlu dynasty, or White Sheep Turkmen, he ruled in parts of western Persia, Iraq and Turkey between 1453 and 1478. ... Persia redirects here. ... The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... This engraving depicts Agha Mohammad Khan wearing the Taj-i-kiyani, or the Kiyanid Crown. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...


Tbilisi under Russian control

The coat of arms of Tiflis under Russian rule
The coat of arms of Tiflis under Russian rule
Mikhail Lermontov, Tiflis, 1837
Mikhail Lermontov, Tiflis, 1837

In 1801, after the Georgian kingdom of Kartl-Kakheti joined the Russian Empire, Tbilisi became the center of the Tbilisi Governance (Gubernia). From the beginning of the 19th century Tbilisi started to grow economically and politically. New buildings mainly of European style were erected throughout the town. New roads and railroads were built to connect Tbilisi to other important cities in Russia and other parts of the Transcaucasus (locally) such as Batumi, Poti, Baku, and Yerevan. By the 1850s Tbilisi once again emerged as a major trade and a cultural center. The likes of Ilia Chavchavadze, Akaki Tsereteli, Iakob Gogebashvili, Alexander Griboedov and many other statesmen, poets, and artists all found their home in Tbilisi. Image File history File links Tiflis_COA.jpg The coat of arms of Tiflis/Tbilisi under the Imperial Russian rule File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Tiflis_COA.jpg The coat of arms of Tiflis/Tbilisi under the Imperial Russian rule File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 752 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1134 × 904 pixel, file size: 217 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) МИХАИЛ ЛЕРМОНТОВ. Тифлис. 1837 Mikhail Lermontov Tiflis 1837 From http://john-petrov. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 752 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1134 × 904 pixel, file size: 217 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) МИХАИЛ ЛЕРМОНТОВ. Тифлис. 1837 Mikhail Lermontov Tiflis 1837 From http://john-petrov. ... Mikhail Lermontov in 1837 Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov (Михаил Юрьевич Лермонтов), (October 15, 1814–July 27, 1841), a Russian Romantic writer and poet, sometimes called the poet of the Caucasus, was the most important presence in the Russian poetry from Alexander Pushkins death until his own four years later, at the age... The Kingdom of Kartl-Kakheti was created in 1762 by unification of two Eastern Georgian kingdoms, which existed independently since the disintegration of Georgian Kingdom in the 15th century. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Transcaucasus is a region covering the majority of Caucasus mountain range. ... A general view of Batumi Batumi Batumi (Georgian: , formerly Batum or Batoum) is a seaside city on the Black Sea coast and capital of Adjara, an autonomous republic in southwest Georgia. ... Poti (Georgian: ფოთი, Poti) is a city in the Samegrelo province in the west of Republic of Georgia. ... Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov Area  - City 260 km²  (100. ... Location of Yerevan in Armenia Coordinates: , Country Established 782 BC Government  - Mayor Yervand Zakharyan Area  - City 227 km²  (87. ... Prince Ilia Chavchavadze, known as Saint Ilia the Righteous, (October 27, 1837-August 30, 1907) was a prominent figure of new Georgian literature, famous public benefactor, jurist, leader of the Georgias National-liberation movement in 1861-1907. ... Akaki Tsereteli, Prince (1840-1915) was a prominent Georgian poet and national liberation movement figure. ... Iakob Gogebashvili Iakob Gogebashvili (Georgian: ) (October 15, 1840 – June 1, 1912) was a Georgian educator, children’s writer and journalist, considered to be the founder of the scientific pedagogy in Georgia. ... Alexander Sergeyevich Griboyedov (Александр Сергеевич Грибоедов in Russian) (January 15, 1795 - February 11, 1829) was a Russian diplomat, playwright, and composer, whose brilliant comedy in verse, Wit Works Woe, is the most often staged play in Russia. ...

Metekhi cliff and the surroundings as depicted by N.G. Chernetsov, 1839
Metekhi cliff and the surroundings as depicted by N.G. Chernetsov, 1839

The city was visited on numerous occasions by and was the object of affection of Alexander Pushkin, Leo Tolstoy, Mikhail Lermontov, the Romanov Family and others. The Romanov Family established their residence (in Transcaucasia) on Golovin Street (Present-day Rustaveli Avenue). Image File history File links Ng_chernetsov,_Tiflis,_1839. ... Image File history File links Ng_chernetsov,_Tiflis,_1839. ... The Metekhi Church and the equestrian statue of King Vakhtang Gorgasal Metekhi (Metechi; Georgian: მეტეხი) is a historical cliff located in Tbilisi, Georgia. ... Pushkin redirects here. ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy(Lyof, Lyoff) (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , IPA:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ... Mikhail Lermontov in 1837 Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov (Михаил Юрьевич Лермонтов), (October 15, 1814–July 27, 1841), a Russian Romantic writer and poet, sometimes called the poet of the Caucasus, was the most important presence in the Russian poetry from Alexander Pushkins death until his own four years later, at the age... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled the country for five generations from 1613 to 1761. ... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled the country for five generations from 1613 to 1761. ... Transcaucasia is the name given to a region south of the Caucasus Mountains that covers Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. ... ... Rustaveli Avenue is an avenue in central Tbilisi named after the medieval Georgian poet, Shota Rustaveli. ...


Throughout the century, the political, economic and cultural role of Tbilisi with its ethnic, confessional and cultural diversity (Armenians, Georgians and Russians comprised 38.1, 26.3 and 24.8 percent of the population respectively in 1897[3]) was significant not only for Georgia but for the whole Caucasus. Hence, Tbilisi took on a different look. It acquired different architectural monuments and the attributes of an international city, as well as its own urban folklore and language, and the specific Tbilisuri (literally, belonging to Tbilisi) culture.


Independence: 1918–1921

The 11th Red Army of the Russian SFSR occupies Tbilisi, 25 February 1921
The 11th Red Army of the Russian SFSR occupies Tbilisi, 25 February 1921

After the Russian Revolution of 1917, the city served as a location of the Transcaucasus interim government which established, in the spring of 1918, the short-lived independent Transcaucasian Federation with the capital in Tbilisi. It was here, in the former Caucasus Vice royal Palace, where the independence of three Transcaucasian nations – Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan – was declared on May 26 to 28 1918. Since then, Tbilisi functioned as the capital of the Democratic Republic of Georgia until 25 February 1921. From 1918 to 1919 the city was also a home to the German and British military headquarters consecutively. Image File history File links Red_Army_in_Tbilisi_Feb_25_1921. ... Image File history File links Red_Army_in_Tbilisi_Feb_25_1921. ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 December 30, 1922 December 12, 1991 (independence) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... The Transcaucasus is a region covering the majority of Caucasus mountain range. ... The Trans-Caucasian Democratic Federative Republic (TCDFR, Закавказская демократическая Федеративная Республика, ЗКДФР) (February 1918 — May 1918) was a short-lived state in the Caucasus after the October Revolution. ... Anthem Dideba Zetsit Kurtheuls (Praise Be To The Heavenly Bestower of Blessings) Map of the Democratic Republic of Georgia from November 1918 to May 1920. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Under the national government, Tbilisi turned into the first Caucasian University City after the Tbilisi State University was founded in 1918, a long-time dream of the Georgians banned by the Imperial Russian authorities for several decades.[4] On 25 February 1921, the Bolshevist Russian 11th Red Army invaded [5][6] Tbilisi after bitter fighting at the outskirts of the city and declared Soviet rule. University City is a city in: Pennsylvania; see University City, Pennsylvania Missouri; see University City, Missouri is a designation for some characteristic cities and towns across the world: see University town is the designation for a large campus belonging to a university, placed inside a city: Ciudad Universitaria (Spanish for... Image:TSU2. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Bolshevist Russia is a common term that refers to the Bolshevik side in the Russian Civil War, or more specifically the Russian government between the October Revolution (November 7, 1917) and the constitution of the Soviet Union (December 30, 1922). ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ...


Under the Communist Government

In 1921, the Democratic Republic of Georgia was occupied by the Soviet Bolshevik forces from Russia, and until 1991 Tbilisi functioned first as the capital city of the Transcaucasian SFSR (which included Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia), and later as the capital of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic. During the Soviet rule, Tbilisi's population grew significantly, the city became more industrialized and came to be an important political, social, and cultural center of the Soviet Union. In 1980, the city housed the first state-sanctioned rock festival in the USSR. Anthem Dideba Zetsit Kurtheuls (Praise Be To The Heavenly Bestower of Blessings) Map of the Democratic Republic of Georgia from November 1918 to May 1920. ... Combatants •  Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic •  Republic of Turkey •  Georgian SSR •  Democratic Republic of Georgia Commanders •  Anatoli Gekker • Mikhail Velikanov • Grigoriy Ordzhonikidze •  Kazım Karabekir • Giorgi Kvinitadze • Giorgi Mazniashvili • Valiko Jugheli Strength ~50,000 (Red Army) ~35,000 Casualties Unknown, dead estimated at 5,500 Soviet soldiers Unknown, dead estimated... Soviet redirects here. ... For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ... The Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic was a short-lived (1922-1936) Soviet republic, consisting of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, which were traditionally known as the Transcaucasian Republics in the Soviet Union. ... State motto: პროლეტარ ყველა ქვეყნისა, შეერთდით! Official language Georgian since 1978 (Georgia was the only Soviet republic to have an official language) Capital Tbilisi Chairman of the Supreme Council Zviad Gamsakhurdia (at independence) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 10th in former Soviet Union 69,700 km2 -- Population  - Total (1989)  - Density Ranked... Soviet redirects here. ... Industrialisation (or industrialization) or an industrial revolution (in general, with lowercase letters) is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial to an industrial state . ... A double LP compiling the prize-winning songs of the festival was released in 1981 The Spring Rhythms. ...


Tbilisi witnessed mass anti-Russian demonstrations in 1956, (in protest against the anti-Stalin policies of Khrushchev), 1978 and 1989, which concluded with bloody crackdowns on the first and the last occasions. The article refers to a bloody crackdown of peaceful demonstration by the Soviet troops in Tbilisi, Georgian SSR on March 9, 1956. ... Nikita Khrushchev in 1962 Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: Ники́та Серге́евич Хрущёв) (nih-KEE-tah khroo-SHCHYOFF) (April 17, 1894 – September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... The April 9 Tragedy (or the Tbilisi Massacre of 9 April 1989) refers to the bloody events in Tbilisi, Georgia on April 9, 1989, when peaceful anti-Soviet and pro-independence demonstrations were brutally dispersed by the Soviet army using entrenching spades and toxic gas. ...


After the break-up of the Soviet Union

Since the break-up of the Soviet Union, Tbilisi has experienced periods of significant instability and turmoil. After a brief Civil War which the city endured for two weeks from December 1991 – January 1992 (when pro-Gamsakhurdia and Opposition forces clashed with each other), Tbilisi became the scene of frequent armed confronations between various mafia clans and illegal business entrepreneurs. Even during the Shevardnadze Era (1993-2003), crime and corruption became rampant at most levels of society. Many segments of society became impoverished due to a lack of employment which was caused by the crumbling economy. Average citizens of Tbilisi started to become increasingly disillusioned with the existing quality of life in the city (and in the nation in general). Mass protests took place in November 2003 after falsified parliamentary elections forced more than 100,000 people into the streets and concluded with the Rose Revolution. Since 2003, Tbilisi has experienced considerably more stability, decreasing crime rates and improving economy. The Soviet Unions collapse into independent nations began in earnest in 1985. ... Zviad Konstantines dze Gamsakhurdia[1] (Georgian: ზვიად კონსტანტინეს ძე გამსახურდია, IPA: ) (March 31, 1939 — December 31, 1993) was a dissident, scientist and writer, who became the first democratically elected President of the Republic of Georgia in the post-Soviet era. ... The Russian Mafia or Russkaya Mafiya, Red Mafia, Krasnaya Mafiya or Bratva (slang for brotherhood), is a name given to a broad group of organized criminals of various ethnicity which appeared in the former Soviet Union territories after its disintegration in 1991. ... Eduard Amvrosiyevich Shevardnadze (Georgian: ედუარდ შევარდნაძე, Russian: Эдуа́рд Амвро́сьевич Шевардна́дзе; pronounced ed-oo-ard am-vro-see-ye-vitch she-va-rd-nad-zuh) (born 25 January 1928) is a Georgian politician. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Politics and Administration

The status of Tbilisi, as the nation’s capital, is defined by the Article 10 in the Constitution of Georgia (1995) and the Law on Georgia’s Capital – Tbilisi (February 20, 1998).[7] The term Constitution of Georgia can refer to one of two documents: The Constitution of Georgia (country), the governing document of Georgia, a nation in the Caucasus region of eastern Europe and western Asia. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...


Tbilisi is governed by the Tbilisi Assembly (Sakrebulo) and the Tbilisi City Hall (Meria). The City Assembly gets elected once every four years. The mayor gets elected by the City Assembly. The current Mayor of Tbilisi is Giorgi (Gigi) Ugulava and the Chairman of the Tbilisi City Assembly is Zaal Begashvili. Tbilisi Assembly, together with the Tbilisi City Hall is one of the major governing bodies of Tbilisi. ... Tbilisi City hall is the headquarters of Tbilisi Assembly(Sakrebulo) and the Mayor of Tbilisi. ... The Mayor of Tbilisi is an elected politician in Tbilisi. ... The information that follows below is represented as a CV of the Mayor of Tbilisi. ...


Administratively, the city is divided into raions (districts), which have their own units of central and local government with jurisdiction over a limited scope of affairs. This subdivision was established under Soviet rule in the 1930s, following the general subdivision of the Soviet Union. Since Georgia regained independence, the raion system was modified and reshuffled. According to the latest revision, Tbilisi raions include: A raion (or rayon) (Russian and Ukrainian: ; Belarusian раён; Azeri: rayon, Latvian: rajons, Georgian: , raioni) is one of two kinds of administrative subdivisions in languages of some post-Soviet states: a subnational entity and a subdivision of a city. ... Local government areas called districts are used, or have been used, in several countries. ... The Soviet Union had several kinds of subnational entities: Republics of the Soviet Union Autonomous republics of the Soviet Union Oblasts of the Soviet Union Autonomous oblasts of the Soviet Union Autonomous okrugs of the Soviet Union In addition, some cities and regions, while located within subnational entities had special...

  • Dzveli Tbilisi (ძველი თბილისი)
  • Vake-Saburtalo (ვაკე-საბურთალო)
  • Didube-Chugureti (დიდუბე-ჩუღურეთი)
  • Gldani-Nadzaladevi (გლდანი-ნაძალადევი)
  • Isani-Samgori (ისანი-სამგორი)
  • Didgori (დიდგორი )

Most of the raions are named after respective historical neighborhoods of the city. The citizens of Tbilisi widely recognize a system of the smaller non-formal historical neighborhoods. Such neighborhoods are several, however, constituting a kind of hierarchy, since most of them have lost their distinctive topographic limits. The natural first level of subdivision of the city is into the Right Bank and the Left Bank of the Mtkvari. The names of the oldest neighborhoods go back to the early Middle Ages, and sometimes pose a great linguistic interest. The newest whole-built developments bear chiefly residential marketing names. Old Tbilisi (Georgian: ) is an administrative district (raioni) in Tbilisi, capital of Georgia. ...

Freedom Square under Construction Freedom Square (formerly known as Lenin Square) is located in the center of Tbilisi at the end of Rustaveli Avenue. ...

Mayors of Tbilisi

  • Otar Litanishvili 1992–1993
  • Konstantine Gabashvili 1993
  • Nikoloz Lekishvili 1993–1995
  • Badri Shoshitaishvili 1995–1998
  • Ivane (Vano) Zodelava 1998–2004
  • Zurab Tchiaberashvili 2004–2005
  • Giorgi (Gigi) Ugulava 2005–inc

Zurab Tchiaberashvili is a Georgian political rights activist and politician. ... The information that follows below is represented as a CV of the Mayor of Tbilisi. ...

Transportation

There are different types of transportation in Tbilisi, the most popular of which are the yellow buses, that were transported from the Netherlands by the new government of Georgia. Tbilisi is also served by the Tbilisi Metro, that has been functioning since 1966 . There used to be Tram Lines in Tbilisi, that were built in the Soviet Period, but currently they are cancelled. In addition, there are many taxi companies. The city is served by Tbilisi International Airport. Entrance to the metro station at Tavisuplebis Moedani, (Freedom Square) The Tbilisi Metro (Georgian: , tbilisis metropoliteni; in the Soviet times also Russian: ) is a rapid transit Metro system in Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Tbilisi International Airport (Georgian: ) (IATA: TBS, ICAO: UGTB) is a main international airport in Georgia located near the capital Tbilisi. ...


Geography

Location

View towards Northern Tbilisi, with Mt. Kazbek rising above the clouds in the distant background
View towards Northern Tbilisi, with Mt. Kazbek rising above the clouds in the distant background

Tbilisi is located in the South Caucasus at 41° 43' North Latitude and 44° 47' East Longitude. The city is situated in East Georgia on both banks of the Mtkvari River. The elevation of the city ranges from 380-770 meters above sea level (1246-1968 ft)and possesses the shape of an amphitheatre surrounded by mountains on three sides. To the north, Tbilisi is bounded by the Saguramo Range, to the east and south-east by the Iori Plain, to the south and west by various endings (sub-ranges) of the Trialeti Range. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Kura (Georgian Mtkvari, Azerbaijani Kür) is a river in the Caucasus Mountains. ... Trialeti Range is an east-west mountain range of the Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the central part of Georgia. ...


The relief of Tbilisi is quite complex. The part of the city which lies on the left bank of the Mtkvari (Kura) River extends for more than 30km (19 miles) from the Avchala District to River Lochini. Kura (Georgian Mtkvari, Azerbaijani Kür) is a river in the Caucasus Mountains. ...

Tbilisi Coordinates
Tbilisi Coordinates

The part of the city which lies on the right side of the Mtkvari River on the other hand is built along the foothills of the Trialeti Range, the slopes of which in many cases descend all the way to the edges of the river Mtkvari. The mountains, therefore, are a significant barrier to urban development on the right bank of the Mtkvari River. This type of a geographic environment creates pockets of very densely developed areas while other parts of the city are left undeveloped due to the complex topographic relief. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Trialeti Range is an east-west mountain range of the Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the central part of Georgia. ...


North of the city is a large reservoir (commonly known as the Tbilisi Sea) fed by irrigation canals.


Climate

Turtle Lake (Kus Tba) in January
Turtle Lake (Kus Tba) in January

The climate of Tbilisi is transitional from humid subtropical to relatively mild continental. The city's climate is influenced both by dry (Central Asian/Siberian) air masses from the east and humid subtropical (Atlantic/Black Sea) air masses from the west. Tbilisi experiences relatively cold winters and hot summers. Because the city is bounded on most sides by mountain ranges, the close proximity to large bodies of water (Black and Caspian Seas) and the fact that the Greater Caucasus Mountain Range (further to the north) blocks the intrusion of cold air masses from Russia, Tbilisi has a relatively mild micro-climate compared to other cities that possess a similar continental climate along the same latitudes. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1632x1232, 362 KB) Summary photo by D.Papuashvili Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1632x1232, 362 KB) Summary photo by D.Papuashvili Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ...


The average annual temperature in Tbilisi is 12.7 degrees Celsius. January is the coldest month with an average temperature of 0.9 degrees Celsius. July is the hottest month with an average temperature of 24.4 degrees Celsius. The absolute minimum recorded temperature is -23 degrees Celsius and the absolute maximum is 40 degrees Celsius. Average annual precipitation is 568 mm (22.4 inches). May is the wettest month (90 mm) while January is the driest (20 mm). Snow may fall on average for 15-25 days per year. The surrounding mountains often trap the clouds within and around the city mainly during the Spring and Autumn months, resulting in prolonged rainy and/or cloudy weather. Northwesterly winds dominate in most parts of Tbilisi throughout the year. Southeasterly winds are common as well.



Weather averages for Tbilisi
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 19.5 (67) 22.4 (72) 28.7 (84) 34.3 (94) 34.9 (95) 38.7 (102) 40.0 (104) 40.3 (105) 37.9 (100) 33.3 (92) 27.2 (81) 24.0 (75) 40.3 (105)
Average high °C (°F) 6.0 (43) 7.4 (45) 12.1 (54) 18.2 (65) 23.4 (74) 27.5 (82) 30.8 (87) 30.8 (87) 26.0 (79) 19.8 (68) 12.9 (55) 7.5 (46) 18.7 (66)
Average low °C (°F) -2.2 (28) -0.9 (30) 2.4 (36) 7.4 (45) 12.2 (54) 15.7 (60) 19.0 (66) 18.6 (65) 14.7 (58) 9.2 (49) 4.1 (39) -0.2 (32) 8.4 (47)
Record low °C (°F) -24.4 (-12) -14.8 (5) -12.8 (9) -4.8 (23) 1.0 (34) 6.3 (43) 9.3 (49) 8.9 (48) 0.8 (33) -6.4 (20) -7.1 (19) -20.5 (-5) -24.4 (-12)
Precipitation mm (inches) 19 (0.7) 26 (1) 30 (1.2) 51 (2) 78 (3.1) 76 (3) 45 (1.8) 48 (1.9) 36 (1.4) 38 (1.5) 30 (1.2) 21 (0.8) 498 (19.6)
Source: Pogoda.ru.net[8] 8.09.2007

People and culture

Demographics

Carpet Gallery

Tbilisi is a multicultural city. The city is home to more than 100 different ethnic groups. Around 80% of the population is ethnically Georgian, with significant populations of other ethnic groups which includes Russians, Armenians, and Azeris. Along with the above mentioned groups, Tbilisi is also home to various other ethnic groups including Ossetians, Abkhazians, Ukrainians, Greeks, Jews, Estonians, Germans, Kurds, Assyrians, and others. In recent years, the Turkish and Chinese populations of the city have experienced the fastest rates of growth. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Multiculturalism or cultural pluralism is a policy, ideal, or reality that emphasizes the unique characteristics of different cultures in the world, especially as they relate to one another in immigrant receiving nations. ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... Azerbaijanis or Azerbaijani Turks, are a Muslim people who number more than 25 million worldwide. ... The Ossetians (oss. ... Abkhazians - small ethnic group, which is distinct from Georgian. ... For other uses, see Greek (disambiguation). ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... It has been suggested that Assyrian people be merged into this article or section. ...

Sameba Cathedral
Sameba Cathedral

Religion

More than 85% of the residents of Tbilisi practice various forms of Christianity (the most predominant of which is the Georgian Orthodox Church). The Russian Orthodox Church as well as the Armenian Apostolic Church have significant following within the city as well. Catholics, Lutherans, Baptists, and other Christian denominations also make up the city's Christian minority. A large minority of the population (around 8%) practises Islam (mainly Sunni Islam). Judaism is also common, but to a lesser extent (about 2% of Tbilisi's population practices Judaism). Tbilisi has been historically known for religious tolerance. This is especially evident in the city's Old Town, where a Mosque, Synagogue, and Eastern and Oriental Orthodox Churches can all be found within less than 500 meters from each other. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The Georgian Orthodox and Apostolic Church is one of the worlds most ancient Christian Churches, founded in the 1st century by the Apostle Andrew. ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Official standard of Karekin II Catholicos of Armenia The Armenian Apostolic Church (Armenian: Õ€Õ¡Õµ Ô±Õ¼Õ¡Ö„Õ¥Õ¬Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Եկեղեցի, Hay Arakelagan Yegeghetzi), sometimes called the Armenian Orthodox Church or the Gregorian Church, is the worlds oldest national church[1] [2] and one of the most ancient Christian communities [3]. // Baptism of Tiridates III. The earliest... The Roman Catholic Church is the largest religious denomination of Christianity with over one billion members. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... Baptist churches are part of a Christian movement often regarded as an Evangelical, Protestant denomination. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Freedom of religion is the individuals right or freedom to hold whatever religious beliefs he or she wishes, or none at all. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... The synagogue Scolanova Trani in Italy. ... Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, Russia, Armenia, the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. ...


Sports

Tbilisi's Locomotive Stadium
Tbilisi's Locomotive Stadium

Tbilisi has a fairly rich sports history. Like many other towns of the Near East with strong Asian cultural influences, Tbilisi historically had a special area of town that was designated for sports competitions. The present-day districts of Saburtalo and Didube were the most common areas where such competitions were held. Up until the beginning of the 19th century, sports such as horse-riding (polo in particular), wrestling, boxing, and marksmanship were the most popular city sports. As Tbilisi started to develop socially and economically and integrate more with the West, new sports from Europe were introduced. The Soviet period brought an increased popularization of sports that were common in Europe and to a certain extent, the United States. At the same time, Tbilisi developed the necessary sports infrastructure for various professional sports. By 1978, the city had around 250 large and small sports facilities, including among others, four indoor and six outdoor Olympic sized pools, 185 basketball courts and halls, 192 volleyball facilities, 82 handball arenas, 19 tennis courts, 31 football (soccer) fields, and five stadiums. At present, the largest stadium in Tbilisi is the Boris Paichadze Stadium (55,000 seats) and the second largest is the Mikheil Meskhi Stadium (24,680 seats). The Sports Palace which usually hosts basketball games with high attendance and tennis tournaments can seat up to approximately 11,000 people. Vere Basketball Hall is a smaller indoor sports arena with a 2,5000 seating capacity. Inhabitants of the Near East, late nineteenth century. ... For other uses, see Polo (disambiguation). ... Ancient Greek wrestlers (Pankratiasts) Wrestling is the act of physical engagement between two unarmed persons, in which each wrestler strives to get an advantage over or control of their opponent. ... For other meanings of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer (disambiguation). ... Shooting is the act of causing a gun to fire at a target. ... Soviet redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the sport. ... For the ball used in this sport, see Volleyball (ball). ... Handball player leaps towards the goal prior to throwing the ball, while the goalkeeper extends himself trying to stop it. ... For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ... Soccer redirects here. ... Boris Paichadze Stadium is a multi-use stadium in Tbilisi, Georgia, and is one of the largest stadiums anywhere in the world. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Lokomotivi Stadium (Tbilisi). ... This article is about the sport. ... The following is a list of indoor arenas. ... Seating capacity refers to the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, either in terms of the space available, or in terms of limitations set by law. ...


The most popular sports in Tbilisi today are football, rugby union, basketball, and wrestling. Also popular sports include tennis, swimming and water polo. There are several professional football and rugby teams as well as wrestling clubs. NBA players Zaza Pachulia and Nikoloz Tskitishvili are Tbilisi natives. Outside of professional sports, the city has a number of inter-collegiate and amateur sports teams and clubs. Soccer redirects here. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... This article is about the sport. ... Ancient Greek wrestlers (Pankratiasts) Wrestling is the act of physical engagement between two unarmed persons, in which each wrestler strives to get an advantage over or control of their opponent. ... NBA redirects here. ... Zaza Pachulia, born Zaur Pachulia[1] (Georgian: ზაზა ფაჩულია) (born February 10, 1984 in Tbilisi, Georgian SSR, Soviet Union (present Georgia)), is a Georgian professional basketball player for the Atlanta Hawks of the NBA. // Pachulia was a very successful basketball player at a very early age in Georgia. ... Nikoloz Tskitishvili (Georgian: ნიკოლოზ ცქიტიშვილი; (born April 14, 1983 in Tbilisi, Georgian SSR, Soviet Union) is a Georgian professional basketball player who currently plays for Siviglia Wear Teramo in the Serie A. A 70, 245 lbs. ...


Tbilisi's signature football team, Dinamo Tbilisi, has not won a major European championship since 1981, when it won the European Cup Winners' Cup and became the easternmost team in Europe to achieve the feat. The basketball club Dinamo Tbilisi won the Euroleague in 1962 but also never repeated any such feat. Dinamo Tbilisi FC is a Georgian football team, playing in the capital, Tbilisi. ... The Cup Winners Cup was a football club competition between the winners of the European domestic cup competitions. ... The Euroleague (EL) is the highest caliber professional basketball league in Europe, with teams from thirteen different European countries. ... The 1961-62 season and fifth of the FIBA European Champions Cup was won by Dinamo Tbilisi after beating Real Madrid in the first ever single game final in the result of 90-83, in Geneva, Switzerland. ...

Boris Paichadze National Stadium, Tbilisi Inside View, After Reconstruction
Boris Paichadze National Stadium, Tbilisi
Inside View, After Reconstruction
Tennis Stadium, Tbilisi
Club Sport Stadium
FC Dinamo Tbilisi Football (soccer) Boris Paichadze Stadium
FC Lokomotivi Tbilisi Football (soccer) Mikheil Meskhi Stadium
FC Ameri Tbilisi Football (soccer) Ameri Stadium
FC WIT Georgia Football (soccer) Wit Georgia Stadium
BC Dinamo Tbilisi Basketball Vere Basketball Hall
Tbilisi State University Basketball Team Basketball Vere Basketball Hall
Georgian Technical University Basketball Team Basketball Vere Basketball Hall

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... FC Dinamo Tbilisi (Georgian: ) is the football team of Dinamo Tbilisi, playing in the capital of Georgia, Tbilisi. ... Soccer redirects here. ... Boris Paichadze Stadium is a multi-use stadium in Tbilisi, Georgia, and is one of the largest stadiums anywhere in the world. ... FC Lokomotivi Tbilisi is a Georgian football club from the capital, Tbilisi. ... Soccer redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Lokomotivi Stadium (Tbilisi). ... FC Ameri Tbilisi is a Georgian football club based in Tbilisi. ... Soccer redirects here. ... FC WIT Georgia is a Georgian football team, playing in the capital, Tbilisi. ... Soccer redirects here. ... Dinamo Tbilisi FC is a Georgian football team, playing in the capital, Tbilisi. ... This article is about the sport. ... This article is about the sport. ... This article is about the sport. ...

Media

The large majority of Georgia’s media companies (including television, newspaper and radio) are headquartered in Tbilisi. The city is home to the popular Rustavi 2 television channel which gained considerable fame after its coverage of the Rose Revolution. In addition to Rustavi 2, the remaining three out of the four major public television channels of Georgia (including Imedi TV Mze and the Public Broadcasting Channel) are based in the city as well. Tbilisi’s television market has experienced notable changes since the second half of 2005 when Rustavi 2 successfully bought out the Mze TV Company and Rupert Murdoch’s News Corporation became a shareholder of Imedi Media Holding at the beginning of 2006. By taking over the Imedi Media Holding Group, News Corporation entered the Post-Soviet media market for the first time in the company's history. Motto ძალა ერთობაშია(Georgian) Strength is in Unity Anthem Tavisupleba Freedom Capital (and largest city) Tbilisi Official languages Georgian1 Demonym Georgian Government Semi-presidential unitary republic  -  President Mikheil Saakashvili  -  Prime Minister Zurab Noghaideli Consolidation  -  Georgian kingdoms of Colchis and Iberia c. ... Rustavi 2 (in Georgian: რუსთავი 2) is a popular private TV Company in Georgia (country). ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Imedi Media Holding refers to a private TV and Radio Company in Georgia. ... Keith Rupert Murdoch AC, KCSG (born 11 March 1931) is an Australian born United States citizen who is a global media executive and is the controlling shareholder, chairman and managing director of News Corporation, based in New York. ... 1211 Avenue of the Americas (Sixth Avenue), where News Corporation is based News Corporation (abbreviated to News Corp) (NYSE: NWS, NYSE: NWSa, ASX: , LSE: NCRA) is an American media conglomerate company and the third worlds largest. ... The Post-Soviet states, also commonly known as former Soviet republics, are the independent nations which split off from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its breakup in 1991. ...


Tbilisi has a number of newspaper publishing houses. Some of the most noteworthy newspapers include the daily 24 Saati (24 Hours), Rezonansi (Resonance), Alia, the English-language daily The Messenger, weekly FINANCIAL, Georgia Today, and the English-language weekly The Georgian Times. Out of the city’s radio stations Imedi Radio (105.9FM), Fortuna, and Radio 105 are some of the more influential competitors with large national audiences. The abbreviations FM, Fm, and fm may refer to: Electrical engineering Frequency modulation (FM) and its most common applications: FM broadcasting, used primarily to broadcast music and speech at VHF frequencies FM synthesis, a sound-generation technique popularized by early digital synthesizers Science Femtometre (fm), an SI measure of length...


Architecture

Old bank building (neoclassical architecture)

The architecture in the city is a mixture of local (Georgian), with strong influences of Byzantine, European/Russian (neo-classical), and Middle Eastern architectural styles. The oldest parts of town, including the Abanot-Ubani, Avlabari, and to a certain extent the Sololaki districts clearly have a traditional Georgian architectural look with Middle Eastern influences. The areas of Tbilisi which were built up mainly in the 19th century (Rustaveli Avenue, Vera district, etc.) have a contrasting European/Russian (neoclassical) look. Byzantine redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... This article is about the built environment. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Cathedral of Vilnius (1783), by Laurynas Gucevičius. ...


The turn of the 20th century was marked with an architectural revival, notably, with an art nouveau style. With the establishment of the communist government the style was decreed as bourgeois and largely neglected. Architecture of the later 20th century can mainly be identified with the type of building style that was common during the Soviet Era throughout the Soviet Union. Vitebsk Railway Station one of the finest examples of Art Nouveau architecture. ... Soviet redirects here. ...

Georgian Parliament

This included building large, concrete apartment blocks as well as social, cultural, and office facilities which did not particularly fit Tbilisi's landscape. Since the break-up of the Soviet Union, Tbilisi has been the site of uncontrolled/unsanctioned building projects. Since 2004, the city government has taken new initiatives to curb uncontrolled construction projects with mixed success. In the near future, Tbilisi will have two skyscraper complexes. The Axis Towers and the new Ajaria Hotel/Business Complex (under construction) will be the tallest buildings/skyscrapers in the Caucasus. For other uses, see Skyscraper (disambiguation). ... Taipei 101, the worlds tallest skyscraper by roof height on high rise. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ...


Periodic events

Tbilisoba (Day of Tbilisi) is the largest annual celebration in the city, commemorating the foundation of Tbilisi. It is held towards the end of October each year and attracts many tourists. The festival was established in 1979 and reintroduced in 1994 after having been suspended for six years due to political unrest.

Historic Rik'e neighborhood during the Tbilisoba festival, October 2005
Historic Rik'e neighborhood during the Tbilisoba festival, October 2005

Image File history File links Tbilisi_day_2005. ... Image File history File links Tbilisi_day_2005. ...

Landmarks

Tbilisi has a number of important landmarks and sightseeing locations. The parliament and the government (State Chancellery) buildings of Georgia, as well as the Supreme Court of Georgia, are all located in Tbilisi. The city also has important cultural landmarks such as the Tbilisi State Conservatoire, Tbilisi Opera and Ballet Theatre ,Shota Rustaveli State Academic Theatre, Marjanishvili State Academic Theatre, the Sameba Cathedral, the Vorontsov's Palace (also known as the Children's Palace today), many state museums, the National Public Library of the Parliament of Georgia, the National Bank of Georgia and other important institutions. During the Soviet times, Tbilisi continuously ranked in the top 4 cities in the Soviet Union for the number of museums. The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ... The Supreme Court of Georgia is the highest judicial authority of the country of Georgia. ... The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning to cultivate, generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... The Tbilisi Holy Trinity Cathedral commonly known as Sameba (Georgian: for Trinity) is the main Georgian Orthodox cathedral, located in Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia. ... Vorontsov, also Woronzow, is a celebrated Russian family, which attained the dignity of Counts of the Holy Roman Empire in 1744 and Serene Princes of the Russian Empire in 1852. ... National Bank of Georgia ... Soviet redirects here. ...


Out of the city's historic landmarks, the most notable locations are the Narikala fortress (4th century-17th century AD), Anchiskhati Church (6th century, built up in the 16th century), Sioni Cathedral (8th century, later rebuilt), Church of Metekhi (13th century), etc. Stairs on the lower court of Narikala castle Narikala is a 4th century AD fortress overlooking Tbilisi and the Kura river. ... The Anchiskhati Church as it looks like today The Anchiskhati Basilica of St Mary is the oldest surviving church in Tbilisi, Georgia. ... The Tbilisi Sioni Cathedral at night. ... The Metekhi Church and the equestrian statue of King Vakhtang Gorgasal Metekhi (Metechi; Georgian: მეტეხი) is a historical cliff located in Tbilisi, Georgia. ...


Miscellaneous

Pronunciation

Georgians pronounce Tbilisi with a barely-spoken 't', so that it almost sounds like /bɪˈlisi/, or "bill-EE-see"; English speakers often mispronounce it like /tɪbˈlisi/, or "tib-LEE-see", but that is incorrect. The correct pronunciation is /ˌtbiˈliːsi/, or "tbee-LEE-see", with no vowel between the T and B, but both pronounced nonetheless.


Education

Universities in Tbilisi include:

Image:TSU2. ... 1st Korpus Georgian Technical University in Tbilisi (formerly V.I. Lenin Georgian Polytechnical Institute) was founded in 1922 as a polytechnic faculty of the Tbilisi State University. ... Tbilisi Ilia Chavchavadze State University of Language and Culture Tbilisi Ilia Chavchavadze State University of Language and Culture is an educational institute located in Tbilisi, Georgia. ... Tbilsi State Conservatoire is the State Conservatoire of Georgia Republic. ... Tbilisi State Medical University (TSMU) is a leading medical school in Georgia. ...

Sister cities

Tbilisi's sister cities are: Sign denoting twin towns of Neckarsulm Town twinning or sister cities is a concept whereby towns or cities from geographically and politically distinct areas are paired, with the goal of fostering human contact and cultural links. ...

Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Capital Saarbrücken Language(s) Rhine Franconian; see language of the Saarland Government Principality Historical era Middle Ages  - Joined Holy Roman Empire 925  - Established ca 1120  - Passed to Nassau-Weilburg 1353  - Occupied by France 1793  - Annexed by France 1797  - Passed to Prussian Grd     Dchy Lwr Rhine   June 9, 1815 Saarbr... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Traditional city flag City coat of arms Motto: Favet Neptunus eunti (Latin: Shall Neptune favour the traveller) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Pays de la Loire Department Loire-Atlantique (44) Mayor Jean-Marc Ayrault  (PS) (since 1989) City Statistics Land area¹ 65. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovenia. ... Location in Slovenia Coordinates: , Country Founded AD 15 (as Colonia Iulia Aemona) Government  - Mayor and governor Zoran Janković (Lista Zorana Jankovića) Area  - Total 275. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Innsbruck is a city in western Austria, and the capital of the federal state of Tyrol. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Armenia. ... Location of Yerevan in Armenia Coordinates: , Country Established 782 BC Government  - Mayor Yervand Zakharyan Area  - City 227 km²  (87. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the state capital of Georgia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Location of the city of Palermo (red dot) within Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... This article is about the English city. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... La Muy Noble y Muy Leal e Invicta (The most noble and most loyal and undefeated) Location Location of Bilbao in Spain and Biscay Coordinates : , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Bilbao (Basque) Spanish name Bilbao Nickname El Botxo (the hole) Founded 15... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kazakhstan. ... Coordinates: Government  - Mayor Askar Mamin Population (estimated)  - City 600,000 Time zone BTT (UTC+6) This article is about the capital of Kazakhstan; for the article on the palace in Sarawak, see Astana (Sarawak); for the professional road-cycling team see Astana Team; for the Iranian city, see Astaneh-e...

See also

Abo Tbileli, or Habo Tbileli (Abo/Habo of Tbilisi; in Georgian: აბო თბილელი, ჰაბო ტფილელი) (ca. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... Variants of the Seal of Tbilisi The emblem of the City of Tbilisi, Georgia, was designed in the late 1980s and reconfirmed as an official seal of the city on June 8, 2005. ... Flag of Tbilisi The flag of Tbilisi, capital of Georgia is a rectangular while banner with a blue Nordic-type cross outlined in amber that extends to edges of the flag. ... Tbilisi City hall is the headquarters of Tbilisi Assembly(Sakrebulo) and the Mayor of Tbilisi. ... This is a list of famous people who have lived in Tbilisi, including both natives and residents. ... Entrance to the metro station at Tavisuplebis Moedani, (Freedom Square) The Tbilisi Metro (Georgian: , tbilisis metropoliteni; in the Soviet times also Russian: ) is a rapid transit Metro system in Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia. ... Tbilisi International Airport (Georgian: ) (IATA: TBS, ICAO: UGTB) is a main international airport in Georgia located near the capital Tbilisi. ... The Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline (sometimes abbreviated as BTC pipeline) transports crude petroleum 1,776 km from the Azeri-Chirag-Guneshli oil field in the Caspian Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. ... Georgia Tbilisi TV Broadcasting Tower is a free-standing tower structure used for communications purposes. ... This is a list of companies from the country of Georgia: #Current companies #Former companies, including acquired and merged ones #See also Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X... This is a list of cities in Asia that have several different names in different languages, including former (e. ...

References

  1. ^ The Golden Age Of Georgia. Dictionary of Georgian National Biography. Retrieved on 2008-02-02.
  2. ^ Country Overview. Invest in Georgia. Retrieved on 2008-02-02. “This early Georgian renaissance ... preceded its European analogue by several hundred years”
  3. ^ Энциклопедия Брокгауза и Ефрона (Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary), Тифлис (Tiflis), 1890-1907
  4. ^ David Marshall Lang (1962), History of Modern Georgia, p. 211.
  5. ^ Socialism in Georgian Colors, Stephen F. Jones, London 2005
  6. ^ History of Modern Georgia, David Marshall Lang, 1962
  7. ^ (Georgian) საქართველოს დედაქალაქის - თბილისის შესახებ. The Parliament of Georgia. Retrieved on May 22, 2007.
  8. ^ Pogoda.ru.net (Russian). Retrieved on September 8, 2007.

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Title pages of «Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary» Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (35 volumes, small; 86 volumes, large) is, in its scope and style, the Russian counterpart to the 1911 Britannica. ... David Marshall Lang (May 6, 1924 – March 20, 1991), was a Professor Emeritus of Caucasian Studies, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Vladimir Minorsky (1877-1966) was a famous Russian Iranologist. ... The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is the standard encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Tbilisi, Georgia
Historic capitals of Georgia

Mtskheta · Tbilisi · Kutaisi Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Bagrat_III_of_Georgia_(Gelati_mural). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1312x894, 314 KB) Kingdom of Cholchis and Iberia Copyright© Andrew Andersen Source: Atlas of Conflicts File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tbilisi Georgia (country) Colchis Caucasian Iberia... Mtskheta is one of oldest cities of the republic of Georgia (in Kartli province of Eastern Georgia), near Tbilisi. ... Kutaisi (Georgian: ; ancient names: Aea/Aia, Kutatisi, Kutaïssi ) is Georgias second largest city in the western province of Imereti. ...


Coordinates: 41°43′N, 44°47′E Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Anthem unknown Capital Tskhinvali Official languages Ossetian1 Government  -  President Eduard Kokoity  -  Prime Minister Yury Morozov De facto independence from Georgia  -  Declared November 28, 1991   -  Recognition none  Currency Russian ruble (RUB) Russian in widespread use by government and other institutions. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


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