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Encyclopedia > Taxonomy
Look up taxonomy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Taxonomy is the practice and science of classification. The word comes from the Greek τάξις, taxis, 'order' + νόμος, nomos, 'law' or 'science'. Taxonomies, or taxonomic schemes, are composed of taxonomic units known as taxa (singular taxon), or kinds of things that are arranged frequently in a hierarchical structure, typically related by subtype-supertype relationships, also called parent-child relationships. In such a subtype-supertype relationship the subtype kind of thing has by definition the same constraints as the supertype kind of thing plus one or more additional constraints. For example, car is a subtype of vehicle. So any car is also a vehicle, but not every vehicle is a car. Therefore, a thing needs to satisfy more constraints to be a car than to be a vehicle. Taxonomy, sometimes alpha taxonomy, is the science of finding, describing and naming organisms, thus giving rise to taxa. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... A taxon (plural taxa), or taxonomic unit, is a grouping of organisms (named or unnamed). ... A hierarchy (in Greek hieros = sacred, arkho = rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things. ...

Contents

Applications

Originally the term taxonomy referred to the classifying of living organisms like cats (now known as alpha taxonomy); however, the term is now applied in a wider, more general sense and now may refer to a classification of things, as well as to the principles underlying such a classification. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Taxonomy, sometimes alpha taxonomy, is the science of finding, describing and naming organisms, thus giving rise to taxa. ...


Almost anything — animate objects, inanimate objects, places, concepts, events, properties, and relationships — may be classified according to some taxonomic scheme.


The term taxonomy may also apply to relationship schemes other than parent-child hierarchies, such as network structures with other types of relationships. Taxonomies may include single children with multi-parents, for example, "Car" might appear with both parents "Vehicle" and "Steel Mechanisms"; to some however, this merely means that 'car' is a part of several different taxonomies. In Graph theory, a digraph with weighted edges is called a network. ...


A taxonomy might also be a simple organization of kinds of things into groups, or even an alphabetical list. However, the term vocabulary is more appropriate for such a list. In current usage within "Knowledge Management", taxonomies are seen as less broad than ontologies as ontologies apply a larger variety of relation types. Knowledge Management (KM) comprises a range of practices used by organisations to identify, create, represent, and distribute knowledge. ... In both computer science and information science, an ontology is a data model that represents a set of concepts within a domain and the relationships between those concepts. ...


Mathematically, a hierarchical taxonomy is a tree structure of classifications for a given set of objects. It is also named Containment hierarchy. At the top of this structure is a single classification, the root node, that applies to all objects. Nodes below this root are more specific classifications that apply to subsets of the total set of classified objects. So for instance, in common schemes of scientific classification of organisms, the root is called "Organism" followed by nodes for the taxonomic ranks: Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, etc. A tree structure is a way of representing the hierarchical nature of a structure in a graphical form. ... A hierarchy (in Greek hieros = sacred, arkho = rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ... The hierarchy of scientific classifications major eight taxonomic ranks. ... The hierarchy of scientific classifications major eight taxonomic ranks. ... Phylum (plural: phyla) is a taxon used in the classification of animals, adopted from the Greek phylai the clan-based voting groups in Greek city-states. ... A class is the rank in the scientific classification of organisms in biology below Phylum and above Order. ...


Taxonomy and mental classification

Some have argued that the human mind naturally organizes its knowledge of the world into such systems. This view is often based on the epistemology of Immanuel Kant. Anthropologists have observed that taxonomies are generally embedded in local cultural and social systems, and serve various social functions. Perhaps the most well-known and influential study of folk taxonomies is Émile Durkheim's The Elementary Forms of Religious Life. Theory of knowledge redirects here: for other uses, see theory of knowledge (disambiguation) Epistemology (from Greek επιστήμη - episteme, knowledge + λόγος, logos) or theory of knowledge is a branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge. ... Kant redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Émile Durkheim Émile Durkheim (IPA: ; April 15, 1858 – November 15, 1917) was a French sociologist whose contributions were instrumental in the formation of sociology and anthropology. ...


Various taxonomies

In phylogenetic taxonomy (or cladistic taxonomy), organisms can be classified by clades, which are based on evolutionary grouping by ancestral traits. By using clades as the criteria for separation, cladistic taxonomy, using cladograms, can categorize taxa into unranked groups. In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: phylon = tribe, race and genetikos = relative to birth, from genesis = birth) is the study of evolutionary relatedness among various groups of organisms (e. ... A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ... An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an ancestor (i. ... Greek clados = branch) or phylogenetic systematics is a branch of biology that determines the evolutionary relationships of living things based on derived similarities. ...


In numerical taxonomy or taximetrics, the field of solving or best-fitting of numerical equations that characterize all measurable quantities of a set of objects is called cluster analysis. Data clustering is a common technique for statistical data analysis, which is used in many fields, including machine learning, data mining, pattern recognition, image analysis and bioinformatics. ... ... Clustering is the classification of objects into different groups, or more precisely, the partitioning of a data set into subsets (clusters), so that the data in each subset (ideally) share some common trait - often proximity according to some defined distance measure. ...


Non-scientific taxonomy

Other taxonomies, such as those analyzed by Durkheim and Lévi-Strauss, are sometimes called folk taxonomies to distinguish them from scientific taxonomies that claim to be disembedded from social relations and thus objective and universal. A Folk Taxonomy is a vernacular naming system, as opposed to a scientific naming system which is simply known as a Taxonomy or as a Scientific Taxonomy. ...


The neologism folksonomy should not be confused with "folk taxonomy" (though it is obviously a contraction of the two words). Those who support scientific taxonomies have recently criticized folksonomies by dubbing them "fauxonomies" (French word "faux" means "false"). A neologism is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (or coined), often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ... A folksonomy is a user-generated taxonomy used to categorize and retrieve web content such as Web pages, photographs and Web links, using open-ended labels called tags. ...


The phrase "enterprise taxonomy" is used in business to describe a very limited form of taxonomy used only within one organization. An example would be a certain method of classifying trees as "Type A", "Type B" and "Type C" used only by a certain lumber company for categorising log shipments. Peter Senge defined a learning organization as human beings cooperating in dynamical systems (as defined in systemics) that are in a state of continuous adaptation and improvement. ...


See also

There are three components in the taxonomy proposed by Benjamin Bloom et al. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... For Wikipedias categorization projects, see Wikipedia:Categorization. ... Celestial Emporium of Benevolent Recognition is a parody of classification schemes or taxonomy, in the form of an essay by Jorge Luis Borges on a fictitious Chinese encyclopedia 1. ... It has been suggested that Clade be merged into this article or section. ... A phylogeny (or phylogenesis) is the origin and evolution of a set of organisms, usually of a species. ... Biological systematics is the study of the diversity of life on the planet earth, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time. ... A folksonomy is a user-generated taxonomy used to categorize and retrieve web content such as Web pages, photographs and Web links, using open-ended labels called tags. ... The Gellish English Dictionary is an example of an Open Source smart electronic dictionary that is a machine readable. ... The —the biological classification of plants—stretches from the work of ancient Greek to modern evolutionary biologists. ... A hypernym (in Greek υπερνύμιον, literally meaning extra name) is a word whose extension includes the extension of the word of which it is a hypernym. ... Portrait of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (August 1, 1744 – December 18, 1829) was a French soldier, naturalist, academic and an early proponent of the idea that evolution occurred and proceeded in accordance with natural laws. ... Knowledge representation is an issue that arises in both cognitive science and artificial intelligence. ... Title page of Systema Naturae, 10th edition, 1758. ... ... A phylogeny (or phylogenesis) is the origin and evolution of a set of organisms, usually of a species. ... Carl Richard Woese (born July 15, 1928, Syracuse, New York) is an American microbiologist famous for defining the Archaea (a new domain or kingdom of life) in 1977 by phylogenetic taxonomy of 16S ribosomal RNA, a technique pioneered by Woese and which is now standard practice. ... This article is about ontology in philosophy. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... The Structure of Observed Learning Outcome (SOLO) taxonomy is a model that describes levels of increasing complexity in students understanding of subjects. ... The species problem is a mixture of difficult, related questions that often come up when biologists identify species and when they define the word species. One common but sometimes difficult question is how best to decide just which particular species an organism belongs to. ... Biological systematics is the study of the diversity of life on the planet earth, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Taxonomy Warehouse - information organization, metadata, knowledge management, classification tools (302 words)
Whether you are just investigating what taxonomy is and how it can help your organization or are making critical decisions on developing or managing taxonomies for your enterprise, Taxonomy Warehouse can help.
We are the only site on the Internet dedicated to taxonomies for corporations.
A tailored taxonomy can transform the way your organization maximizes its information assets - Taxonomy Warehouse is the place to start.
Taxonomy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (548 words)
Taxonomy was once only the science of classifying living organisms, but later the word was applied in a wider sense, and may also refer to either a classification of things, or the principles underlying the classification.
Mathematically, a hierarchical taxonomy is a tree structure of classifications for a given set of objects.
Such taxonomies as those analyzed by Durkheim and Lévi-Strauss are sometimes called folk taxonomies to distinguish them from scientific taxonomies that claim to be disembedded from social relations and thus objective and universal.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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