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Encyclopedia > Taxicab

Taxicab, short forms taxi or cab, is a type of public transport for a single passenger, or small group of passengers, typically for a non-shared ride. A taxicab is a vehicle for hire which conveys passengers between locations of their choice. (In most other modes of public transport, the pick-up and drop-off locations are determined by the service provider, not by the passenger.) // Horse drawn taxis had been used in Europe in the early 1800s. ... Bangkok Skytrain. ... A vehicle for hire is a vehicle providing public transportation, which transports one or more passengers between locations of the passengers choice. ... Bangkok Skytrain. ...


Although types of vehicles and methods of regulation, hiring, dispatching, and negotiating payment differ significantly from country to country, many common characteristics exist.

Contents

Etymology

Harry N. Allen, who imported the first New York taxicabs from France, coined the word taxicab as a contraction of 'taximeter cab'. In time, the shortened term taxi came into common usage. 'Cab' is a contraction of cabriolet, a type of horse-drawn carriage. This article is about the state. ... A cabriolet was a light, two-wheeled horse-drawn carriage with a folding calash top, seating two persons facing forwards, one of whom was the driver. ...


In turn, taximeter is an adaptation of the French word 'taximètre', which is a derivation of the German word 'taxameter', coined from Medieval Latin 'taxa' which means 'tax/charge' together with 'meter' from the Greek 'metron' meaning measure.[1] Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the liturgical language of the medieval Roman Catholic Church, but also as a language of science, literature, law, and administration. ...


History

Parisian Renault taxicabs taking troops to the Marne

Horse-drawn for-hire hackney carriage services began operating in both Paris and London in the early 17th century. Royal proclamations in both cities regulated the number of carriages - the first example of taxicab regulation. In the 19th century, Hansom cabs largely replaced the older designs because of their improved speed and safety. Image File history File links Taxis_of_the_Marne. ... Image File history File links Taxis_of_the_Marne. ... The Renault Taxi de la Marne (Marnes Taxi) was an automobile manufactured between 1905 and 1910 by Renault and used as a taxicab. ... In the United Kingdom, the name hackney carriage refers to a taxicab licensed by the Public Carriage Office in London (for the area within the M25 motorway) or by the local authority (non-metropolitan district councils or unitary authorities) in other parts of England, Wales, and Scotland, or by the... This article is about the capital of France. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... A Hansom cab adding character to the filming of a costume drama. ...


Although battery-powered vehicles enjoyed a brief success in Paris,London, and New York in the 1890s, the 1891 invention by German Wilhelm Bruhn of the taximeter (the familiar mechanical and now often electronic device that calculates the fare in most taxicabs) ushered in the modern taxi. The first modern meter-equipped taxicab was the Daimler Victoria, built by Gottlieb Daimler in 1897; the first motorized taxi company began operating in Stuttgart the same year. This article is about the capital of France. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The 1890s were sometimes referred to as the Mauve Decade, because William Henry Perkins aniline dye allowed the widespread use of that colour in fashion, and also as the Gay Nineties, under the then-current usage of the word gay which referred simply to merriment and frivolity, with no... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A taximeter is a mechanical or electronic device installed in taxicabs, similar to an odometer, which calculates passenger fares based on a combination of distance travelled and waiting time. ... Gottlieb Daimler Gottlieb Wilhelm Daimler (March 17, 1834 - March 6, 1900) was an engineer, industrial designer and industrialist, born in Schorndorf (Kingdom of Württemberg) what is now Germany. ... For other uses, see Stuttgart (disambiguation). ...


Petrol powered taxicabs began operating in Paris in 1899, in London in1903, and in New York in 1907. The New York taxicabs were imported from France by businessperson Harry N. Allen. Allen was the first person to paint his taxicabs yellow, after learning that yellow is the colour most easily seen from a distance. “Petrol” redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... 1900 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... This article is about the state. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... A yellow Tulip. ...


Taxicabs proliferated around the world in the early 20th century. The first major innovation after the invention of the taximeter occurred in the late 1940s, when two-way radios first appeared in taxicabs. Radios enabled taxicabs and dispatch offices to communicate and serve customers more efficiently than previous methods, such as using callboxes. The next major innovation occurred in the 1980s, when computer assisted dispatching was first introduced. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up radiophone, radiotelephone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A dispatch can be: A report sent to a newspaper by a correspondent. ... For the worship band, see Call Box. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Computer-assisted dispatch (also called CAD) is a method of dispatching taxicabs, couriers, field service technicians, or emergency services by computer. ...


There has generally been a legal struggle concerning the certification of motor vehicles to be taxicabs, which take much more wear than a private car does. In London, they were additionally required to meet stringent specifications, for example, as concerns turn radius, which resulted for a time in having only one make legally usable. In the US, in the 1930s the cabs were often DeSotos or Packards. General Motors offered a specialized vehicle for a time, named the General. The firm Checker came into existence then, and stopped manufacturing cabs in the early 1980s. Its cars were specially built to carry "double dates." But now New York City requires that all taxicabs be ordinary cars. They are mainly long-wheelbase versions of the Ford Crown Victoria. Toyota Sienna minivans are the alternate vehicle of choice in New York's cab fleet. In the 1960s in Europe, Mercedes-Benz and Peugeot offered diesel taxicabs. This form of engine is now quite common there. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the World Depression. ... DeSoto Logo, used in the 1950s The DeSoto (sometimes De Soto) was a brand of automobile based in the United States, marketed by the Chrysler Corporation from 1928 to 1961. ... The Packard family coat of arms, adopted as the companys logo in 1928 Packard red hexagon wheel hub center made its debut in 1905, with the color red added in 1913 Packard was a United States based brand of luxury automobile built by the Packard Motor Car Company of... Metal die-cast model of a Checker taxicab Originally, a Checker Cab was a taxi produced by the Checker Cab Manufacturing Company (later known as Checker Motors Corporation) of Kalamazoo, Michigan, and operating under the name Checker Cabs in New York and other Russian immigrant Morris Markin in 1922 and... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... For the Police Interceptor version used by law enforcement, see Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor. ... Not to be confused with Toyota Sienta. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This page is about the Mercedes-Benz brand of automobiles and trucks from the DaimlerChrysler automobile manufacturer. ... Peugeot is a major French car brand, part of PSA Peugeot Citroën. ... This article is about the fuel. ...


Vehicles

Taxi service is typically provided by automobiles, but various human powered vehicles (such as the rickshaw) and animal powered vehicles (such as the Hansom cab) or even boats (such as water taxis or gondolas) are also used or have been used historically. In Western Europe it is not uncommon for expensive cars such as Mercedes-Benz to be the taxicab of choice. Often this decision is based upon the perceived reliability of, and warranty offered with these vehicles. These taxi-service vehicles are often equipped with four-cylinder turbo-diesel engines and low levels of equipment, and are not considered luxury cars. (This often surprises Americans, who are used to seeing only the upmarket trims and associate Mercedes-Benz cars with luxury.) In Spain the most-seen taxicabs are vehicles like Škoda Octavia or SEAT Toledo “Car” and “Cars” redirect here. ... Three human powered vehicles: the Gossamer Albatross II and two bicycles. ... Japanese rickshaw (jinrikisha), 1886. ... -1... A Hansom cab adding character to the filming of a costume drama. ... A New York Water Taxi docks at Pier 11 near Wall Street. ... A Venetian gondola A gòndola is a traditional Venetian sculling boat. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This page is about the Mercedes-Benz brand of automobiles and trucks from the DaimlerChrysler automobile manufacturer. ... The Å koda Octavia is a medium family car introduced in 1996 by the car manufacturer Å koda. ... The SEAT Toledo is an automobile built and marketed by SEAT, a division of the Volkswagen Group. ...


In Australia, taxicabs are mainly Ford Falcons and less commonly, Holden Commodores. Kia Carnivals are becoming increasingly popular due to the low price of these vehicles. There are premium operators who mainly operate on Ford Fairlanes and Holden Statesmans. Almost all Australian taxicabs run on liquefied petroleum gas. There is also a Chrysler 300C Turbo Diesel Cab in the Victorian Fleet. This article is about the Australian car model. ... The Holden Commodore is an automobile produced by the Holden division of General Motors (GM) in Australia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Ford Fairlane is a large, luxury automobile model manufactured by Ford Australia from 1960 to the present day, with only a brief absence in the mid-1960s. ... The Holden Statesman is a full-size luxury car produced by the Australian General Motors division Holden since 1971. ... 45 kg LPG cylinders Liquefied petroleum gas (also called LPG, LP Gas, or autogas) is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles, and increasingly replacing chlorofluorocarbons as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant to reduce damage to the ozone layer. ...


In Norway, many taxicabs are Mercedes E-class (usually E-220 CDI) or Volvo V70 Estate. These cars are almost always equipped with diesel engines, automatic transmission, satellite navigation, and high quality trim levels. Mercedes E280 CDI Mercedes E280 CDI A Mercedes-Benz E-Class police cruiser in Hamburg, Germany. ...


In New Zealand, the Holden Commodore and Ford Falcon have been the traditional taxicab of choice, but in the last decade a move has been made towards large front wheel drive V6 models such as the Toyota Avalon, Nissan Maxima and Toyota Camry. At the other end of the scale, used examples of the Mercedes Benz S Class and BMW 5 Series are becoming popular for more upmarket companies, along with the traditional "Corporate cabs"; the Ford Fairlane and Holden Statesman. The Toyota Avalon is a full-size car produced by Toyota in the United States. ... The Nissan Maxima is a car manufactured by Nissan that is in a line of upper mid-size executive and sports sedans. ... The Toyota Camry is a mid-size sedan assembled by Toyota in Georgetown, Kentucky; Altona, Victoria, Guangzhou, China and the original factory in Toyota City, Japan. ... The BMW 5 Series is a mid-size luxury car / executive car manufactured by BMW since 1972. ... 1955 Ford Fairlane Crown Victoria 1957 Ford Fairlane 1966 Ford Fairlane GTA 1997 Ford Fairlane Ghia The Ford Fairlane was an automobile model sold between 1955 and 1971 by the Ford Motor Company in North America. ... The Holden Statesman is a full-size luxury car produced by the Australian General Motors division Holden since 1971. ...

Taxicabs in less developed places can be a completely different experience, such as the ancient French cars typically found in Cairo. However starting March 2006, newer modern taxicabs entered the service operated by various private companies. Taxicabs differ in other ways as well: London's black cabs have a large compartment beside the driver for storing bags, while many fleets of regular taxis also include wheelchair accessible taxicabs among their numbers (see below). Although taxicabs have traditionally been sedans, minivan and even SUV taxicabs are becoming increasingly common. In many cities, limousines operate as well, usually in competition with taxicabs and at higher fares. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1296x976, 738 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1296x976, 738 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Hybrid Synergy Drive The Toyota Prius is a hybrid electric vehicle developed and manufactured by the Toyota Motor Corporation, and one of the first such vehicles to be mass-produced and marketed. ... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... This article is about the type of car. ... It has been suggested that Mini MPV be merged into this article or section. ... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ... Look up limousine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Wheelchair-accessible taxicabs

Minivan wheelchair taxicab in Vancouver BC

In recent years, some companies have been adding specially modified vehicles capable of transporting wheelchair-using passengers to their fleets. Such taxicabs are variously called accessible taxis, wheelchair- or wheelchair-accessible taxicabs, modified taxicabs, and so on. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1296x976, 619 KB) Summary I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1296x976, 619 KB) Summary I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Wheelchair taxicabs are most often vans or minivans which have undergone special modifications. Wheelchair-using passengers are loaded, with the help of the driver, via a lift or, more commonly, a ramp, at the rear of the vehicle. The wheelchair is secured using various systems, commonly including some type of belt and clip combination, or wheel locks. Most wheelchair taxicabs are capable of transporting only one wheelchair-using passenger at a time, though most can accommodate up to four additional able-bodied passengers. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Mini MPV be merged into this article or section. ... In the context of legality, able-bodied refers to an individuals physical capacity for gainful employment or military service. ...


Wheelchair taxicabs are part of the regular fleet in most cases, and so are not reserved exclusively for the use of wheelchair users. They are often used by able-bodied people who need to transport luggage, small items of furniture, animals, and other items. Because of this, and since only a small percentage of the average fleet is modified, wheelchair users must often wait for significantly longer periods when calling for a cab, and flagging a modified taxicab on the street is much more difficult.


Livery

Yellow taxicabs in Kolkata, India.
Yellow taxicabs in Kolkata, India.

Originally, hackney carriage companies were distinguished from each other by their drivers' livery (uniforms) and by the colours of their carriages. For example, at the end of the 19th century in Paris, Compagnie Generale carriages were painted blue, while those of Abeille were painted green ("The Paris Cabman"). During the early years of the twentieth century, private cars were usually black because paints of other colours were not durable. Taxis were the exception, as they would be touched up or worn out. Around the world today, taxi companies are still distinguished by the way their cars are painted. Image File history File links Yellow_cabs. ... Image File history File links Yellow_cabs. ... , “Calcutta” redirects here. ... Rather unusually, these Angels wear white hart (deer) badges, with the personal livery of King Richard II of England, who commissioned this, the Wilton diptych, about 1400 A livery is a uniform or other sign worn in a non-military context on a person or object (such as an airplane... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


North America

In the United States and Canada, many older taxi companies are named according to their paint schemes. Thus, "Yellow Cabs" are painted yellow, Checker taxis have a distinctive black-and-white or black-and-yellow checkerboard stripe around their bodies, "Blue and White Cabs" might have blue bodies and white roofs, and "Black Top" and "Red Top Cabs" have black and red roofs respectively. In the 1920s, a famous company named "Brown and White" lost a lawsuit to prevent other taxi drivers from painting their cars these colors. The original Yellow Cab Company based in Chicago, Illinois is one of the largest taxicab companies still in existence. ... Checker Motors built vehicles reached iconic status as the embodiment of the taxi cab in north America Checker Taxi (Checker Cab) was a taxi produced by the Checker Motors Company of Kalamazoo, Michigan. ...


Some Canadian cities such as Toronto and Vancouver have taxis with their own custom colours, but Montreal-area taxis (mostly mid-size cars such as the Chevrolet Impala and Toyota Camry) remain exactly the same car. For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... A mid-size car, frequently referred to as an intermediate, is an automobile with a size between that of a compact and a full-size or standard-size car. ... 1958 Chevrolet Impala Convertible 1958 Chevrolet Impala Convertible The Chevrolet Impala is an automobile built for the Chevrolet division by General Motors. ... The Toyota Camry is a mid-size sedan assembled by Toyota in Georgetown, Kentucky; Altona, Victoria, Guangzhou, China and the original factory in Toyota City, Japan. ...


In Orange County, Florida, many of the taxicabs are painted orange. Orange County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida. ...


Mexico City's ubiquitous VW Type 1 (Beetle) cabs were green and white (being firstly yellow) by law until early 2003. However, the tiny cars had been displaced by bigger four-door sedans, the Nissan Tsuru, a Sentra MkIII (B13) based saloon and recognized for their red/white (or silver) body colour. No VW are coloured this way anymore. Matchbox released a scale model of the VW taxi in 2004, numbered 31. Nickname: Motto: Capital en movimiento Location of Mexico City in south central Mexico Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... This article is about the original Volkswagen Beetle. ... This article is about the original Volkswagen Beetle. ... This article is about the original Volkswagen Beetle. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Nissan Sentra is a small car made by automaker Nissan Motors and is generally a rebadged export version of the Japanese Nissan Sunny. ... Matchbox Superfast box art. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Asia

Red Taxicabs in Hong Kong

Taxicabs of Hong Kong have three colours based on service area. Red with silver top for urban Hong Kong, green with white top for New Territories and blue with white top for Lantau Island. The colours are to prevent service imbalance between less densely populated areas and urban centres of the territory. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... An urban red taxi in Hong Kong. ... A major road, Kwong Fuk Road in Tai Po, a town in the New Territories. ... Map of Lantau Island, Hong Kong Lantau Island, also Lantao, based on the old local name of Lantau Peak (Traditional Chinese: ; lit. ...


Most taxis in Hong Kong are Toyota Comfort (YXS10 series). This is a mid size rear wheel drive model specially manufactured as commercial use 4 door sedan, and it is very durable. All taxis in Hong Kong are powered by LPG engine nowadays. The Toyota Comfort, released in 1995, is specially made for use as a taxicab. ... LPG might be an initialism or abbreviation for: Liquified petroleum gas Laboratoire de Planetologie, Grenoble, France Literary Press Group of Canada Landwirtschaftliche Produktionsgenossenschaft (German, obsolete/historical) Long period grating This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that...



In Japan,taxicabs have each colors or designs based on company. The majority of Japanese cars are white or silver or black. So most taxis adopt showy colors, such as green, red, and orange, to attract customers' attension.


Most Japanese taxis use three types of cars, Toyota Comfort type(Toyota Crown Comfort, Toyota Comfort, Toyota Crown Sedan), Nissan Crew and Nissan Cedric(Y31 series sedan). The Toyota Comfort, released in 1995, is specially made for use as a taxicab. ... The Toyota Comfort, released in 1995, is specially made for use as a taxicab. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The Nissan Cedric is a large luxurious automobile produced by Nissan since 1960. ...


Recently, some taxi companies have selected Toyota Crown(S170 and S180 series) as a taxi because cars made for taxi (such as Comfort,Crew and Cedric) have very plain interior. The Toyota Crown is a line of full-size luxury sedans by Toyota. ...


Europe

LTI Fairway in London
LTI Fairway in London

In another sense of livery, the Worshipful Company of Hackney Carriage Drivers became a City of London Livery Company in 2004. Download high resolution version (1024x582, 100 KB)London black cab (Hackney carriage) Date: 23rd April 2003 19:27 Camera: Canon Digital Ixus v2 Exposure: 1/20 sec. ... Download high resolution version (1024x582, 100 KB)London black cab (Hackney carriage) Date: 23rd April 2003 19:27 Camera: Canon Digital Ixus v2 Exposure: 1/20 sec. ... Main article: Taxicab The FX4 is the classic London Black Cab. ... Rather unusually, these Angels wear white hart (deer) badges, with the personal livery of King Richard II of England, who commissioned this, the Wilton diptych, about 1400 A livery is a uniform or other sign worn in a non-military context on a person or object (such as an airplane... The Worshipful Company of Hackney Carriage Drivers is one of the Livery Companies of the City of London. ... Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state United Kingdom Constituent country England Region Greater London Status sui generis, City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor John Stuttard  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - City  1. ... Livery Companies are trade associations based in the City of London. ...


In Germany, taxicabs are beige, a look that was officially stipulated by law as Elfenbein a light ivory-color in 1971. In 2005 this legal restriction was lifted, but most taxicab drivers associations and companies still prefer the unified look and visibility of beige. For the album by The Arrogant Worms, see Beige (album). ... Onomastics and disambiguational informations about Helfand, Helphand, Geľfand (Russian: , Yiddish: העלפֿאַנד der helfand); means elephant in Yiddish language. ...


In Greece taxicabs have variable colours, according to the city they are registered. For example, in Athens they are yellow (see: Athens Mercedes Benz E-Class yellow taxicab). In all rural areas, they are usually silver-coloured. In other cities except Athens they have particular colours, such as dark red or dark blue. Cars used as taxis are only 4-door sedan with great luggage space. Mostly used cars as taxis are Mercedes E-class, VW Passat, Skoda Octavia and Toyota Avensis. Most of them in urban areas are equipped with GPS navigation systems. This article is about the capital of Greece. ... A notchback full-size luxury sedan. ...


In Scandinavia there is no particular colour for taxicabs. Various shades of black and silver are the most popular choices of colour. Mostly used cars are Volvo S80/V70, Mercedes C and E-class, Toyota Avensis, Skoda Octavia, VW Passat and Transporter/Caravelle bus and BMW 5-series. For example in Finland they are equipped with GPS navigation and booking system. For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ...


Oceania

In Australia, livery is determined by state legislation. In Victoria, an all-yellow scheme is adopted. In contrast, in Queensland, livery is dependent on which company is operating the dispatch system the taxi uses. In Queensland, there are two dispatch companies only. [citation needed]


In Papua New Guinea, Taxis are usually white vans marked minimally.


Hiring

See also: Taxi stand

Taxis are often "hailed" or "flagged" on the street, either by a passenger as a taxi is driving by, or at a taxi stand (sometimes also called a "cab stand" or "hack stand," also "taxi rank" or "cab rank"). Taxi stands are usually located at airports, railway stations, and hotels, as well as at other places where large numbers of passengers are likely to be found. In some places—Japan, for example—taxi stands are arranged according to the size of the taxis, so that large- and small-capacity cabs line up separately. A taxi stand (also called taxi rank, cab stand, or hack stand) is a queue area on a street or on private property where taxicabs line up to wait for passengers. ... A taxi stand (also called taxi rank, cab stand, or hack stand) is a queue area on a street or on private property where taxicabs line up to wait for passengers. ... A cab rank is a primarily British term for taxi stand, although the phrase has two other uses. ...


Passengers also commonly call a central dispatch office for taxis. Private hire vehicles can only be hired from the dispatch office, and must be assigned each fare by the office by radio or phone. Picking up passengers off the street can lead to suspension or revocation of the driver's taxi license, or even prosecution.


Dispatching

The activity of taxi fleets is usually monitored and controlled by a central office, which provides dispatching, accounting, and human resources services to one or more taxi companies. Taxi owners and drivers usually communicate with the dispatch office through either a 2-way radio or a computer terminal (called a mobile data terminal). Before the innovation of radio dispatch in the 1950s, taxi drivers would use a callbox—a special telephone at a taxi stand—to contact the dispatch office. A dispatch can be: A report sent to a newspaper by a correspondent. ... Computer-assisted dispatch (also called CAD) is a method of dispatching taxicabs, couriers, field service technicians, or emergency services by computer. ... A mobile data terminal (MDT) is a computerized device used in police cars, taxicabs, courier vehicles, service trucks, commercial trucking fleets, military logistics, fishing fleets, warehouse inventory control, and emergency vehicles to communicate with a central dispatch office. ... For the worship band, see Call Box. ...


When a customer calls for a taxi, a trip is dispatched by either radio or computer, via an in-vehicle mobile data terminal, to the most suitable cab. The most suitable cab may either be the one closest to the pick-up address (often determined by GPS coordinates nowadays) or the one that was the first to book in to the "zone" surrounding the pickup address. Cabs are sometimes dispatched from their taxi stands; a call to "Top of the 2" means that the first cab in line at stand #2 is supposed to pick someone up. A mobile data terminal (MDT) is a computerized device used in police cars, taxicabs, courier vehicles, service trucks, commercial trucking fleets, military logistics, fishing fleets, warehouse inventory control, and emergency vehicles to communicate with a central dispatch office. ... Over fifty GPS satellites such as this NAVSTAR have been launched since 1978. ...


In offices using radio dispatch, taxi locations are often tracked using magnetic "pegs" on a "board"—a metal sheet with an engraved map of taxi zones. In computerized dispatch, the status of taxis is tracked by the computer system.


Taxi frequencies are generally licensed in duplex pairs. One frequency is used for the dispatcher to talk to the cabs, and a second frequency is used to the cabs to talk back. This means that the drivers generally cannot talk to each other. Some cabs have a CB radio in addition to the company radio so they can speak to each other. Citizens band radio (CB) is, in the United States, a system of short distance radio communication between individuals on a selection of 40 channels within the single 27 MHz (11 meter) band. ...


In the United States, there is a Taxicab Radio Service with pairs assigned for this purpose. A taxi company can also be licensed in the Business Radio Service. Business frequencies in the UHF range are also licensed in pairs to allow for repeaters, though taxi companies usually use the pair for duplex communications. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Some companies don't operate their own radio system and instead subscribe to an Specialized Mobile Radio system. The conventional radios are most suited to companies that operate within the local area and have a high volume of radio traffic. The SMR is more commonly used by black car services that cover a wider area, and smaller companies who use less airtime and don't want to run their own radio systems. With the advent of Public Data Networks in the 1990s, operators are beginning to use PDAs and advanced mobile phones for dispatching and tracking functions in lieu of the traditional radio. Some small car services don't use a dispatcher at all. Instead the customers' calls are forwarded to the cell phones of whichever drivers are on duty at the time. A Public Data Network is a network established and operated by a telecommunications administration, or a recognized private operating agency, for the specific purpose of providing data transmission services for the public. ... Look up Personal digital assistant in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Fares

For the distance travelled, the fare for a taxi is usually higher than for other forms of public transport (bus, tram, metro, minicab, train, bike). The fare is not based on the number of people travelling together in a taxi unless it is a 'maxi-taxi' (which can carry up to 8 people). Another system is one where more than one customer shares the same taxi and fares are per person. Fares are usually calculated according to a combination of 4 elements: Tariff rate, Initial flag fall, distance and waiting time. A taximeter calculates this automatically ("meter" for short and the origin of the word "taxi"). Instead of a metered fare, passengers sometimes pay a flat fare. In some areas, when demand is high—for instance, late at night—a taxi driver may pick up the customer offering the highest bid (this practice may be against the law). Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Bangkok Skytrain. ... “Autobus” redirects here. ... This article refers to public transport vehicles running on rails. ... A rapid transit, underground, subway, tube, elevated, or metro(politan) system is a railway — usually in an urban area — with a high capacity and frequency of service, and grade separation from other traffic. ... For other uses, see Train (disambiguation). ... This mountain bicycle features oversized tires, a sturdy frame, front shock absorbers, and handlebars oriented perpendicular to the bikes axis Bicycle may also refer to Bicycle Playing Cards. ... A taximeter is a mechanical or electronic device installed in taxicabs, similar to an odometer, which calculates passenger fares based on a combination of distance travelled and waiting time. ...


Navigation

Inside Japanese taxicab in Kyoto with GPS navigation on board.
Inside Japanese taxicab in Kyoto with GPS navigation on board.

Most experienced taxi drivers who have been working in the same city or region for a while would be expected to know the most important streets and places where their customers might want to go. However, to aid the process of manual navigation and the taxi driver's memory (and the customer's as well at times) a cab driver is usually equipped with a detailed roadmap of the area in which they work. There is also an increasing use of GPS driven navigational systems in the more wealthy countries around the world. Download high resolution version (802x546, 106 KB)Taxi ride through Kyoto, GPS navigation system installed. ... Download high resolution version (802x546, 106 KB)Taxi ride through Kyoto, GPS navigation system installed. ... Kyoto )   is a city in the central part of the island of HonshÅ«, Japan. ... Over fifty GPS satellites such as this NAVSTAR have been launched since 1978. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Global Navigation Satellite System. ... Table of geography, hydrography, and navigation, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ... Look up Roadmap in Wiktionary, the free dictionary A roadmap (or road map) may be: A travel map showing the roads; it may or may not also show railways. ... Over fifty GPS satellites such as this NAVSTAR have been launched since 1978. ...


In London, despite the complex and haphazard road layout, such aids have only recently been employed by a small number of 'black cab' taxi (as opposed to minicab) drivers. Instead, they are required to undergo a demanding process of learning and testing called The Knowledge. This typically takes around three years and equips them with a detailed command of 25,000 streets within central London, major routes outside this area, and all buildings and other destinations to which passengers may ask to be taken.[2] Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Pollution concerns

A project, designed at understanding exposure to air pollution in an urban environment and looking at five transport methods for travelling across London, was carried out by a team from Imperial College London and the Health and Safety Laboratory, Buxton. Affiliations Russell Group Association of MBAs IDEA League Association of Commonwealth Universities Golden Triangle Oak Ridge Associated Universities Nobel laureates 14 Website http://www. ... The Health and Safety Executive (HSE), reporting to the Health and Safety Commission, is the British government body responsible for the regulation of risks to health and safety in the UK. It was created as a result of the Health and Safety at Work, etc, Act 1974, and has since... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


The results, published in the journal Atmospheric Environment in January 2006, showed that the level of pollution that people are exposed to differs according to the mode of transport that they use. The most risky method of transport was the back seat of a taxicab, followed by travelling by bus, cycling, walking, with a private car exposing people to the lowest amount of pollution.[3]


International Trade Association

Established in 1917, the Taxicab, Limousine & Paratransit Association (TLPA) is a non-profit trade association of and for the private passenger transportation industry. The membership spans the globe to include 1,100 taxicab companies, executive sedan and limousine services, airport shuttle fleets, non-emergency medical transportation companies, and paratransit services. Look up limousine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Paratransit is an alternative mode of flexible passenger transportation that does not follow fixed routes or schedules. ...


References

  1. ^ "taximeter", The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition, Bartleby, 2000
  2. ^ "The Knowledge Boys", Scientific American Frontiers
  3. ^ "Taking A Taxi Could Increase Your Exposure To Pollution", Science Daily, January 11, 2006

See also

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Taxi

  Results from FactBites:
 
taxicab: Definition and Much More From Answers.com (4075 words)
Taxicab fleet owners and organizations are included, regardless of whether drivers are hired or rent their cabs or are otherwise compensated.
Taxicab, short forms taxi or cab, is a type of public transport for a single passenger, or small group of passengers, typically for a non-shared ride.
A taxicab is a vehicle for hire which conveys passengers between locations of their choice.
An Economic Analysis of Taxicab Regulation in Portland, Oregon (14763 words)
At the behest of the taxicab industry, City Council is now seeking a cooperative effort between the City, which regulates taxicabs, and the Port of Portland, which regulates ground transportation at the airport, to address "economic equity and public safety issues" for non-taxicab operations.
Taxicabs, and paratransit more generally, effectively bridge the gap between private, single passenger automobiles - which cause too much congestion, waste travel time, and consume inordinate quantities of fuel - and public transit - which is overcrowded during peak periods, provides limited service during the off-peak, and operates on inflexible routes.
Taxicabs are typically regulated as "common carriers", meaning that they provide transportation services to the general public in return for compensation, and are required to serve everyone who is able to pay[13] (Cervero, 1997).
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