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Encyclopedia > Tattoo machine
Traditional 2 coil tattoo machine 4 views
U.S. Patent 196,747 , Stencil-Pens
U.S. Patent 196,747 , Stencil-Pens

A tattoo machine is a hand-held device for creating a tattoo, i.e., a permanent marking of the skin with ink. Modern tattoo machines use alternating electromagnetic coils to move a needle bar up and down, driving pigment into the skin. Tattoo artists generally use the word "machine", or even "iron", to refer to their equipment, while amateurs and collectors often use the term "gun". Traditional 2 coil tattoo machine 4 views File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Traditional 2 coil tattoo machine 4 views File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Tattoo (disambiguation). ... In zootomy and dermatology, skin is the largest organ of the integumentary system made up of multiple layers of epithelial tissues that guard underlying muscles and organs. ... An ink is a liquid containing various pigments and/or dyes used for coloring a surface to render an image or text. ...

The basic machine was invented by Thomas Edison and patented in the United States in 1876 U.S. Patent 196,747 , Stencil-Pens. It was originally intended to be used as an engraving device, but in 1891, Samuel O'Reilly discovered that Edison's machine could be modified and used to introduce ink into the skin, and later patented a tube and needle system to provide an ink reservoir. Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 – October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman who developed many devices which greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph and a long lasting light bulb. ... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Samuel OReilly was the inventor of the modern tattoo gun, which he patented in 1891, based upon Thomas Edisons autographic printer. ...

The technology used to make modern tattoo machines has come a long way, however. While O'Reilly's machine was based on the rotary technology of Edison's engraving device, modern tattoo machines use electromagnets. The first machine based on this technology was a single coil machine patented by Thomas Riley of London, just twenty days after O'Reilly filed the patent for his rotary machine. For his machine, Riley placed a modified door bell assembly in a brass box. The modern two coil configuration was patented by Alfred Charles South, also of London. Because it was so heavy, a spring was often attached to the top of the machine and the ceiling to take most of the weight off the operator's hand. An electromagnet is a type of magnet in which the magnetic field is induced by a flow of electric current. ... A coil is a series of loops. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...

Most modern tattoo machines can control needle depth, speed, and force of application, which has allowed tattooing to become a very precise art form. Such advancements in precision have also produced a style of facial tattooing that has attained mainstream popularity in America called dermapigmentation, or "permanent cosmetics". Permanent makeup is a cosmetic technique which employs tattoos (permanent pigmentation of the dermis) as a means of producing designs that resemble makeup, such as eyelining (eye shadows and mascara) and other permanent enhancing colors to the skin of the face, lips and eyelids. ...

How it works

The machine works similar to alternating current—charge causes magnets to pull downward on a bar, which disconnects the circuit and allows the upward force of the spring to pull the bar back to its initial position. schematic for tattoo gun File links The following pages link to this file: Tattoo gun Categories: GFDL images ... City lights viewed in a motion blurred exposure. ...

  1. Power is conducted by wires in two different directions: Through the coils to the adjustable contact screw (E), and through the frame (A) to the contact spring, (above C), via the armature spring (D).
  2. Current, flowing between the contact screw and the contact spring, completes the circuit, causing:
  3. The electromagnetic coils (B) to pull down on the armature bar (C), which causes:
  4. The needle bar (F) to move down with it, the needles at the end of the needle bar penetrate the surface of the skin.
  5. With the circuit at (2) broken, the armature spring (D) is free to release its upward force (created by the tension on the rear spring or back of a single piece spring), causing the circuit to close with the contact made, again, at (2).

Depending on several elements including speed of the machine, weight of the armature bar, gauge and shape of the spring system, and type of spring / armature bar system (1 vs. 2 piece springs, conventional vs "Tru-Spring," modified armature bars etc), the return force of the armature bar and spring to the contact screw will likely cause a varying level of flex in the front of the spring which can cause the duty cycle (essentially the time the circuit is open vs. the time it is closed) to be off balanced. While a slight off balance in the duty cycle can be advantageous if used properly, it should generally range around 45 to 50% which means that the circuit is on average roughly closed as much as it is open.

The frame (A) is usually a conductive material such as iron, brass, or copper, with plastic bushings at the contact points to isolate the current from the frame (although some frames are made of non-conductive materials with a yoke to connect the coils to the wiring, thus completing the circuit). The capacitor (pink) regulates current flow. The needle tube (G) provides a grip for the artist's control, and a small reservoir at the tip for ink.

The needle(s) (small; not shown), are soldered to a needle bar (F). Needles are soldered in various configurations and number, much like the hair of paintbrushes, depending on the desired coverage. The tube's size, at the mouth, must be appropriate to accommodate the width of the needle grouping. A solder is a fusible metal alloy, with a melting point or melting range of 180-190°C (360-370 °F), which is melted to join metallic surfaces, especially in the fields of electronics and plumbing, in a process called soldering. ...

Each artist will tune their tattoo machines in a way most appropriate to the way they tattoo. Proper force needs to be present to ensure the needles can penetrate into the upper layers of skin and varies mostly only in the power and running variances from machine to machine, and also in force needs based on the amount, configuration, and type of needle. Stroke length, and speed at which the tattoo machine runs can vary greatly from one artist to another based on many factors including an artist's hand speed and personal style of tattooing.

Tattooing is a skilled art form and practice which takes a lot of training and education in not only art skills and machine building but bloodborne pathogens among many other subjects, these are things that CANNOT BE LEARNED AS AN AMATUER, and can only be learned under the direct instruction from a licensed experienced artist, inside of a licensed shop. serious injury can occur from improper tattooing practices, as well as severe scarring or infection. if you want to tattoo, learn the right way



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