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Encyclopedia > Tatra mountains
Tatras
Panorama of Tatras

The Tatra Mountains, Tatras or Tatra (Tatry in both Slovak and Polish), constitute a mountain range which forms a natural border between Slovakia and Poland. They occupy an area of 750km², the major part (600km²) of which lies in Slovakia. The highest Tatra peak, at 2655m, is Gerlachovský štít, located in Slovakia. Rysy, at 2499m, is the highest Polish peak. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1340x625, 402 KB) Highest peaks of Tatra mountains. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1340x625, 402 KB) Highest peaks of Tatra mountains. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 133 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 200 pixel, file size: 187 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tatra mountains ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 133 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 200 pixel, file size: 187 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tatra mountains ... For exotic financial options, see Mountain range (options). ... Gerlachov Peak or Gerlachovský Peak (Slovak: Gerlachovský Å¡tít meaning peak of [the village] Gerlachov) or - based on the colloquial or old name- Gerlach Peak (Slovak:Gerlach) is the highest peak of the Tatra mountains, of Slovakia and of the whole Carpathians. ... Rysy (Hungarian: , German: ) is a mountain in the crest of the High Tatras, at the Polish-Slovak border. ...


The Tatra Mountains are the highest mountain range in the Carpathian Mountains. Although considerably smaller than the Alps, they are classified as having an alpine landscape. Their high mountain character, combined with great accessibility, makes them popular with tourist and scientists. Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

Description

The area is a well-known winter sports area, with resorts such as Poprad and the town (Mesto) Vysoké Tatry in Slovakia (in English literally (Town of the) High Tatras; created in 1999 and including the former separate resorts Štrbské Pleso, Starý Smokovec, and Tatranská Lomnica), and Zakopane, the "Winter Capital" of Poland. A winter sport is a sport commonly played during winter, usually a sport played on snow or ice. ... Poprad (Hungarian: Poprád, German: Deutschendorf) is a town in northern Slovakia at the foot of the High Tatra Mountains. ... Vysoké Tatry (literally High Tatras), informally Mesto Vysoké Tatry (literally The Town of High Tatras ), is a town in the High Tatras in Slovakia regrouping all major resorts in the High Tatras. ... Resorts combine a hotel and a variety of recreations, such as swimming pools. ... Å trbské Pleso is a settlement, a ski and health resort, in the High Tatras in Slovakia. ... Starý Smokovec (pronounced approximately Star-EE Smoke-oh-vets) is a town in northeastern Slovakia, at the base of the Tatras mountains. ... Tatranská Lomnica is a town in the Slovakian part of the High Tatras mountains. ... Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat Tatra County Gmina Zakopane Estabilished 17th century City Rights 1933 Government  - Mayor Janusz Majcher Area  - Town 84 km²  (32. ...


The Tatras consist of:

  • Western Tatras (Slovak: Západné Tatry, Polish: Tatry Zachodnie)
  • Eastern Tatras (Východné Tatry, Tatry Wschodnie), which consists of:
    • High Tatras (Vysoké Tatry, Tatry Wysokie)
    • Belianske Tatras (Belianske Tatry, Tatry Bielskie).

The High Tatras, with their 24 (or 25) peaks over 2500m above sea level, are, together with the Southern Carpathians, the only mountain ranges with an Alpine character in the whole 1200km length of the Carpathian Mountain range. The West Tatras form part of the European Tatra mountain range on the Polish-Slovak frontier. ... The Eastern Tatras form part of the European Tatra mountain range in Poland and Slovakia. ... Mountain huts such as this one half way up Lomnický Å¡tít are a common sight in the High Tatras. ... , Belianske Tatras (Slovak: ) is a mountain range in the Eastern Tatras in North Central Slovakia. ... Southern Carpathians (also called Transylvanian Alps; in Romanian: Carpaţii Meridionali) are located between the Prahova river in the east and the Timiş river and Cerna river in the west. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Štrbské Pleso in the High Tatras, Slovakia

The Tatras should be distinguished from another Slovak mountain range, the Low Tatras (in Slovak Nízke Tatry), situated south of the Tatras. Sometimes, however, the term 'Tatras' is used freely to refer to both the Tatras and the Low Tatras. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1321x500, 186 KB) Summary Author: Ján Ťažký; Original URL: http://nemcok. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1321x500, 186 KB) Summary Author: Ján Ťažký; Original URL: http://nemcok. ... Å trbské Pleso is a settlement, a ski and health resort, in the High Tatras in Slovakia. ... Mount Dumbier (right) and Mount Chopok (middle) The Low Tatra or Low Tatras (Slovak Nízke Tatry) is a mountain range in central eastern Slovakia. ...


Landscape

The Tatra Mountains (especially the High Tatras) are known to have undergone four glaciations. The most extensive transformations were caused by a glacier 100-230 m thick; the most apparent features of this process are the numerous cirques and mountain lakes. The mountains were shaped by glacial erosion, which formed many alpine cliffs, some up to 1,000 m high. For other uses, see Cirque (disambiguation). ...


Climate

The Mountains lie in the temperate zone of Central Europe. They are an important barrier to the movements of air masses. Their mountainous topography causes the most diverse climate in that region. In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ...


The effects of global warming in the Tatra Mountains started to be visible around the 1980s.


Winds

The average wind speed on the summits is 6 m/s.

  • southerly winds on the northern side
  • westerly winds at the base of Tatra (Orawa-Nowy Targ Basin)
  • foehn winds (Polish: halny) most often occur between October and May. They are warm and dry and could cause extensive damage.

A foehn wind occurs when a deep layer of prevailing wind is forced over a mountain range. ... Halny – föhn wind that blows in southern Poland in the Carpathian Mountains. ...

Temperature

Temperatures range from -40 °C in the winter to 33 °C in warmer months. Temperatures also vary depending on altitude and sun exposure of a given slope. Temperatures below 0 °C last for 192 days on the summits.


Precipitation

Highest precipitation figures are recorded on northern slopes. In June and July monthly precipitation reaches around 250 mm. Precipitation occurs for 215 to 228 days a year. Thunderstorms occur 36 days a year on average. MM or variations may refer to: Machinists Mate, a rating in the United States Navys engineering community Macromedia, an American software company Majoras Mask, a game in the Legend of Zelda series of games Malice Mizer, a Japanese visual kei band Market maker, a person or a... A rolling thundercloud over Enschede, The Netherlands. ...


Snow cover

Maximum thickness on the summit amounts to around 320 cm in March. Peaks are sometimes covered with snow throughout the year. Avalanches are frequent.


Flora

Delphinium oxysepalum from the genus Delphinium near Tatranská Lomnica

The Mountains have a diverse variety of plants. They are home to more than 1,000 vascular plants, about 450 mosses, 200 hepatics, 700 lichens, 900 fungi, and 70 slime moulds. There are five climatic-vegetation belts in Tatras: Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (768 × 1024 pixel, file size: 266 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (768 × 1024 pixel, file size: 266 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Species See text Delphinium is a genus of about 250 species of annual, biennial or perennial flowering plants in the buttercup family Ranunculaceae, native throughout the Northern Hemisphere and also on the high mountains of tropical Africa. ... Tatranská Lomnica is a town in the Slovakian part of the High Tatras mountains. ... Divisions Non-seed-bearing plants Equisetophyta Lycopodiophyta Psilotophyta Pteridophyta Superdivision Spermatophyta Pinophyta Cycadophyta Ginkgophyta Gnetophyta Magnoliophyta The vascular plants are those plants that have specialized cells for conducting water and sap within their tissues, including the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, but not mosses, algae, and the like (nonvascular... This is an article about the plant. ... Classes and Orders Jungermanniopsida Stotler & Stotl. ... For other things named Lichen, see: Lichen (disambiguation). ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Typical orders Protostelia    Protosteliida Myxogastria    Liceida    Echinosteliida    Trichiida    Stemonitida    Physarida Dictyostelia    Dictyosteliida Slime moulds are peculiar protists that normally take the form of amoebae, but under certain conditions develop fruiting bodies that release spores, superficially similar to the sporangia of fungi. ...


The distribution of plants depends on altitude:

  • up to 1,300 m: Carpathian beech forest; almost no shrub layer, herb layer occupies most of the forest floor
  • to 1,550 m: Spruce forest; shrub layer poorly developed, mosses are a major component
  • to 1,800 m: Mountain Pine, numerous herbs
  • to 2,300 m: high altitude grasslands
  • from 2,300m up: Subnivean - bare rock and almost no vegetation (mostly lichens)

For other uses, see Beech (disambiguation). ... Species About 35; see text. ... Binomial name Pinus mugo Turra Mountain Pine or Mugo Pine (Pinus mugo) is a high altitude European pine, found in the Pyrenees, Alps, Erzgebirge, Carpathians, northern Appennines and Balkan Peninsula mountains from (mostly) 1,000 m to 2,200 m, occasionally as low as 200 m in the north of... Subnivean refers to a zone that is in or under the snow layer. ... For other things named Lichen, see: Lichen (disambiguation). ...

Fauna

The Tatra Mountains are home to a lot of species of animals: 54 tardigrades, 22 turbellarians, 100 rotifers, 22 copepods, 162 spiders, 81 molluscs, 43 mammals, 200 birds, 7 amphibians and 2 reptiles. Electron Micrograph of a Tardigrade Classes Heterotardigrada Mesotardigrada Eutardigrada Tardigrades (Tardigrada), or water bears, are a phylum of small, segmented animals, similar and related to the Arthropods. ... Orders (Acoela) Catenulida Haplopharyngida Lecithoepitheliata Macrostomida (Nemertodermata) Polycladida Prolecithophora Rhabdocoela Seriata Temnocephalida Turbellaria are a group of generally small (<1 - 60cm) and free-living members of the flatworm phylum Platyhelminthes. ... Classes Seisonoidea Bdelloidea Monogononta The rotifers make up a phylum of microscopic, pseudocoelomate animals. ... Orders Calanoida Cyclopoida Gelyelloida Harpacticoida Misophrioida Monstrilloida Mormonilloida Platycopioida Poecilostomatoida Siphonostomatoida Copepods are small, aquatic animals living in the sea and nearly every freshwater habitat, a form of plankton, specifically zooplankton, some copepods are parasitic. ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora - Chitons Monoplacophora Bivalvia - Bivalves Scaphopoda - Tusk shells Gastropoda - Snails and Slugs Cephalopoda - Squids, Octopuses, etc. ... For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). ...


The most notable mammals are the Tatra chamois, marmot, snow vole, brown bear, wolf, Eurasian lynx, red deer, roe deer, and wild boar. Notable fish include the brook trout and alpine bullhead. Binomial name (Blahout, 1971/1972) The Tatra chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra tatrica; Slovak: Kamzík vrchovský tatranský; Polish: Kozica tatrzańska) is a subspecies of the Chamois of the Rupicapra genus. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Ursus arctos range map. ... Wolf Wolf Man Mount Wolf Wolf Prizes Wolf Spider Wolf 424 Wolf 359 Wolf Point Wolf-herring Frank Wolf Friedrich Wolf Friedrich August Wolf Hugo Wolf Johannes Wolf Julius Wolf Max Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf Maximilian Wolf Rudolf Wolf Thomas Wolf As Name Wolf Breidenbach Wolf Hirshorn Other The call... Binomial name Lynx lynx (Linnaeus, 1758) The Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx) is a medium-sized cat of European and Siberian forests, where it is one of the major predators. ... Binomial name Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, 1758 Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) is one of the largest species of deer in the world. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The European Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) is a deer species of Europe, Asia Minor, and Caspian coastal regions. ... Binomial name Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 The Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) is the wild ancestor of the domesticated pig. ... Binomial name (Mitchill, 1814) The brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) is a species of fish in the salmon family (family Salmonidae) of order Salmoniformes. ...


The endemic species include the caddis fly, spider Xysticus alpicola and wingless springtail. Endemic, in a broad sense, can mean belonging or native to, characteristic of, or prevalent in a particular geography, race, field, area, or environment; Native to an area or scope. ... Caddis fly: small moth-like insect having two pairs of hairy membranous wings and aquatic larvae, found near lakes and streams. ...


Human involvement

Visible consequences of 2004 storm.

The Tatra Mountains were used in the 18th and 19th centuries for sheep grazing and mining and a lot of trees were cut down to make way for human exploitation. Although these activities were stopped, the impact is still clearly visible. Moreover, there are new problems. Pollution from the industrialized regions of Kraków, Ostrava and Orava and uncontrolled tourism are damaging the mountains. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 396 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Consequences of 2004 storm in Tatra National Park. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 396 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Consequences of 2004 storm in Tatra National Park. ... For other uses, see Krakow (disambiguation). ... Czech Republic Moravian-Silesian Ostrava 23  - Moravská Ostrava a Přívoz  - Hošťálkovice  - Hrabová  - Ostrava-Jih  - Krásné Pole  - Lhotka  - Mariánské Hory a Hulváky  - Martinov  - Michálkovice  - Nová BÄ›lá  - Nová Ves  - PetÅ™kovice  - Plesná  - Polanka nad Odrou  - Poruba  - Proskovice  - Pustkovec  - Radvanice a Bartovice  - Stará BÄ›lá  - Slezsk... Orava is the name of: A historic administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary (see Orava (county)) A river in Slovakia (see Orava (river) A castle in Slovakia (see Orava (castle)) A reservoir in Slovakia (see Orava (reservoir)) A village in Estonia (see Orava (village)) This is a disambiguation...


The Slovak Tatra National Park (Tatranský národný park; TANAP) was founded in 1949, and the contiguous Polish Tatra National Park (Tatrzański Park Narodowy) was founded in 1954. Both areas were added to the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve list in 1993. Tatra(s) National Park (Slovak: Tatranský národný park; abbr. ... Tatra National Park (Polish: ) is located in the southern part of Poland, in [[], by the border with Slovakia. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... The World Network of Biosphere Reserves was established at the International Conference on Biosphere Reserves in Seville in 1995. ...


On 19 November 2004, large parts of the forests in the southern part of the High Tatras were damaged by a strong wind storm. 3 million cubic metre of trees were uprooted, two people died and several villages were totally cut off. Further damage was done by a subsequent forest fire, and it will take many years until the local ecology is fully recovered. A windstorm is a severe weather condition indicated by high winds. ... Fire in San Bernardino, California Mountains (image taken from the International Space Station) A wildfire, also known as a forest fire, vegetation fire, grass fire, or bushfire (in Australasia), is an uncontrolled fire in wildland often caused by lightning; other common causes are human carelessness and arson. ... This article is about the natural environment. ...


Mountain peaks

Tatras view from Rysy, Poland/Slovakia
In Eastern Tatras:
  • Gerlachovský štít - 2654 m. (Slovakia)
  • Lomnický štít - 2634 m. (Slovakia)
  • Rysy - 2503 m. (Slovakia/Poland)
  • Kriváň - 2495 m. (Slovakia)
  • Slavkovský štít - 2452 m. (Slovakia)
  • Svinica (Slovak); Świnica (Polish) - 2301 m. (Slovakia/Poland)
  • Široká - 2210 m. (Slovakia)
  • Havran - 2151 m. (Slovakia)
  • Veľká kopa - 2052 m. (Slovakia)
  • Kasprowy Wierch - 1987 m. (Slovakia/Poland)
  • Brestová - 1934 m. (Slovakia)
  • Sivý vrch - 1809 m. (Slovakia)
  • Osobita - 1687 m. (Slovakia)
In Western Tatras:
  • Bystrá - 2248 m. (Slovakia)
  • Baranec - 2184 m. (Slovakia)
  • Banikov/Banówka - 2178 m. (Slovakia)
  • Klin/Starobociański Wierch - 2176 m. (Slovakia/Poland)
  • Volovec - 2064 m. (Slovakia/Poland)
  • Giewont - 1894 m. (Poland)

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (819x614, 156 KB)GFDL ,Tatra view from Rysy, Zakopane, Poland, Marek Silarski File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (819x614, 156 KB)GFDL ,Tatra view from Rysy, Zakopane, Poland, Marek Silarski File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Eastern Tatras form part of the European Tatra mountain range in Poland and Slovakia. ... Gerlachov Peak or Gerlachovský Peak (Slovak: Gerlachovský štít meaning peak of [the village] Gerlachov) or - based on the colloquial or old name- Gerlach Peak (Slovak:Gerlach) is the highest peak of the Tatra mountains, of Slovakia and of the whole Carpathians. ... Lomnický štít (Lomnický peak) is one of the highest and most visited mountain peaks in the High Tatras mountains, in Slovakia. ... Rysy (Hungarian: , German: ) is a mountain in the crest of the High Tatras, at the Polish-Slovak border. ... Kriváň (2494 m) is a peak at the western border of the High Tatras in Slovakia. ... Slavkovský štít viewed from the south, in Starý Smokovec. ... Świnica (Polish) or Svinica (Slovak) is a mountain in the main crest of the High Tatras, on the Polish-Slovak border. ... Havran means crow in Slovak language. ... Kasprowy Wierch is a mountain in Western Tatry. ... The West Tatras form part of the European Tatra mountain range on the Polish-Slovak frontier. ... Bystrá is a mountain in the Western Tatra mountains, in Slovakia near the border of [[Poland]. It is 2248 m high, and is surrounded by the valleys Kamienista, Raczkowa and Bystra. ... Mt Klin is a peak in the High Tatras mountains, on the border of Slovakia and Poland. ... Giewont is a famous mountain in the Tatra Mountains in Poland. ...

Bibliography

Ján Lacika, Tatras (2nd edition), Bratislava 2006. ISBN 80-88975-95-6


External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Tatra Mountains
  • Town of Vysoké Tatry - municipal website
  • Zakopane - municipal website
  • TANAP - Slovak Tatra National Park
  • TPN - Polish Tatra National Park (Polish)

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

Commercial tourism-oriented websites

  • Tatry.cz -travel guide (mainly Slovak side)
  • Go-Zakopane.com - travel guide (mainly Polish side)

Mountaineering

Photography

Coordinates: 49°10′N, 20°08′E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Tatra Mountains (320 words)
The Polish Tatras are considerably a small part of the entire range and constitute only one-fifth of the entire range of Tatras, while the rest of the range is situated on the Slovakian side.
However, the Polish Tatras are blessed with some of the most spectacular views – for instance, the most beautiful nook of the High Tatras (one section of the Tatras) Dolina Rybiego Potoku, and the most scenic valley in the Western Tatras, Dolina Koscieliska, are both situated in the Polish section of the Tatras.
The Tatras draw over three million visitors through out the year and as expected, tourism is the largest industry of the area.
Tatra Mountains - LoveToKnow 1911 (282 words)
TATRA MOUNTAINS (Hungarian Tarczal) or the High Tatra, the highest group in the central Carpathians, and the central group of the whole Carpathian system.
The Tatra Mountains extend through the Hungarian counties of Lipt6 and Szepes, and with their northern extremities also through the Austrian crownland of Galicia, and have a length of 4 o m.
The principal valleys, which lie at an altitude of 2600 to 3250 ft. above sea-level, and present some of the wildest scenery, are: the Kohlbach Valley, the Felka Valley, the Valley of Mengsdorf, the Javorina Valley, the Kotlina Valley, in which is the stalactite cavern of Bela, and the Bielka Valley.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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