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Encyclopedia > Tategaki
Nihongo (meaning "Japanese language"), written vertically in kanji
Nihongo (meaning "Japanese language"), written vertically in kanji

Yokogaki (横書き, "horizontal writing", also known as yokogumi, 横組み) and tategaki (縦書き, "vertical writing", also known as tategumi, 縦組み) are two forms of Japanese writing. Created by User:Chameleon for Wikipedia. ... Created by User:Chameleon for Wikipedia. ... Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Romaji ローマ字 Category Kanji (   漢字[?], literally Han characters) are Chinese characters used in Japanese. ... Nihongo (meaning Japanese language), written in kanji This article describes the modern Japanese writing system and its history. ...


Traditionally, Japanese was written vertically in columns going from top to bottom and ordered from right to left, with each new column starting to the left of the preceeding one. This format is the same as that of Chinese, and the stroke order and stroke direction of Chinese and Japanese characters is designed to facilitate writing in this manner. Outline of the character 永, showing stroke order and direction. ... Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Romaji ローマ字 For other meanings of Kana, see Kana (disambiguation). ...


In modern times, Japanese is also written horizontally from left to right with successive rows going from top to bottom, in a manner identical to that of European languages such as English. This style is known as yokogaki. It originally came in to Japanese in the Meiji era when the Japanese tried to print dictionaries for Western languages. Initially the dictionaries were printed in a mixture of horizontal Western and vertical Japanese text, which meant the book had to be rotated ninety degrees in order to read the Japanese. Because this was unwieldy, the idea of yokogaki came to be accepted. One of the first publications to partially use yokogaki was a German to Japanese dictionary (袖珍挿図独和辞書, Shūchinsōzu Dokuwa Jisho, "pocket illustrated German to Japanese dictionary") published in 1885 (Meiji 18). Most of the many indigenous languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family. ... History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei The Meiji period (Japanese: Meiji Jidai 明治時代 ) (1868–1912...

Contents


Differences

Kanji and kana can be written horizontally or vertically, although there are some styles of kanji and kana, such as sōsho, which are not suitable for horizontal writing. There are some small differences in orthography. In horizontal writing it is more common to use Arabic numerals, whereas Chinese numerals are more common in vertical text. The chōon mark, ー, which indicates a long vowel, is written going downwards in tategaki and going sideways in yokogaki. Punctuation, for example the position of commas and full stops, also differs. Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Romaji ローマ字 Category Kanji (   漢字[?], literally Han characters) are Chinese characters used in Japanese. ... Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Romaji ローマ字 For other meanings of Kana, see Kana (disambiguation). ... Also known as Cursive Calligraphy. ... The orthography of a language is the set of rules of how to write correctly in the writing system of a language. ... Arabic numerals (also called Hindu numerals or Indian numerals ) are the most common set of symbols used to represent numbers. ... Today, speakers of Chinese use three numeral systems: the ubiquitous system of Arabic numerals, along with two ancient Chinese numeral systems. ... This page lists Japanese typographic symbols which are not included in kana or kanji. ... In linguistics, vowel length is the duration of a vowel sound. ...


Where a text is written in yokogaki format, pages are read in the same order as English books, with the binding at the left and pages progressing to the right. Tategaki books are printed the other way round, with the binding at the right, and pages progressing to the left.


Ruby characters, (rubi, or furigana), which provide a phonetic guide for unusual or difficult to read characters, follow the direction of the main text (rubi shown in red): Ruby characters, also called ruby, rubi or furigana, are sometimes used in the typography of ideographic languages, especially Japanese and Chinese. ... Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Romaji ローマ字 Category Furigana (Japanese: ふりがな), are a Japanese reading aid. ...


or
かん

Rōmaji is usually written horizontally, or turned sideways when it appears in vertical text, with the base of the characters on the left. Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Romaji ローマ字 The title given to this article lacks diacritics because of certain technical limitations. ...


Right-to-left horizontal writing

The word kasutera (カステラ) written from right to left on the right-hand side of a festival stall
The word kasutera (カステラ) written from right to left on the right-hand side of a festival stall

Right-to-left horizontal writing is seen in Japan, China, and Korea, for example on signs, on the right-hand side of vehicles, and on the right-hand side of stands selling food at festivals. It is also used to simulate archaic writing, for example in reconstructions of old Japan for tourists. Download high resolution version (850x638, 232 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (850x638, 232 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Vendor sells kasutera at a festival in Hakone Kasutera (カステラ) is a sponge cake made of sugar, flour, eggs, and starch syrup. ...


Historically, vertical writing was the mainstream, and horizontal writing was only used for technical reasons such as for fitting on a horizontal sign, for example over the gates of temples. This was a special form of tategaki, with one-character columns going from right to left. In the pre-WW2 era, single-column right-to-left writing was commonly used where left-to-right writing has now become standard. For example, right-to-left horizontal writing was used in newspaper captions and titles.


At the very beginning of the change to yokogaki, in the Meiji era, there was a short-lived form called migi yokogaki (右横書き, literally "right yokogaki"), in contrast to hidari yokogaki, (左横書き, literally "left yokogaki"), the current standard. This resembled the right-to-left horizontal writing style of languages such as Arabic with line breaks on the left hand side of the page. It was probably based on the traditional single-column right-to-left writing. This form was never widely used, and has not survived. History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei The Meiji period (Japanese: Meiji Jidai 明治時代 ) (1868–1912... Arabic (العربية al-arabiyyah, or less formally arabi) is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ...


Usage

An anti-smoking campaign advertisement on a Tokyo train, combining horizontal writing in Japanese and English.

Both tategaki and yokogaki are used in Japan today. Image File history File links Antismoking_ad,_Tokyo. ... Image File history File links Antismoking_ad,_Tokyo. ...


Tategaki is commonly used for novels, newspapers, comics, and many other forms of writing. Because it goes downwards, tategaki is invariably used on the spines of books. Some newspapers combine the two forms, using the vertical format for most articles but including some written horizontally. Rurouni Kenshin manga, volume 1 (English version) Manga (漫画) is the Japanese word for comics and/or cartoons (not necessarily animated, this includes print cartoons); outside of Japan, it usually refers specifically to Japanese comics. ...


Yokogaki is easier for some purposes; academic texts are usually written this way since they often include words and phrases in other languages, which are more easily incorporated horizontally. Scientific and mathematical texts are nearly always written horizontally, since in vertical writing equations must be turned sideways, making them more difficult to read. // What is science? There are different theories of what science is. ... Wikibooks Wikiversity has more about this subject: School of Mathematics Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Mathematics Look up Mathematics on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Wikimedia Commons has more media related to: Mathematics Bogomolny, Alexander: Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles. ...


Similarly, English language textbooks, which contain many English words, are usually printed in yokogaki. This is not a fixed rule, however, and it is also common to see English words printed sideways in tategaki texts.


Computer text is usually presented in yokogaki format; see Japanese language and computers. In relation to the Japanese language and computers many adaptation issues arise, some unique to Japanese and others common to languages which use double-byte character encodings. ...


Business cards in Japan (meishi) are often printed vertically in Japanese on one side, and horizontally in English on the other. Postcards and handwritten letters may be arranged horizontally or vertically, but the more formal the letter the more likely it is to be written vertically. Envelope addresses are usually vertical, with the address on the left and the name of the person in the exact centre of the envelope. See also Japanese etiquette. A Meishi or 名刺 is the Japanese equivelant of a business card. ... Etiquette is the code that governs the expectations of social behavior, the conventional norm (main article: Etiquette). ...


Cartoons

Combined tategaki and yokogaki in the manga Doraemon. Red numbers on arrows indicate sequence of reading lines. Pink numbers indicate sequence of panels of comic.
Enlarge
Combined tategaki and yokogaki in the manga Doraemon. Red numbers on arrows indicate sequence of reading lines. Pink numbers indicate sequence of panels of comic.

Japanese cartoons, also known as manga, tend to use vertical direction for text. Manga frames tend to flow in right-to-left horizontal direction. As a special case, frames in yonkoma mangas tend to flow in vertical direction. Page ordering is the same as books that use vertical direction: from right to left. Frames that are chronologically before or after each other use less spacing inbetween as a visual cue. Image File history File links Doraemon-tate-yoko. ... Image File history File links Doraemon-tate-yoko. ... Rurouni Kenshin manga, volume 1 (English version) Manga (漫画) is the Japanese word for comics and/or cartoons (not necessarily animated, this includes print cartoons); outside of Japan, it usually refers specifically to Japanese comics. ... Nobita and the Legend of the Sun King Poster Doraemon [1] (jp: ドラえもん) by Hiroshi Fujimoto, a. ... Yonkoma manga (4コマ漫画, four cell manga), or 4-koma for short, is a Japanese comic strip format which consist of gags within four cells. ...


Some publishers that translate manga may choose to keep the original page order (a notable example is Shonen Jump magazine), while other publishers may reverse the pageflow with use of mirrored pages. Weekly Shonen Jump, issue 40 (Japanese version) Weekly Shonen Jump (週刊少年ジャンプ Shūkan Shōnen Janpu), with a circulation of over 3 million, is one of the longest-running, weekly manga compilations in Japan. ...


References

  • Nihongo Daihakubutsukan (日本語大博物館), author: Jun'ichirō Kida (紀田順一郎), publisher: Just System (ジャストシステム, Jasuto Shisutem) ISBN 4883090469 (in Japanese), chapter 9, deals with the change from tategaki to yokogaki in modern Japanese.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Japanese language and computers - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (893 words)
The yokogaki style is the same as English, but the tategaki style involves columns of text written downwards, right to left.
For example, HTML has no support for tategaki and Japanese users must use HTML tables to simulate it.
However, CSS level 3 includes a property writing-mode which can render tategaki when given the value tb-rl (top to bottom, right to left).
Japanese: Introduction: About the Japanese language - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks (1727 words)
Rōmaji are used to write acronyms and initialisms, Japanese names or other words intended for use outside of Japan, and words on commercial products where the lettering is desirable for functional or aesthetic purposes.
This writing format is identical to that of European languages such as English, with characters arranged in rows which are read from left to right, with successive rows going downwards.
Tategaki is generally used to write letters, comics, essays, novels, newspapers, most academic texts, and Japanese dictionaries.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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