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Encyclopedia > Tatarstan
Republic of Tatarstan (English)
Республика Татарстан (Russian)
Татарстан Республикасы (Tatar)

Location of Tatarstan in Russia
Coat of Arms Flag

Coat of arms of Tatarstan

Flag of Tatarstan
Anthem: National Anthem of the Republic of Tatarstan
Capital Kazan
Established May 27, 1920
Political status
Federal district
Economic region
Republic
Volga
Volga
Code 16
Area
Area
- Rank
67,836 km²
44th
Population (as of the 2002 Census)
Population
- Rank
- Density
- Urban
- Rural
3,779,265 inhabitants
8th
55.7 inhab. / km²
73.8%
26.2%
Official languages Russian, Tatar
Government
President Mintimer Shaymiyev
Prime Minister Rustam Minnikhanov
Legislative body State Council
Constitution Constitution of the Republic of Tatarstan
Official website
http://www.tatar.ru/

Republic of Tatarstan (Russian: Респу́блика Татарста́н; Tatar Cyrillic: Татарстан Республикасы, Latin: Tatarstan Respublikası) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). The unofficial Tatarstan motto is: Buldırabız! (We can!)[1]. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ... It has been suggested that the section intro from the article Civil flag be merged into this article or section. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_Arms_of_Tatarstan. ... Aq Bars The coat of arms of Tatarstan is an ancient Turkic and Bolgar symbol called Aq Bars or White Bars, and has been in use since 1991. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tatarstan. ... Flag Ratio: 1:2 The flag of Tatarstan was adopted 29 November 1991 and was designed by Täwil Äžiniät ulı Xaziäxmätev (ta-WEEL gheen-ee-AT oo-le kha-zee-akh-MAT-of). ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogising the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognised either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Composed by Röstäm Yäxin, the Hymn of the Republic of Tatarstan has no lyrics. ... This article is about the capital city of Tatarstan. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Russia is a federation which consists of 86 subjects[1]. These subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council (upper house of the Russian parliament). ... All of the federal subjects of Russia are grouped into seven federal districts (Russian: , sing. ... Russia is divided into eleven economic regions (Russian: экономические районы, sing. ... The Russian Federation is divided into 88 federal subjects (constituent units), 21 of which are republics. ... Volga (Privolzhsky) Federal District (Russian: ; tr. ... Volga (Povolzhsky) economic region (Russian: ; tr. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... Here is a list of the 88 federal subjects of Russia in order of size. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... Russian Census of 2002 (Russian: ) was the first census of Russian Federation carried out on October 9, 2002. ... Here is a list of the 85* federal subjects of Russia in order of population according to the 2002 Census. ... The Tatar language (Tatar tele, Tatarça, Татар теле, Татарча) is a Turkic language spoken by the Tatars. ... Mintimer Sharipovich Shaymiyev (Tatar: , Mintimer Şärip ulı Şäymiev; Russian: ) is the current, and first, president of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia. ... This is a list of people who have held the title of Prime Minister of Tatarstan. ... Rustam Minnikhanov (Tatar:Miñnexanov Röstäm Nurğäli ulı) (b. ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos and other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... The Tatar language (Tatar tele, Tatarça, Татар теле, Татарча) is a Turkic language spoken by the Tatars. ... Two versions of the Tatar alphabet are currently used for the Tatar language. ... Two versions of the Tatar alphabet are currently used for the Tatar language. ... Russia is a federation which consists of 86 subjects[1]. These subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council (upper house of the Russian parliament). ... The Russian Federation is divided into 88 federal subjects (constituent units), 21 of which are republics. ...

Contents

Terminology

Another Tatar version of the name reads Tatarstan Cömhüriäte/Татарстан Җөмһүрияте (cömhüriät is another Tatar term for "republic"), but it is not official. The direct romanization of its name from Russian is Respublika Tatarstan. Another (old) version of the Russian name is Тата́рия (Tatariya), which was official along with Tatar ASSR during Soviet rule. The romanization of the Russian alphabet is the process of transliterating the Russian language from the Cyrillic alphabet and into the Latin alphabet, such as the English alphabet and other Latin alphabets in particular (and sometimes non-Latin alphabets). ... Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (TASSR) was part of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. ...


Geography

The Republic is located in the center of the East European Plain, approximately 800 kilometers (497 mi) east of Moscow. It lies between the Volga River and the Kama River (a tributary of the Volga), and extends east to the Ural mountains. Toporaphy of Europe Toporaphy of Europe The East European Plain (also Eastern-European Lowland, Eastern European Lowlands, Eastern European Plain, and Russian Plain) is a plain and series of broad river basins in Eastern Europe. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... “Volga” redirects here. ... Kama (Russian: ; Tatar: Çulman) is a river in Russia, the longest left tributary of the Volga. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Map of the Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (Russian: , Uralskiye gory) (also known as the Urals, the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, and known as the Stone Belt) are a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ...

Kirov Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... The Udmurt Republic (Russian: ; Udmurt: Удмурт Элькун) or Udmurtia (Russian: Удму́ртия) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... The Republic of Bashkortostan, or Bashkiria (Russian: or ; Bashkir: ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Orenburg Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Samara Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Ulyanovsk Oblast (Улья́новская о́бласть) is an administrative division of the Russian Federation. ... , Chuvash Republic (Russian: ; ), or Chuvashia () is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) located in central Russia. ... The Mari El Republic (Russian: Респу́блика Мари́й Эл; Mari: Марий Эл Республика) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation...

Time zone

Map of the region with the Republic of Tatarstan highlighted
Map of the region with the Republic of Tatarstan highlighted
Tatarstan map
Tatarstan map

Tatarstan is located in the Moscow Time Zone (MSK/MSD). UTC offset is +0300 (MSK)/+0400 (MSD). Image File history File links RTZ2. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Tatarstan Kazan Turkic European Categories: GFDL images ... File links The following pages link to this file: Tatarstan Kazan Turkic European Categories: GFDL images ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Moscow Time (MSK) is the time zone 3 hours ahead of UTC. Categories: Stub | Time zones ... “UTC” redirects here. ...

Rivers

Major rivers include (Tatar names are given in parentheses):

Map of the Volga watershed with the Belaya highlighted Belaya River or Aghidhel (Russian: ; Bashkir: ; Tatar: ) is a river in the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia. ... The Ik River is a river in Russia flowing through the Bashkortostan Republic, the Tatarstan Republic, and Orenburg Oblast. ... Kama (Russian: ; Tatar: Çulman) is a river in Russia, the longest left tributary of the Volga. ... “Volga” redirects here. ... The Vyatka River (Russian: ) is a river in Kirov Oblast and the Republic of Tatarstan in Russia, right tributary of the Kama River. ...

Lakes

Major reservoirs of the republic include (Tatar names are given in parentheses):

The biggest lake is Qaban. Kuybyshev Reservoir or Kuybyshevskoye Reservoir (Russian: ), sometimes called Samara Reservoir is a reservoir of the middle Volga and lower Kama in the Chuvash Republic, Mari El Republic, Republic of Tatarstan, Samara Oblast and Ulyanovsk Oblast, Russia. ... Lakes Qaban, the system of lakes in Kazan, Tatarstan, Russia. ...


Natural resources

View of the Volga River in the confluence with the Kama River
View of the Volga River in the confluence with the Kama River
View on the Taima River from Devil's Tower in Yelabuga
View on the Taima River from Devil's Tower in Yelabuga

Major natural resources of Tatarstan include oil, natural gas, gypsum, and more. It is estimated that the Republic has over one billion tons of oil deposits. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1488x1984, 590 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Volga River Tatarstan Kuybyshev Reservoir Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1488x1984, 590 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Volga River Tatarstan Kuybyshev Reservoir Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Kama (Russian: ; Tatar: Çulman) is a river in Russia, the longest left tributary of the Volga. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Yelabuga (also spelled Alabuga, Elabuga; Tatar: Alabuğa/Алабуга, Russian: ) is a town in Tatarstan. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Selenite be merged into this article or section. ... A tonne (also called metric ton) is a non-SI unit of mass, accepted for use with SI, defined as: 1 tonne = 103 kg (= 106 g). ...


Climate

  • Average January temperature: −16 °C (3.2 °F)
  • Average July temperature: +19 °C (66.2 °F)
  • Average annual precipitation: up to 500 mm

Administrative divisions

Main articles: Administrative divisions of Tatarstan (Russian form), Counties of Tatarstan (Tatar form).

Cities and towns under republics jurisdiction Kazan (Казань) (capital) city districts: Aviastroitelny (Авиастроительный) Kirovsky (Кировский) Moskovsky (Московский) Novo-Savinovsky (Ново-Савиновский) Privolzhsky (Приволжский) Sovetsky (Советский) with 1 selsovet under the city districts jurisdiction. ... Counties (rayons) of Tatarstan and othe subdivisions. ...

Demographics

  • Population: 3,779,265 (2002)
    • Urban: 2,790,661 (73.8%)
    • Rural: 988,604 (26.2%)
    • Male: 1,749,050 (46.3%)
    • Female: 2,030,215 (53.7%)
  • Females per 1000 males: 1,161
  • Average age: 36.5 years
    • Urban: 35.7 years
    • Rural: 38.7 years
    • Male: 33.8 years
    • Female: 38.8 years
  • Number of households: 1,305,360 (with 3,747,267 people)
    • Urban: 970,540 (with 2,762,818 people)
    • Rural: 334,820 (with 984,449 people)
  • Vital statistics (2005)
    • Births: 36,967 (birth rate 9.8)
    • Deaths: 51,841 (death rate 13.8)

Ethnic groups

There are about two million ethnic Tatars and over a million ethnic Russians, along with significant numbers of Chuvash, Mari, and Udmurts, many of whom are Tatar-speaking. The Ukrainian, Mordvin, and Bashkir minorities are also significant. Most Tatars have a Sunni Muslim background, but a small minority known as the Keräşen Tatars have an Orthodox background and some of them still regard themselves as being different from other Tatars even though most Keräşen dialects differ only slightly from the Central Dialect of the Tatar language.[2] There is a fair degree of speculation as to the early origins of the different groups of Tatars, but most Tatars no longer view religious identity as being as important as it once was, and the religious and linguistic subgroups have intermingled considerably. Nevertheless, despite many decades of assimilation and intermingling, some Keräşen demanded, and were awarded, the option of being specifically enumerated in 2002. This has provoked great controversy however, as many intellectuals have sought to portray the Tatars as homogenous and indivisible.[3] Although listed separately below, the Keräşen are still included in the grand total for the Tatars. Another unique ethnic group, living in Tatarstan only are the Qaratay Mordvins.
Tatars (Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар) is a collective name applied to the Turkic people of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. ... The Chuvash are a bunch of pakis . ... Mari may refer to: Ethnic Mari El, a republic of Russian Federation Mari language, Finno-Ugric language Mari people, a Volga-Finnic people People Mari (composer), a video game music composer Mari (singer), a female vocalist Saint Mari, a Christian saint Other Mari (goddess), the main divinity of pre-Christian... Udmurts are Finno-Ugric people that speak the Udmurt language. ... The Tatar language (Tatar tele, Tatarça, Татар теле, Татарча) is a Turkic language spoken by the Tatars. ... The Mordvins (Mordva) are a people who speak languages of the Finno-Permic branch of the Finno-Ugric language family. ... The Bashkirs, a Turkic people, live in Russia, mostly in the republic of Bashkortostan. ... This article is about the people. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Separate articles treat Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Orthodox Judaism. ... This article is about the people. ... The Tatar language (Tatar tele, Tatarça, Татар теле, Татарча) is a Turkic language spoken by the Tatars. ... This article is about the people. ... This article is about the people. ... This article is about the people. ... This article is about the people. ... Qaratays are an ethnic group within Mordvins in Kamsko-Ustyinsky District, Tatarstan around Mordva Qaratay village. ... The Mordvins (Mordva) are a people who speak languages of the Finno-Permic branch of the Finno-Ugric language family. ...


According to the 2002 Census the ‘national composition’ was • Ethnic Tatar 52.92% • Ethnic Russian 39.49% • Chuvash 3.35% • Udmurt 0.64% • Ukrainian 0.64% • Mordvin 0.63% • Mari 0.50% • Keräşen Tatars 0.50% • Bashkir 0.39% • Azeri 0.26% • Belarusians 0.16% • Armenian 0.16% • Uzbek 0.13% • Tajik 0.10% • Jewish 0.09% • Ethnic German 0.08% • Kazakh 0.05% • Georgian 0.05% • Moldovan 0.03% • Roma 0.02% • Lezgin 0.02% • and various other groups of less than eight hundred persons each. • An additional 0.02% of residents declined to state their nationality or ethnocultural identity on the census questionnaire.[4] Historical figures are shown below:
Russian Census of 2002 (Russian: ) was the first census of Russian Federation carried out on October 9, 2002. ... This article is about the people. ... Languages Russian Religions Predominantly Russian Orthodox. ... The Chuvash are a bunch of pakis . ... Udmurts are Finno-Ugric people that speak the Udmurt language. ... The Mordvins (Mordva) are a people who speak languages of the Finno-Permic branch of the Finno-Ugric language family. ... Mari may refer to: Ethnic Mari El, a republic of Russian Federation Mari language, Finno-Ugric language Mari people, a Volga-Finnic people People Mari (composer), a video game music composer Mari (singer), a female vocalist Saint Mari, a Christian saint Other Mari (goddess), the main divinity of pre-Christian... The Bashkirs, a Turkic people, live in Russia, mostly in the republic of Bashkortostan. ... Aside from a large Azeri community that is native to Russias Dagestan Republic, the majority of Azeris in Russia are fairly recent immigrants. ... This article is about the Central Asian Persians known as Tajiks. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... Ethnic Germans – often simply called Germans – are those who are considered, by themselves or others, to be ethnically German but do not live within the present-day Federal Republic of Germany, nor necessarily hold its citizenship. ... Languages Kazakh (and/or languages in country of residence) Religions Sunni Islam The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар []; Russian: Казахи; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of Uzbekistan, China, Russia, and... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... Flag of the Lezgian people The Lezgins, also called the Lezgin, Lezgi, Lezgis, Lezgs, and Lezgians are an ethnic group who live mainly in southern Dagestan and northern Azerbaijan who speak the Lezgi language. ...

census 1926 census 1939 census 1959 census 1970 census 1979 census 1989 census 2002
Tatars 1,263,383 (48.7%) 1,421,514 (48.8%) 1,345,195 (47.2%) 1,536,430 (49.1%) 1,641,603 (47.6%) 1,765,404 (48.5%) 2,000,116 (52.9%)
Russians 1,118,834 (43.1%) 1,250,667 (42.9%) 1,252,413 (43.9%) 1,382,738 (42.4%) 1,516,023 (44.0%) 1,575,361 (43.3%) 1,492,602 (39.5%)
Chuvash 127,330 (4.9%) 138,935 (4.8%) 143,552 (5.0%) 153,496 (4.9%) 147,088 (4.3%) 134,221 (3.7%) 126,532 (3.3%)
Others 84,485 (3.3%) 104,161 (3.6%) 109,257 (3.8%) 112,574 (3.6%) 140,698 (4.1%) 166,756 (4.6%) 160,015 (4.2%)

The official languages are Tatar and Russian. According to the 2002 Russian Federal Law (On Languages of Peoples of the Russian Federation), the official script is Cyrillic. Tatarstan's government as well as human rights groups and some Russian intellectuals are strongly opposed to this law. [5][6] This article is about the people. ... The Chuvash are a bunch of pakis . ... The Tatar language (Tatar tele, Tatarça, Татар теле, Татарча) is a Turkic language spoken by the Tatars. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languages; (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ...


History

Main article: History of Tatarstan

Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

Middle Ages

The Little Minaret of Bolghar is preserved since the Middle Ages
The Little Minaret of Bolghar is preserved since the Middle Ages
The Black Chamber is another notable building in Bolghar.

The earliest known organized state within the boundaries of Tatarstan was Volga Bulgaria (c. 700–1238 CE). The Volga Bulgars had an advanced mercantile state with trade contacts throughout Inner Eurasia, the Middle East and the Baltic, which maintained its independence despite pressure by such nations as the Khazars, the Kievan Rus and the Kipchaks. Islam was introduced by missionaries from Baghdad around the time of ibn Fadlan's journey in 922. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (768 × 1024 pixel, file size: 256 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tatarstan Volga Bulgaria Metadata This file... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (768 × 1024 pixel, file size: 256 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tatarstan Volga Bulgaria Metadata This file... The Little Minaret of Bolghar. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 314 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tatarstan Metadata This file contains additional... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 314 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tatarstan Metadata This file contains additional... The Little Minaret of Bolghar. ... The Little Minaret in Bolghar For other uses, see Bulgaria (disambiguation). ... The Volga Bulgars were a culture in southern modern Russia along the Volga River from approximately 900 to 1300 AD. They were related to the original Bulgars of Old Great Bulgaria which had existed in approximately the same region around 600 to 700. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Population density in the wider Baltic region. ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian; Київська Русь, Kyivs’ka Rus’ in Ukrainian) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the... Kipchaks in EurAsia circa 1200 C.E. Kipchaks (also spelled as Kypchaks, Qipchaqs, Qypchaqs) (Ukrainian: (polovtsy), Crimean Tatar: , Karachay-Balkar: Къыпчакъ, Uzbek: , Kazakh: Қыпшақ, Kumyk: Къыпчакъ, Kyrgyz: Кыпчак, Nogai: Кыпчак, Chinese: 欽察/钦察, QÄ«nchá, Turkish: Kıpçak) were an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in the historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Ahmad ibn-al-Abbas ibn Rashid ibn-Hammad ibn-Fadlan (Aḥmad ʿibn alʿAbbās ʿibn Rasẖīd ʿibn ḥammād ʿibn Fadlān أحمد ابن العبا&#1587...


Volga Bulgaria finally fell to the armies of the Mongol prince Batu Khan in the late 1230s (see Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria.) The inhabitants, mixing with the Golden Horde's Turco-Mongolian, Kipchak-speaking troops and settlers, became known as the "Volga Tatars." Another theory postulates that there were no ethnic changes in that period, and Bulgars simply switched to the Kipchak-based Tatar language. In the 1430s, the region again became independent as the base of the Khanate of Kazan, a capital having been established in Kazan, 170 km up the Volga from the ruined capital of the Bulgars. Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Batu Khan (Russian: , Ukrainian: ) (c. ... The Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria lasted from 1223 to 1236. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Turkish: ; Tatar: ; Russian: ) was a Mongol[1][2][3][4] — later Turkicized[3] — khanate established in parts of present-day Russia... The Kypchak languages (also known as the Kipchak, Qypchaq, or Northeastern Turkic languages), are a major branch of the Turkic language family spoken by more than 12 million people in an area spanning from Lithuania to China. ... The Tatar language (Tatar tele, Tatarça, Татар теле, Татарча) is a Turkic language spoken by the Tatars. ... Map of Kazan Khanate, early 1500s The Kazan Khanate (Tatar: Qazan xanlığı; Russian: Казанское ханство) (1438-1552) was a Tatar state on the territory of former Volga Bulgaria with its capital in Kazan. ... This article is about the capital city of Tatarstan. ...


Tatarstan was conquered by the troops of Tsar Ivan IV the Terrible in the 1550s, with Kazan being taken in 1552. Some Tatars were forcibly converted to Christianity and cathedrals were built in Kazan; by 1593 all mosques in the area were destroyed. The Russian government forbade the construction of mosques, a prohibition that was not lifted until the 18th century by Catherine II. The first mosque to be rebuilt under Catherine's auspices was constructed in 1766-1770. St. ... Tsar Ivan the Terrible, by Viktor Vasnetsov Ivan IV Vasilyevich (Russian: ) (August 25, 1530, Moscow â€“ March 18, 1584, Moscow) was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547 and Czar of Russia from 1547 until his death. ... Catherine II of Russia, called the Great (Russian: Екатерина II Великая, Yekaterina II Velikaya; 2 May [O.S. 21 April] 1729 – 17 November [O.S. 6 November] 1796) reigned as Empress of Russia for 34 years, from June 28, 1762 until her death. ...


Modern times

In the 19th century Tatarstan became centers of Jadidism, an Islamic sect that preached a tolerance to other religions. Under the influence of Tatarstan Jadidist theologians, the Tatars were renowned for their friendly relations with other peoples of the Russian Empire. However, after the October Revolution religion was largely outlawed and all theologians were repressed. Jadidism (Arab language: jadid - new ), also known as Euroislam is a type of Islamic philosophy. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ...


During the Civil War of 1918-1920 Tatar nationalists attempted to establish an independent republic (the Idel-Ural State). They were, however, put down by the Bolsheviks and the Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was established on May 27, 1920. The boundaries of the republic did not include the majority of the Volga Tatars. The Russian Civil War (1917-1922) began immediately after the collapse of the Russian provisional government and the Bolshevik takeover of Petrograd, rapidly intensifying after the dissolution of the Russian Constituent Assembly and signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. ... Idel-Ural literally means Volga-Ural in Tatar. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... 1954 version of the flag The coat of arms of the republic Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (TASSR) was part of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...


Tatarstan today

Tatarstan declared independence on August 30, 1990 as a sovereign state and no longer a subject of USSR or Russian Federation. During 1991-1994 Tatarstan was de facto independent state[citation needed] (called in Russia internal abroad like Chechnya). In 1992 Tatarstan held a referendum on independence from Russia. 62 percent of the those who took part voted in favor of independence. Subsequently, under Kremlin's pressure, Tatarstan's authorities decided not to pursue independence and instead settled on a greater degree of autonomy from Moscow. On February 15, 1994 the Treaty On Delimitation of Jurisdictional Subjects and Mutual Delegation of Authority between the State Bodies of the Russian Federation and the State Bodies of the Republic of Tatarstan and Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Tatarstan (On Delimitation of Authority in the Sphere of Foreign Economic Relations) were signed. These agreements may be considered as temporary recognition of Tatarstan's independence by the Russian Federation, because it mentions the Declaration on State Sovereignty of the Republic of Tatarstan. is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... The Chechen Republic (IPA: ; Russian: , Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: , Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (; Russian: ; Chechen: , Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Noxçiyn, is a federal subject of Russia. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ...


Post-Soviet timeline

  • 30 August 1990: Declaration of Sovereignty was proclaimed.
  • 1991-1994: Tatarstan was de facto independent state.
  • 12 June 1991: The first elections for President of Tatarstan. Mintimer Shaymiev was elected.
  • 21 March 1992: Referendum held regarding Tatarstan's status. The majority of the population support Tatarstan's independence.
  • November 1992: The Constitution of Tatarstan accepted by parliament.
  • 15 February 1994: The Treaty On Delimitation of Jurisdictional Subjects and Mutual Delegation of Authority between the State Bodies of the Russian Federation and the State Bodies of the Republic of Tatarstan was signed.
  • 1994-2000: Tatarstan was associated state with Russian Federation on confederal status.
  • 1995 and 1999 elections held for the Parliament of Tatarstan.
  • 2000 and then 2002: Numerous amendments to Tatarstan's Constitution.
  • since 2000: Tatarstan is a subject of Russian Federation.
History of Tatarstan
Great Bulgaria
Khazars
Volga Bulgaria
Kipchaks
Mongol invasion
Golden Horde
Khanate of Kazan
Muscovy
Kazan Governorate
Idel-Ural State
Tatar ASSR
Republic of Tatarstan
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is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Mintimer Şärip ulı Şäymiev [meen-tee-MEH-rr sha-REEP oo-le shay-MEE-yef] (Cyrillic: Минтимер Шәрип улы Шәймиев; also transliterated from Russian as Mintimer Sharipovich Shaimiev - Минтимер Шарипович Шаймиев) is the first president of Tatarstan, Russia. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... A confederation is an association of sovereign states or communities, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... In 632, Khan Kubrat united the Bulgars and formed a confederation of tribes, known as Great Bulgaria, or Bulgaria Magna, with a capital at the ancient city of Fanagoria. ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... The Little Minaret in Bolghar For other uses, see Bulgaria (disambiguation). ... Kipchaks in EurAsia circa 1200 C.E. Kipchaks (also spelled as Kypchaks, Qipchaqs, Qypchaqs) (Ukrainian: (polovtsy), Crimean Tatar: , Karachay-Balkar: Къыпчакъ, Uzbek: , Kazakh: Қыпшақ, Kumyk: Къыпчакъ, Kyrgyz: Кыпчак, Nogai: Кыпчак, Chinese: 欽察/钦察, Qīnchá, Turkish: Kıpçak) were an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in the historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium... The Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria lasted from 1223 to 1236. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Turkish: ; Tatar: ; Russian: ) was a Mongol[1][2][3][4] — later Turkicized[3] — khanate established in parts of present-day Russia... Map of Kazan Khanate, early 1500s The Kazan Khanate (Tatar: Qazan xanlığı; Russian: Казанское ханство) (1438-1552) was a Tatar state on the territory of former Volga Bulgaria with its capital in Kazan. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Zilant, Coat of arms of Kazan Governorate Kazan Governorate (Russian: ; Tatar: Qazan gubernası/Казан губернасы; Chuvash: Хусан кěперниě) used to be one of the Governorates (guberniyas) of Imperial Russia in 1708–1920, with the city of Kazan as its capital. ... Idel-Ural literally means Volga-Ural in Tatar. ... 1954 version of the flag The coat of arms of the republic Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (TASSR) was part of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. ... A new page based on the new template is being worked on at Tatarstan/Temp, please make any changes you want to make on that page. ...

Politics

The head of the government in Tatarstan is the President. As of 2006, the President is Mintimer Shaeymiev (Tatar: Mintimer Şäymiev, Russian: Минтимер Шарипович Шаймиев). Tatarstan's unicameral National Parliament (Däwlät Sovetı, Государственный Совет) has 100 seats: 50 are for representatives of the parties, other 50 are for deputies from the republic's localities. The speaker of the National Parliament is Farit Mukhametshin (Färit Möxämmätşin, Фарид Хайруллович Мухаметшин). 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Farid Mukhametshin (also Ferit Mokhametshin, Tatar: Färit Xäyrulla ulı MöxämmätÅŸin, Russian Фарид Хайруллович Мухаметшин /Farid Khayrullovich Mukhametshin) (born May 22, 1947 in Almetyevsk) is a Tatarstan statesman and the former Prime Minister of Tatarstan. ...


According to the Tatarstan Constitution, the President can be elected only by the people of Tatarstan, but due to Russian federal law this law was suspended for an indefinite term. The Russian law about election of governors says they should be elected by local parliaments and that the candidate can be presented only by the president.


On March 25, 2005 Shaymiev was re-elected for his fourth term by Parliament. This election was held after changes in electoral law and doesn't contradict the Tatarstan and Russian Constitutions. is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Political status

The Republic of Tatarstan is a constituent republic of the Russian Federation. Most of the Russian federal subjects are tied with the Russian federal government by the uniform Federal Treaty, but relations between the government of Tatarstan and the Russian federal government are more complex, and are precisely defined in the Tatarstan Constitution of 2000. The following passage from the Tatarstan Constitution defines the republic's status without contradicting the Constitution of the Russian Federation:


The Republic of Tatarstan is a democratic constitutional State associated with the Russian Federation by the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Constitution of the Republic of Tatarstan and the Treaty between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Tatarstan On Delimitation of Jurisdictional Subjects and Mutual Delegation of Powers between the State Bodies of the Russian Federation and the State Bodies of the Republic of Tatarstan, and a subject of the Russian Federation. The sovereignty of the Republic of Tatarstan shall consist in full possession of the State authority (legislative, executive and judicial) beyond the competence of the Russian Federation and powers of the Russian Federation in the sphere of shared competence of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Tatarstan and shall be an inalienable qualitative status of the Republic of Tatarstan.


External links

Economy

The Spirit of Kazan
The Spirit of Kazan

Tatarstan is one of the most economically developed regions of Russia; it is also the second most industrialized federal subject after Samara Oblast. Industrial production constitutes 45% of the Republic's gross regional domestic product. The most developed branches are chemical and oil processing, machine building, and wood processing industries. Tatarstan's GDP in 2006 was about 24 bln. USD[1], due mostly to its oil industry (in the 1970s Tatarstan was the major oil producing region of the USSR) and machine building industry (KamAZ is one of the biggest heavy truck manufacturers in the world). The Republic has a highly developed transport network. It mainly comprises highways, railway lines, four navigable rivers - Volga (İdel), Kama (Çulman), Vyatka (Noqrat) and Belaya (Ağidel), and oil pipelines and airlines. The territory of Tatarstan is crossed by the main gas pipelines carrying natural gas from Urengoy and Yamburg to the west and the major oil pipelines supplying oil to various cities in the European part of Russia. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 2. ... Samara Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Nominal GDP per person (capita) in 2006. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... Kamaz (Камский автомобильный завод - Камаз / Kamskiy avtomobilny zavod - Kama Automobile Zavod - Kamaz or KAMA Heavy-Duty Truck Production Plant) is a Tatar truck manufacturer located in Naberezhnye Chelny, Tatarstan, Russian Federation. ...


Culture

Main article: Culture of Tatarstan

Major libraries include the Science Library of Kazan State University and the National Library of the Republic of Tatarstan. There are two museums of republican significance, as well as 90 museums of local importance. In the past several years new museums appeared throughout the Republic. Culture of Tatarstan is molded from the culture of Volga Tatar people and Russian culture. ...


There are 16 theaters in Tatarstan.


Education

The most important facilities of higher education include Kazan State University, Kazan State Medical University, Kazan State Technical University and Russian Islam University, all located in the capital Kazan. The main bulding of the university, 19th century Kazan State University is located in Kazan, Tatarstan, Russia. ...


Religion

Main article: Islam of Tatarstan

The most common faiths include Sunni Islam, variants of Shi'a and Sufi belief and the Russian Orthodox Church. As of 2004, there were 1,208 buildings used for religious purposes in Tatarstan; 1,014 of which were Islamic, and 176 Russian Orthodox. Faith has two general implications which can be implied either exclusively or mutually; To Trust: Believing a certain variable will act a specific way despite the potential influence of known or unknown change. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ...


Miscellaneous

The people of ethnic majority of Tatarstan are usually offended when called Tartars. The preferred name is Tatars. Inhabitants of Tatarstan regardless of ethnicity are usually called Tatarstaners (Tatar Cyrillic: татарстанлы, Latin: Tatarstanlı, татарстанец). The Tatar language (Tatar tele, Tatarça, Татар теле, Татарча) is a Turkic language spoken by the Tatars. ... Two versions of the Tatar alphabet are currently used for the Tatar language. ... Two versions of the Tatar alphabet are currently used for the Tatar language. ...


The name Tatarstan derives from the Tatar and Persian -stan (an ending common to many Muslim countries). Other variants of the republic's name are Russian Tataria (former official Russian name) and Turkish Tataristan. “Farsi” redirects here. ... The suffix -stan (spelled ـستان in the Perso-Arabic script) is Persian for place of, and -sthan (स्थान in the Devanāgarī script) is a cognate Sanskrit suffix with the same meaning. ...


Some Tatarstaners wish for their state to be renamed Bulgaristan (like Alania), claiming that the region was called Bulgaristan by its inhabitants until 1922 in tribute to the early settlers. Bulgarism is a political movement for the use of the Bolgar ethnonym among Kazan Tatars. ... Bulgaristan may refer to: Ancient name for Tatarstan, a federal republic in Russia Turkish name for Bulgaria. ... Capital Vladikavkaz Area - total - % water Ranked 84th - 8,000 km² - negligible Population - Total - Density Ranked 68th - est. ... Bulgaristan may refer to: Ancient name for Tatarstan, a federal republic in Russia Turkish name for Bulgaria. ...


See also

This article is about the people. ... This is a list of notable Tatars (in the modern meaning of this term) and Volga Bulgarians. ... Tatarstan is a part of Russia, inhabited by the Tatars. ... IATA code: U9 Airline based in Kazan, Russia. ...

Further reading

  • Lost Cosmonaut: Observations of an Anti-tourist Daniel Kalder
  • The Model of Tatarstan: Under President Mintimer Shaimiev Ravil Bukharaev
  • The Volga Tatars: A Profile in National Resilience Azadeayse Rorlich

References

  1. ^ (Tatar) Президент Татарстанның милли идеясен - "Булдырабыз!" дип билгеләде
  2. ^ . "Tatar The language of the largest minority in Russia" (HTM). American Association of Teachers of Turkic. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
  3. ^ . "Tatars as Meso-Nation" (PDF). Hokkaido University. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
  4. ^ (2002). "National Composition of Population for Regions of the Russian Federation" (XLS). 2002 Russian All-Population Census. Retrieved on 2006-07-20.
  5. ^ Strasbourg Court To Hear On Lawsuit Promoting Tatar Latin Alphabet
  6. ^ (Russian) Верховный суд РТ признал республиканский закон о латинице недействительным, но спикер татарстанского парламента Фарид Мухаметшин считает этот вопрос открытым

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
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The Republic of Tatarstan is situated in the middle of the Volga-Basin at the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers.
Tatarstan's agroindustrial complex is a priority sector and is supported by the state.
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Tatarstan - Search Results - MSN Encarta (222 words)
Tatarstan, republic in east central European Russia, located in the middle Volga River valley at the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers.
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