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Encyclopedia > Taste bud
Taste bud
Semidiagrammatic view of a portion of the mucous membrane of the tongue. Two fungiform papillæ are shown. On some of the filiform papillæ the epithelial prolongations stand erect, in one they are spread out, and in three they are folded in.
The mouth cavity. The cheeks have been slit transversely and the tongue pulled forward.
Latin caliculus gustatorius
Gray's subject #222 991
MeSH Taste+Buds
Dorlands/Elsevier c_03/12205927

Taste buds are small structures on the upper surface of the tongue, soft palate, and epiglottis that provide information about the taste of food being eaten. Image File history File links Gray1018. ... Image File history File links Gray1014. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Elseviers logo. ... For other uses, see Tongue (disambiguation). ... The soft palate, or velum, is the soft tissue comprising the back of the roof of the mouth. ... The epiglottis is a lid-like flap of fibrocartilage tissue covered with a mucus membrane, attached to the root of the tongue. ... Taste (or, more formally, gustation) is a form of direct chemoreception and is one of the traditional five senses. ...


The human tongue has about 10,000 taste buds.

Contents

Types of papillae

The majority of taste buds on the tongue sit on raised protrusions of the tongue surface called papillae. There are four types of papillae present in the human tongue:

  • Fungiform papillae - as the name suggests, these are slightly mushroom shaped if looked at in section. These are present mostly at the apex (tip) of the tongue, as well as at the sides. Innervated by facial nerve.
  • Filiform papillae - these are thin, long papillae "V"-shaped cones that don't contain taste buds but are the most numerous. These papillae are mechanical and not involved in gustation. Characterized increased keratinization.
  • Foliate papillae - these are ridges and grooves towards the posterior part of the tongue found on lateral margins. Innervated by facial nerve (anterior papillae) and glossopharyngeal nerve (posterior papillae).
  • Circumvallate papillae - there are only about 3-14 of these papillae on most people, and they are present at the back of the oral part of the tongue. They are arranged in a circular-shaped row just in front of the sulcus terminalis of the tongue. They are associated with ducts of Von Ebner's glands. Innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve.

It is known that there are five taste sensations: The fungiform papillae are mushroom shaped papillae (projections) on the tongue. ... For other uses, see Mushroom (disambiguation). ... The Filiform papillae cover the anterior two-thirds of the dorsum. ... Taste-buds, the end-organs of the gustatory sense, are scattered over the mucous membrane of the mouth and tongue at irregular intervals. ... The circumvallate papillae (or vallate papillae) are of large size, and vary from eight to twelve in number. ... The dorsum of the tongue is convex and marked by a median sulcus, which divides it into symmetrical halves; this sulcus ends behind, about 2. ...

For other uses, see Sweetness (disambiguation). ... Sour redirects here. ... Sour redirects here. ... Sour redirects here. ... In cell biology, G-protein-coupled receptors, also known as GPCR, seven transmembrane receptors, heptahelical receptors, or 7TM receptors, are a class of transmembrane receptors. ... Sour redirects here. ... Sour redirects here. ... Ion channels are pore-forming proteins that help to establish and control the small voltage gradient that exists across the plasma membrane of all living cells (see cell potential) by allowing the flow of ions down their electrochemical gradient. ...

Localization of taste and the human "tongue map"

Contrary to popular understanding that different tastes map to different areas of the tongue, taste qualities are found in all areas of the tongue.[1][2][3]


The original "tongue map" was based on a mistranslation by Harvard psychologist Edwin G. Boring of a German paper that was written in 1901.[4] Sensitivity to all tastes occurs across the whole tongue and indeed to other regions of the mouth where there are taste buds (epiglottis, soft palate).[5] Edwin Garrigues Boring (October 23, 1886-July 1, 1968) was an experimental psychologist who later became one of the first historians of psychology. ...


Structure of taste buds

Each taste bud is flask-like in shape, its broad base resting on the corium, and its neck opening by an orifice, the gustatory pore, between the cells of the epithelium.


The bud is formed by two kinds of cells: supporting cells and gustatory cells.

  • The supporting (sustentacular) cells are mostly arranged like the staves of a cask, and form an outer envelope for the bud. Some, however, are found in the interior of the bud between the gustatory cells.
  • The gustatory (taste) cells, a chemoreceptor, occupy the central portion of the bud; they are spindle-shaped, and each possesses a large spherical nucleus near the middle of the cell.

The peripheral end of the cell terminates at the gustatory pore in a fine hair-like filament, the gustatory hair. A Chemosensor, also known as chemoreceptor, is a cell or group of cells that transduce a chemical signal into an action potential. ...


The central process passes toward the deep extremity of the bud, and there ends in single or bifurcated varicosities.


The nerve fibrils after losing their medullary sheaths enter the taste bud, and end in fine extremities between the gustatory cells; other nerve fibrils ramify between the supporting cells and terminate in fine extremities; these, however, are believed to be nerves of ordinary sensation and not gustatory.


See also

Sour redirects here. ... The gustatory system is the sensory system that uses taste buds (or lingual papillae) on the upper surface of the tongue to provide information about the taste of food being eaten. ...

Additional images

Image File history File links Smagsloeg. ...

References

  1. ^ Huang A. L., et al. "The cells and logic for mammalian sour taste detection"., Nature, 442. 934 - 938 (2006).
  2. ^ Scenta. How sour taste buds grow. Retrieved on August 28, 2006.
  3. ^ Roberts, David. 2002. Signals and Perception. Palgrave MacMillan.
  4. ^ Hänig, D.P., 1901. Zur Psychophysik des Geschmackssinnes. Philosophische Studien, 17: 576-623.
  5. ^ Collings, V.B., 1974. Human Taste Response as a Function of Locus of Stimulation on the Tongue and Soft Palate. Perception & Psychophysics, 16: 169-174.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Beyond the Tongue Map
  • Taste Perception: Cracking the Code
  • Scientists Explore the Workings of Taste Buds from National Public Radio's Talk of the Nation, July 22, 2005
Bold text == Headline text == minni hi. ... This article is about cellular photoreceptors. ... Hair cells are the sensory cells of both the auditory system and the vestibular system in all vertebrates. ... Neuroglia of the brain shown by Golgis method. ... Astrocytes (also known collectively as astroglia) are characteristic star-shaped glial cells in the brain. ... Radial glial cells are a pivotal cell type in the developing CNS involved in key developmental processes, ranging from patterning and neuronal migration to their newly described role as precursors during neurogenesis. ... Oligodendrocytes (from Greek literally meaning few tree cells), or oligodendroglia (Greek, few tree glue),[1] are a variety of neuroglia. ... Ependyma is the thin epithelial membrane lining the ventricular system of the brain and the spinal cord canal. ... Microglia cells positive for lectins Microglia are a type of glial cell that act as the immune cells of the Central nervous system (CNS). ... Myelin is an electrically insulating phospholipid layer that surrounds the axons of many neurons. ... White matter is one of the two main solid components of the central nervous system. ... Oligodendrocytes (from Greek literally meaning few tree cells), or oligodendroglia (Greek, few tree glue),[1] are a variety of neuroglia. ... Named after the German physiologist Theodor Schwann, Schwann cells are a variety of neuroglia that mainly provide myelin insulation to axons in the peripheral nervous system of jawed vertebrates. ... Neurolemma (spelled also neurolema, neurilemma and neurilema, and used interchangeably with epineurium) is the insulating myelin layer that surrounds an individual peripheral nerve fiber. ... This article is about anatomy; for the musical group see Nodes of Ranvier (band) Nodes of Ranvier are regularly spaced gaps in the myelin sheath around an axon or nerve fiber. ... The portion of nerve fiber between two Nodes of Ranvier is called an internodal segment (or internode). ... Oblique clefts may be seen in the medullary sheath, subdividing it into irregular portions, which are termed Schmidt-Lanterman incisures (or clefts of schmidt-lanterman, segments of Lantermann, medullary segments. ... Connective tissue is one of the four types of tissue in traditional classifications (the others being epithelial, muscle, and nervous tissue. ... Neurolemma (spelled also neurolema, neurilemma and neurilema, and used interchangeably with epineurium) is the insulating myelin layer that surrounds an individual peripheral nerve fiber. ... In a nerve fiber, the tubular sheath of the funiculi, perineurium, is a fine, smooth, transparent membrane, which may be easily separated, in the form of a tube, from the fibers it encloses; in structure it is made up of connective tissue, which has a distinctly lamellar arrangement. ... The nerve fibers are held together and supported within the funiculus by delicate connective tissue, called the endoneurium. ... A small bundle of fibers, enclosed in a tubular sheath, is called a funiculus; if the nerve is of small size, it may consist only of a single funiculus; but if large, the funiculi are collected together into larger bundles or nerve fascicles, which are bound together in a common... The meninges (singular meninx) are the system of membranes that envelop the central nervous system. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Sense of Taste (707 words)
Taste is the ability to respond to dissolved molecules and ions called tastants.
Each taste bud has a pore that opens out to the surface of the tongue enabling molecules and ions taken into the mouth to reach the receptor cells inside.
Taste receptor cells are connected, through an ATP-releasing synapse, to a sensory neuron leading back to the brain.
taste: Definition, Synonyms and Much More from Answers.com (2680 words)
Taste, or gustation, is one of the senses used to detect the chemical makeup of ingested food—that is, to establish its palatability and nutritional composition.
In man and most vertebrate animals, taste is produced by the stimulation by various substances of the taste buds on the mucous membrane of the tongue.
A taste receptor mechanism for free fatty acids has been identified [2], an animal model for the detection of free fatty acids is being characterized [3], and studies of human detection of free fatty acids are beginning[4].
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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