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Encyclopedia > Tarumanagara

Tarumanagara Kingdom - a kingdom of Sundanese people in western Java that existed between 358-670. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Taruma is an early Javanese kingdom, whose fifth-century ruler, Purnavarman, produced the earliest known inscriptions on the island. ... Map showing the location of the Sundanese in Java The Sundanese are an ethnic group in the western part of the island of Java in Indonesia, numbering approximately 31 million. ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ...

Contents

First rulers

According to Book Nusantara, Rajadirajaguru Jayasingawarman founded the Tarumanagara kingdom in 358 AD. He died in 382 AD and was burried at the bank of Kali Gomati river (present-day Bekasi city). His son, Dharmayawarman ruled from 382 to 395 AD. His burial site is at Kali Chandrabaga. Bekasi is city to the east of Jakarta, Indonesia. ...


Age of Purnawarman

Purnawarman was the third king of Tarumnagara and reigned from 395 to 434 AD.


Book Nusantara, parwa II sarga 3 (page 159 – 162) notes that under the reign of King Purnawarman, Tarumanagara held control over 48 small kingdoms with area stretching from Salakanagara or Rajatapura to Purwalingga (current city of Purbaligga in Central Java Province). Traditionally Cipamali river (Brebes river) was the border between Sunda and Java.


In 397 AD, King Purnawarman established a new capital city for the kingdom, located near to a beach, called Sunda Pura meaning Holy Town or Pure Town. Thus, word “Sunda” was introduced for the first time by King Purnawarman in 397. Sunda Pura could have been near present day Tugu (North Jakarta), or near present day Bekasi. Jakarta (also Djakarta or DKI Jakarta), formerly known as Sunda Kelapa, Jayakarta and Batavia is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... Bekasi is city to the east of Jakarta, Indonesia. ...


He left seven memorial stones with insriptions , called prasasti in Indonesian language, bearing his name spread across current Banten and West Java provinces. The Prasasti Tugu, which is few years older than the Parasasti Ciaruteun, is considered the oldest of all the inscriptions. Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia. ... Map showing Banten within Indonesia Banten is one of the provinces of Indonesia and located at the western end of the island of Java. ... Map showing West Java in Indonesia West Java (Jawa Barat) is a province of Indonesia, located on the island of Java. ...


A prasasti located in a river bed of Caiaruteun river, called Prasasti Ciaruteun, from the fifth century AD, written in Wengi letters (used in the Indian Pallava period) and in Sanskrit language, reports the most famous king of Tarumanagara: “This is the print of the foot soles of the very honorable Purnawarman, the king of Tarumanagara who is very brave and control the world, as those of God Wisnu". Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Vishnu (Hindi: (विष्‍णु) is a form of God, whom Hindus pray to. ...


Located nearby is the Prasasti Kebon Kopi I, also called Telapak Gadjah stone, with an insription and the engraving of two large elephant footprints. The inscription read: "These elephant foot soles, akin to those of the strong Airwata (elephant, which God Indra used to ride), belongs to Tarumanagara King who is successful and full of control".


Some prasasti are found close to Bogor city. They are Prasasti Muara Cianten, Prasasti Pasir Awi, Prasasti Cidanghiang, and Parasasti Jambu. Prasasti Cidanghiang (sits further to the west at Lebak in the Pandeglang area), consisting of two lines, proclaiming Purnawarman as the standard for rulers around the world. Prasasti Jambu, with a two-line inscription in Pallava/Sanskrit, bears the large footprints of the king. The inscription reads: Nickname: Kota Hujan (City of Rain) Location of Bogor in Indonesia Coordinates: Government  - Mayor Diani Budiarto Time zone WIB (UTC+7) Area code(s) 0251 Website: www. ... Pandeglang is a regency of Banten province, Indonesia. ... The Pallava kingdom (Tamil: பல்லவர்) was an ancient South Indian kingdom. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...


The name of the king who is famous of faithfully axecuting his duties and who is incomparable (peerles) is Sri Purnawarman who reigns Taruma. His armour cannot be penetrated by the arrows of his enemies. The prints of the foot soles belong to him who was always successful to destroy the fortresses of his enemies, and was always charitable and gave honorable receptions to those who are loyal to him and hostle to his enemies.


Not only stones testify of the existance of King Purnawarman and his Tarumanagara kingom. There are also Chinese history sources, since Tarumanagara maintained extended trade and diplomatic relations in the territory streching between India and China. The Chinese Buddhist Monk Fa-Hsien reported in his book fo-kuo-chi (414 AD) that he stayed on the island of Yavadi (Jawa), most probaly western part of Java island, for six months, from December 412 until May 413 AD. He reported that the Law of Budha was not much known, but that the Brahmans (Hindu) flourished, and heretics (animists) too. Faxian (pinyin, Chinese characters: 法顯, also romanized as Fa-Hien or Fa-hsien) (ca. ... Jawa may refer to: Jawa, an island in Indonesia, known in English as Java Jawa Motors, a manufacturer of automobiles and motorcycles based in the Czech Republic Jawa, an alien race from Star Wars This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise...


In the annals of the Sung Dynasty, the king of Ya-va-da (Java) is His Majesty Purnawarman. Those annals also provide documentary evidence of a diplomatic mission sent by Purnawarman, which arrived in china in 435 AD. Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ...


Kings after Purnawarman

The next kings of Tarumanagara were:

  • King Wisnuwarman 434-455
  • King Indrawarman 455-515
  • King Candrawarman 515-535
  • King Suryawarman 535-561. He established a new capital city for the kingdom eastward and left Sunda Pura and its communities to preserve their own order. Then, Sunda Pura become a new smaller kingdom called Sunda Sambawa which was under control of Tarumanagara. Before the king reigned Tarumanagara, Manikmaya, his son in law, in 526, left Sunda Pura southeastward and established a new kingdom near current Nagreg, Garut city.
  • King Kertawarman 561-628. In this period, the grandson of Manikmaya, Wretikandayun, in 612, established Galuh Kingdom, southeast of current Garut with its capital city located in Banjar Pataruman.
  • King Sudhawarman 628-639
  • King Hariwangsawarman 639-640
  • King Linggawarman 640-666. The only daughter of King Linggawarman, Princess Sobakancana married Daputahyang Srijayanasa, who later established Sriwijaya kingdom. Their son, Manasih, married Tarusbawa.

Garut is one of the regencies in Indonesias southern West Java province. ... Garut is one of the regencies in Indonesias southern West Java province. ... Map of Southeast Asia at end of 12th century. ...

Decline

In about 650, Tarumanagara kingdom was attacked and defeated by Srivijaya (a kingdom established in Sumatra island in 500). Then, Tarumanegara's influence on its small kingdoms began to decline. Map of Southeast Asia at end of 12th century. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ...


In 669, Tarusbawa inherited Tarumanagara crown. Tarusbawa is the last king of Tarumanagara. This matter is in line with Chinese chronicles mentioning that a messenger of Tarumanagara last visited China in 669. Tarusbawa indeed sent his messenger advising his enthronement to Chinese king in 669. Because the influence of Tarumanagara in Tarusbawa era declined as a result of severance by its vassal states as well as due to the attacks by Srivijaya, he wished to return the greatness of the kingdom as was in the era of Purnawarman controlling the kingdoms from Sunda Pura. Hence, in 670, he changed name Tarumanagara to be Sunda.


This event was made as a reason by king Wretikandayun (Monarchic founder of Galuh) to dissociate the small kingdom from the power of Tarumanagara and asked King Tarusbawa to devide Tarumanagara territory into two parts. Galuh got a support from Kalingga kingdom (the first kingdom in Java island) to separate from Tarumanagara because Galuh and Kalingga had made an alliance through dynastic marriage; a son of King Wretikandayun married Parwati (a daughter of queen Sima) from Kalingga and Sana alias Bratasenawa alias Sena (a grandson of King Wretikandayun) married Sanaha (a granddaughter of queen Sima). In a weak position and wishing to avoid civil war, young King Tarusbawa accepted the request of old King Wretikandayun. In 670, Tarumanagara was divided into two kingdoms: Sunda Kingdom and Galuh Kingdom with Citarum river as the boundary. Then Galuh Kingdom comprised of many vassal kingdoms which covered areas of present-day West and present-day Central Java Provinces.


King Tarusbawa then established a new capital of his kingdom located near Cipakancilan river upstream which centuries later became the city of Pakuan Pajajaran (or shortly called Pakuan or Pajajaran). King Tarusbawa becomes the ancestor of Sunda kings.


 
 

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