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Encyclopedia > Tartu
Tartu linn
Coat of arms of Tartu
Flag Coat of arms
County Tartu County
Area 38.8 km² (15 sq mi)
Population (as of 2007)
 - Density
101,965[1]
2,628/km² (6,806.5/sq mi)
Coordinates 58°23' N 26°43' E
Location of Tartu
Location of Tartu

Tartu (historical names: German: Dorpat, from original name Tarbatu, Russian: Юрьев, Yuryev) is the second largest city of Estonia. In contrast to Estonia's political and financial capital Tallinn, Tartu is often considered the intellectual and cultural hub, especially since it is home to Estonia's oldest and most renowned university. Situated 186 km southeast of Tallinn, the city is the centre of southern Estonia. The Emajõgi River, which connects the two largest lakes of Estonia, crosses Tartu. The city is served by Tartu Airport. Image File history File links Description: Flag of Tartu town, Estonia. ... Image File history File links Description: Coat of arms of Tartu town, Estonia. ... It has been suggested that the section intro from the article Civil flag be merged into this article or section. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... A county (Estonian: maakond) is an administrative subdivision of Estonia. ... Capital Tartu Governor Esta Tamm Area 2,993 km² (6th) Population (as of 2004)  - Density 148,872 (3rd) 49. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Image File history File links Tartu_location. ... Look up city, City in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... County Area 159. ... The University of Tartu (Estonian: ; Russian: ; German: ) is a classical university in the city of Tartu, Estonia. ... The Emajõgi (German: Embach, Latvian: MÄ“tra, Võro: Imäjõgi) is a river in Estonia which flows from Lake Võrtsjärv through Tartu County into Lake Peipus. ... Tartu Airport (IATA: TAY, ICAO: EETU) is 8 kilometres (5 miles) south of the city centre of Tartu in Estonia, near the Tartu-Võru highway. ...

Contents

Historical names

As Tartu has been under the control of various rulers throughout its history, there are various names for the city in different languages. In German and Swedish it has been known as Dorpat , a corruption of the medieval Estonian name Tarbatu. In Russian, the city has been known as Юрьев (Yuryev) after Yaroslav I the Wise and as Дерпт (Derpt), a corruption of Dorpat (however, since 1917 the Estonian name Tartu is used). Similarly, the city has been known as Tērbata in Latvian. Image File history File links Dorpat. ... Mikhail Gerasimovs reconstruction of Yaroslavs appearance, based on his examination of Yaroslavs skull Yaroslav I the Wise (c. ...


History

Main building of Tartu University.
Main building of Tartu University.

Image File history File links Tartu_university_christmas. ... Image File history File links Tartu_university_christmas. ...

Beginnings

Archaeological evidence of the first permanent settlement on the site of modern Tartu dates to as early as the 5th century AD. By the 7th century, local inhabitants had built a wooden fortification on the east side of Toome Hill (Toomemägi). Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ...


The first documented record of the place was made in 1030 by chroniclers of Kievan Rus. Yaroslav I the Wise, Prince of Kiev, raided Tartu that year, built his own fort there, and named it Yuryev (literally "Yury's" - Yury being Yaroslav's Christian name). Kievan rulers then collected tribute from the surrounding ancient Estonian county of Ugaunia, possibly until 1061, when, according to chronicles, Yuryev was burned down by another tribe of Chudes (Sosols). Events July 29 - Battle of Stiklestad in Norway. ... Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian; Київська Русь, Kyivs’ka Rus’ in Ukrainian) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... The Ugaunians (ugalased in Estonian) is one of the Finnic tribes that were called Chudes in Russian and that later formed the Estonian nation. ... Events Normans conquer Messina in Sicily Pope Alexander II elected The building of the Speyer Cathedral in Speyer, Germany, had begun to be built. ... Chud is a term referring to urban homeless people, especially those who dwell in the tunnels, sewers and subway corridors beneath New York City. ...


Germans in Dorpat (Tartu)

Rüütli street in historical midtown Tartu
Rüütli street in historical midtown Tartu

During the period of Northern crusades in the beginning of the 13th century the fort of Tarbatu (or Tharbata, Tartu) was captured by the crusading Livonian Knights and recaptured by Estonians on several occasions until, in 1224, it was besieged and conquered from troops of the East Slavic prince Vyachko for one last time by the German crusaders. Subsequently known as Dorpat (Tarbatum), Tartu became a commercial centre of considerable importance during the later Middle Ages and the capital of the semi-independent Bishopric of Dorpat. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 530 pixelsFull resolution (2256 × 1496 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 530 pixelsFull resolution (2256 × 1496 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Teutonic knights in Pskov in 1240. ... The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Latin Fratres militiae Christi, literally the brothers of the army of Christ), also known as the Christ Knights, Sword Brethren or The Militia of Christ of Livonia, was a military order started in 1202 by Albert von Buxhövden, bishop of Riga (or Prince... // Foundation of the University of Naples Livonian Brothers of the Sword conquers Latgallians and the stronghold of Tartu from Ugaunian and Russian troops. ... The East Slavic languages constitute one of three regional subgroups of Slavic languages, currently spoken in Eastern Europe. ... Vyachko (Russian: ; Latvian: Vetseke) was a Rusian prince who fought against the expansionism of the Germanic Livonian Knights at the turn of the 13th century. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Bishopric of Dorpat was a medieval principality 1234-1558 in what are now Tartu, Põlva, Võru and Jõgeva counties in Estonia. ...


In 1262 the army of Prince Dmitri of Pereslavl, son of Alexander Nevsky launched an assault on Dorpat, capturing and destroying the town. His troops did not manage to capture the bishop’s fortress on Toome Hill. The event was recorded both in German and Old East Slavic chronicles, which also provided the first record of a settlement of German merchants and artisans which had arisen alongside the bishop’s fortress. Dmitry Alexandrovich (ca. ... For other uses, see Alexander Nevsky (disambiguation). ... Old East Slavic, traditionally known as Old Russian (Russian: древнерусский), is a name for a vernacular literary language used between the 10th and 14th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus and other states formed by that ethnic group. ...


In the 1280s Dorpat joined the Hanseatic League. In medieval times Tartu was an important trading city. As in all of Estonia and Latvia, the largely German-speaking nobility, but in Tartu/Dorpat (as in Tallinn) even more so, the Baltic German bourgeoisie, the literati, dominated culture, religion, architecture, education, and politics until the late 19th century. For example, the town hall of Dorpat was designed by an architect from Mecklenburg, from the city of Rostock, while the university buildings were designed by another German. Many, if not most, of the students, and more than 90% of the faculty members were of German heritage, and numerous statues of notable scientists with German names can still be found in the city today. Most Germans had to leave during the first half of the 20th century. Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ... The Baltic Germans (German: , Deutschbalten; literally German Balts) were ethnically German inhabitants of the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea, which today forms the countries of Estonia and Latvia. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The name Mecklenburg derives from a castle named Mikilenburg (Old German: big castle), located between the cities of Schwerin and Wismar. ... Motto: Within your walls be concordance and public welfare Rostock (pronounced // from Polabian Roz toc, literally to flow apart) is the largest city in the north German state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. ...


Polish and Swedish rule

In the 16th century, Livonia and Tartu both came under Polish rule, and a Jesuit grammar school was established in the city in 1583. In addition, a translators' seminary was organized in Tartu and the city received its red and white flag from the Polish king Stephen Bathory. (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Baltic Tribes, ca 1200 CE This article is about the region in Europe. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... 1583 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ... Reign From December 9, 1575 until December 12, 1586 Elected On December 9, 1575 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On May 1, 1576 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Noble Family Bathory Parents Stephen Bathory Catherine Telegdi Consorts Anna Jagiellonka Children none Date of Birth September...


The activities of both the grammar school and the seminary were stopped by the Polish-Swedish War (1601). Tartu then became Swedish in 1629, which led to the foundation of the university in 1632 by King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden. The Polish-Swedish Wars refer to a series of wars between Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Sweden, in the wider meaning to the series of wars in which both Sweden and Poland participated between 1563 and 1721, in the narrower meaning to denote the two wars between 1600 and 1629. ... Events February 8 - Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, rebels against Elizabeth I of England - revolt is quickly crushed February 25 - Robert Devereux beheaded Jesuit Matteo Ricci arrives in China Bad harvest in Russia due to rainy summer Dutch troops drive Portuguese from Málaga Battle of Kinsale, Ireland Births... Events March 4 - Massachusetts Bay Colony is granted a Royal charter. ... See also: 1632 (novel) Events February 22 - Galileos Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published July 23 - 300 colonists for New France depart Dieppe November 8 - Wladyslaw IV Waza elected king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after Zygmunt III Waza death November 16 - Battle of Lützen... Gustav II Adolf King of Sweden Gustav II Adolf (also known as Gustaf Adolf the Great (Swedish Gustav Adolf den store, Latin Gustavus Adolphus Magnus), or Gustavus II Adolphus; December 9, 1594 – November 6, 1632 O.S.), widely known by the Latinized name Gustavus Adolphus and referred to by contemporary...


Tartu in Imperial Russia

Tartu town hall, built in 1789.
Tartu town hall, built in 1789.

With the Treaty of Nystad in 1721, the city became part of the Russian Empire and was known as Derpt. Due to fires in the 18th century which destroyed much of the medieval architecture, the city was rebuilt along Late Baroque and Neoclassical lines. During the second-half of the 19th century, Tartu was the cultural center for Estonians in the era of Romantic nationalism. The city hosted Estonia's first song festival in 1869, as well as the Vanemuine, the first national theatre, in 1870. It was also the setting for the foundation of the Society of Estonian Writers in 1872. Image File history File links Town hall in Tartu (1789). ... Image File history File links Town hall in Tartu (1789). ... The Treaty of Nystad (1721), signed at the present-day Finnish town of Uusikaupunki (Swedish Nystad), ended the Great Northern War, in which Russia received the territories of Estonia, Livonia and Ingria, as well as much of Karelia and Tsar Peter I of Russia replaced King Frederick I of Sweden... Year 1721 (MDCCXXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Baroque architecture, starting in the early 17th century in Italy, took the humanist Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical, theatrical, sculptural fashion, expressing the triumph of absolutist church and state. ... Late Baroque classicizing: G. P. Pannini assembles the canon of Roman ruins and Roman sculpture into one vast imaginary gallery (1756) Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


In 1893, the city was officially retitled to the ancient Russian name Yuryev. The university began to be Russified in 1895 with the introduction of compulsory Russian in teaching. This Russian imperial university was relocated to Voronezh in 1918, but the Estonian University of Tartu opened in 1919. With Estonian independence after World War I, the city officially became known by the Estonian name Tartu. Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Russification is an adoption of the Russian language or some other Russian attribute (whether voluntarily or not) by non-Russian communities. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Voronezh (Russian: ) is a large city in southwestern Russia, not far from Ukraine. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The University of Tartu (Estonian: ; Russian: ; German: ) is a classical university in the city of Tartu, Estonia. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Soviet influence

At the end of Estonian War of Independence following World War I, a peace treaty between the Bolsheviks and Estonia was signed on 2 February 1920 in Tartu. The treaty meant that Bolshevist Russia renounced territorial claims to Estonia "for all time." However, as a result of the Nazi-Soviet Pact of 1939, the Soviet Union occupied Estonia and Tartu in 1940. Combatants  Estonia, Finnish and Scandinavian volunteers, White Russians Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic Landeswehr Commanders Johan Laidoner Jukums Vācietis Sergei Kamenev Rüdiger von der Goltz Strength 74,500 (Estonian Army), ca 4000 Finnish volunteers, White Russians, about 200-400 Scandinavians 160 000+ 9500 Casualties 5,600 killed 15... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Bolshevist Russia is a common term that refers to the Bolshevik side in the Russian Civil War, or more specifically the Russian government between the October Revolution (November 7, 1917) and the constitution of the Soviet Union (December 30, 1922). ... Molotov (left), Ribbentrop (in black) and Stalin The Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, also known as the Hitler-Stalin pact or Nazi-Soviet pact, was a non-aggression treaty between Germany and Russia, or more precisely between the Soviet Union and the Third Reich. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


During World War II, a large part of the city as well as the historical Kivisild (Stone Bridge) (built by Catherine II of Russia in 1776-1778) over the Emajõgi were destroyed by the fighting Red Army, partly in 1941 and almost totally in 1944. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Catherine II of Russia, called the Great (Russian: Екатерина II Великая, Yekaterina II Velikaya; 2 May [O.S. 21 April] 1729 – 17 November [O.S. 6 November] 1796) reigned as Empress of Russia for 34 years, from June 28, 1762 until her death. ... Year 1776 (MDCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1778 (MDCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


After the war, Tartu was declared a "closed town" to foreigners, as an air base for bombers was constructed on Raadi Airfield, in the northeast outskirts of the city. The asphalt runway there now houses a large used cars market, and is sometimes used for automotive racing. Tartu Air Base is a former air base in Estonia located 4 km northeast of Tartu. ...


During Soviet times the population of Tartu almost doubled from 57,000 to 100,000.


Independence

Since Estonia regained its independence in 1991, the old town centre is being renovated. Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ...


Climate

Weather averages for Tartu
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 7.7 (46) 10.9 (52) 17.7 (64) 24.7 (76) 29.0 (84) 31.2 (88) 34.0 (93) 33.7 (93) 28.6 (83) 21.4 (71) 13.6 (56) 8.4 (47) 34.0 (93)
Average high °C (°F) -4.2 (24) -3.3 (26) 1.6 (35) 9.2 (49) 16.7 (62) 20.5 (69) 21.9 (71) 20.5 (69) 15.1 (59) 9.1 (48) 2.6 (37) -1.7 (29) 9.0 (48)
Average low °C (°F) -10.5 (13) -10.2 (14) -6.2 (21) -0.3 (31) 5.2 (41) 9.1 (48) 11.1 (52) 10.5 (51) 6.5 (44) 2.5 (37) -2.2 (28) -7.3 (19) 0.6 (33)
Record low °C (°F) -37.5 (-36) -36.0 (-33) -29.6 (-21) -19.8 (-4) -7.2 (19) -2.2 (28) 2.7 (37) 1.7 (35) -6.6 (20) -11.1 (12) -21.2 (-6) -38.6 (-37) -38.6 (-37)
Precipitation mm (inch) 29 (1.1) 23 (0.9) 26 (1) 33 (1.3) 53 (2.1) 60 (2.4) 71 (2.8) 86 (3.4) 64 (2.5) 52 (2) 48 (1.9) 40 (1.6) 585 (23)
Source: Estonian Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology[2] 11.09.2007

Government

Emajõe Center commercial building.
Emajõe Center commercial building.

There are 49 members on the town council, elected by residents every four years using a proportional system of representation. [1] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 401 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (685 × 1024 pixel, file size: 219 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Tartu pläsku building. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 401 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (685 × 1024 pixel, file size: 219 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Tartu pläsku building. ...


The executive branch of the town government consists of a mayor and five deputy mayors. [2] The current mayor is Urmas Kruuse. Andrus Ansip, the current Prime Minister of Estonia, was mayor for many years. Both Ansip and Kruuse are members of the Estonian Reform Party, which has dominated in Tartu in recent years. A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Prime Minister of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariigi Peaminister) is the head of government of the Republic of Estonia. ... The Estonian Reform Party (Estonian: Eesti Reformierakond) is a free market liberal party in Estonia. ...


Population

According to the European Statistical Office, Tartu's population comprised the following self-reported ethnic groups as of 2006:

Nationality Percentage
Estonians 80,2%
Russians 15,7%
Ukrainians 1,2%
Finns 1,1%
Others 1,8%

Tartu's historic population is presented in the following table, based on data from official censuses since 1881[3] and Estonian Statistical Office[4]:

Year Population
1881 29,974
1897 42,308
1922 50,342
1934 58,876
1959 74,263
1970 90,459
1979 104,381
1989 113,320
1995 104,874
2000 101,241
2005 101,483
2006 101,740
2007 101,965

Education and culture

Early 19th century observatory building.
Early 19th century observatory building.

The city is best known for being the home to the University of Tartu, founded by King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden in 1632. Mainly for this reason, Tartu is also - tongue-in-cheek - known as "Athens of the Emajõgi" or as "Heidelberg of the North". Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 541 pixelsFull resolution (1702 × 1152 pixel, file size: 352 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Tartu tähetorn, 2006 File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 541 pixelsFull resolution (1702 × 1152 pixel, file size: 352 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Tartu tähetorn, 2006 File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The University of Tartu (Estonian: ; Russian: ; German: ) is a classical university in the city of Tartu, Estonia. ... Gustav II Adolf King of Sweden Gustav II Adolf (also known as Gustaf Adolf the Great (Swedish Gustav Adolf den store, Latin Gustavus Adolphus Magnus), or Gustavus II Adolphus; December 9, 1594 – November 6, 1632 O.S.), widely known by the Latinized name Gustavus Adolphus and referred to by contemporary... See also: 1632 (novel) Events February 22 - Galileos Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published July 23 - 300 colonists for New France depart Dieppe November 8 - Wladyslaw IV Waza elected king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after Zygmunt III Waza death November 16 - Battle of Lützen... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... The Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg (German Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; also known as simply University of Heidelberg) was established in the town of Heidelberg in the Rhineland in 1386. ...


Tartu is also the seat of the Estonian University of Life Sciences, the Baltic Defence College, Tartu Aviation College, and the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research. The Estonian Supreme Court, which was re-established in Tartu in the autumn of 1993, is likewise in the city, as well as the Estonian Historical Archives and Estonian national theatre Vanemuine The Estonian University of Life Sciences (EULS; Estonian: Eesti Maaülikool), located in Tartu, Estonia, is the former Estonian Agricultural University, which was renamed and restructured in November 2005. ... The Baltic Defence College (offical acronym BALTDEFCOL, commonly also BDCOL) is a multi-lateral co-operative military college which educates officers from not only the three Baltic States, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, but also from NATO and EU States and other European States as Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia and Romania. ... Tartu Aviation College (Estonian: Tartu Lennukolledž) is a school in Tartu for aviation professionals. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Vanemuine is the oldest theatre in Estonia. ...


Main sights

St. John's Church
St. John's Church

The architecture and city planning of historical Tartu mainly go back to the pre-independence period, with Germans forming the upper and middle classes of society, and therefore contributing many architects, professors, local politicians, etc. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

St. John's Church interior
St. John's Church interior

Most notable are the old Lutheran St. John's Church (Estonian:Jaani Kirik, German: Johanneskirche), the 18th-century town hall, the university building, the remainders of the 13th-century cathedral, the botanical gardens, the main shopping street, and many buildings around the town hall square. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... John the Apostle (Hebrew: Johanan ;Greek Ιωάννης, see names of John) was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus. ...


In the suburbs, classic Soviet neighbourhoods - blocks of high-rise flats - were built during the period between the Second World War and restoration of Estonian independence in 1991. Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ...


Presently, Tartu is also known for several modern, rather sterile-looking buildings of the "steel, concrete and glass" type, but has managed to retain a mix of old buildings and new buildings in the historical centre of town.


Being the intellectual and cultural centre of Estonia, the Estonian Prime Minister often takes state guests to Tartu. Famous guests have included Charles, Prince of Wales, the presidents of Finland, Latvia, Hungary, the Republic of Ireland, and Lithuania, as well as religious leaders like the Dalai Lama and the head of the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, Patriarch Bartholomew I. “Prince Charles” redirects here. ... Tenzin Gyatso (born 6 July 1935) is the fourteenth and current Dalai Lama. ... The Orthodox Church of Constantinople is one of the fifteen autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches. ... His All Holiness Patriarch Bartholomew I Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I (born Demetrios Archontonis on February 29, 1940) has been the Patriarch of Constantinople, and thus first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox Communion, since November 2, 1991. ...


Tartu's large student population means that it has a comparatively thriving nightlife, with some bars, restaurants, and nightclubs. Some of the more popular destinations for tourists include the Wilde Irish Pub, the Gunpowder Cellar, Club Tallinn and the café Maailm.


Annually, in the summer, Tartu hosts the Hansa Days Festival (Estonian: Hansapäevad) under the motto "History lives" when the old town is bustling with activty from handicraft markets and historic workshops to a jousting tournament.


Twin towns

Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... View of most of Bærum from Holmenkollen in Oslo County Akershus District Viken Municipality NO-0209 Administrative centre Sandvika Mayor (2005) Odd Reinsfelt (H) Official language form BokmÃ¥l Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 334 192 km² 189 km² 0. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Deventer is a municipality and city in the Salland region of the Dutch province of Overijssel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Ferrara is a city in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, capital city of the province of Ferrara. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Frederiksberg is a municipality of Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iceland. ... Location of Hafnarfjörður, Iceland (left/center) Coordinates: Constituency Southwest Area  - City 147 km²  (56. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... View of Lake Vanajavesi, next to Hämeenlinna. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lithuania. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Kaunas County Municipality Geographic coordinate system Number of elderates 11 General Information Capital of Kaunas County Kaunas city municipality Kaunas district municipality Population 361,274 in 2005 (2nd) First mentioned 1361 Granted city rights 1408 Kaunas ( (help· info), approximate English transcription [ˈkəʊ.nÉ™s... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Lüneburg (English: Lunenburg) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany, about 50km southeast of Hamburg. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... The Trinity Cathedral (1682-99) is a symbol of Pskovs former might and independence. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Latvia. ... For other uses, see Riga (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Nickname: Location in Maryland Coordinates: , County Founded 1732 Incorporated 1854 Government  - Mayor Barrie Parsons Tilghman Area  - City 29. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Tampere ( , IPA: ; Swedish: Tammerfors ) is a city in southern Finland located between two lakes, Näsijärvi and Pyhäjärvi. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Location of Turku in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Finland Province Western Finland Region Finland Proper Sub-region Turku sub-region Government  - Mayor Mikko Pukkinen Area  - City 306. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Uppsala (older spelling Upsala) is a city in central Sweden, located about 70 km north of Stockholm. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... Veszprém (in Slovak Vesprím) is a city in western Hungary. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Zutphen (old alternate spelling: Zutfen) is a municipality and a town in the province of Gelderland in the Netherlands on the right bank of the IJssel at the influx of the Berkel, and a junction station 29 km by rail N.N.E. of Arnhem. ...

Gallery

See also

The University of Tartu (Estonian: ; Russian: ; German: ) is a classical university in the city of Tartu, Estonia. ...

References

  1. ^ Statistics Estonia: Population by Gender, Age and Type of Municipality
  2. ^ Estonian Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology (Estonian). Retrieved on September 11, 2007.
  3. ^ Statistics Estonia: General Data for 1881, 1897, 1922, 1934, 1959, 1970, 1979, 1989 Censuses
  4. ^ Statistics Estonia: Population by Gender, Age Group and County

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Tartu


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Coat of arms of Tartu County Municipalities of Tartu County
Urban municipalities: Elva | Kallaste | Tartu
Rural municipalities: Alatskivi | Haaslava | Kambja | Konguta | Laeva | Luunja | Meeksi | Mäksa | Nõo | Peipsiääre | Piirissaare | Puhja | Rannu | Rõngu | Tartu | Tähtvere | Vara | Võnnu | Ülenurme

  Results from FactBites:
 
Tartu - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1334 words)
Tartu then became Swedish in 1629, which led to the foundation of the university in 1632 by King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden.
During the second-half of the 19th century, Tartu was the cultural center for Estonians in the era of Romantic nationalism.
Tartu is also the seat of the Estonian University of Life Sciences, the Baltic Defence College, Tartu Aviation College, and the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research.
Tartu County - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1262 words)
Tartu County (Estonian: Tartu maakond), or Tartumaa, is one of 15 counties of Estonia.
The city of Tartu is the centre of the county located at a distance of 186 km from Tallinn.
Tartu County is an integrated economic system and labour area with its centre in the City of Tartu.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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