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Encyclopedia > Tarim mummies
A Tarim Basin mummy photographed by Aurel Stein circa 1910.

The Tarim mummies are a series of mummies discovered in the Tarim Basin in present-day Xinjiang, China, which date from 1800 BC to AD 200. The most remarkable features of these mummies, given the general location of these graves, are the Caucasoid physical type feature the corpses exhibit, which suggests an early contact between Caucasoid and Mongoloid populations in East Central Asia in the later 2nd millennium or early 1st millennium BC.[1]:242–243 The mummies, particularly the early ones, are associated with the presence of the Indo-European Tocharian languages in the Tarim Basin. The cemetery at Yanbulaq contained 29 mummies which date from 1100–500 BC, 21 of which are Mongoloid—the earliest Mongoloid mummies found in the Tarim basin—and 8 of which are of the same Caucasoid physical type found at Qäwrighul.[1]:237 Download high resolution version (589x1004, 312 KB)One of the Tarim Basin mummies photographed by Stein circa 1910. ... Download high resolution version (589x1004, 312 KB)One of the Tarim Basin mummies photographed by Stein circa 1910. ... Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ... Sir M(arc) Aurel Stein (1862 - 1943), born in Budapest, was a Hungarian Jewish archaeologist who became a British citizen. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Mummified cat from Ancient Egypt. ... Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Typical Caucasoid skull Caucasoid is a racial classification usually used as part of a phenotypal system, also including other classifications such as Australoid, Mongoloid, Negroid, and sometimes others such as Capoid. ... Typical Mongoloid Skull A portrait of the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan; the Mongolians, for which the term Mongoloid was named after, are an example of the prototype Northern Mongoloid. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... Tocharian is one of the most obscure branches of the group of Indo-European languages. ... Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ... Typical Mongoloid Skull A portrait of the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan; the Mongolians, for which the term Mongoloid was named after, are an example of the prototype Northern Mongoloid. ... Typical Mongoloid Skull A portrait of the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan; the Mongolians, for which the term Mongoloid was named after, are an example of the prototype Northern Mongoloid. ... Typical Caucasoid skull Caucasoid is a racial classification usually used as part of a phenotypal system, also including other classifications such as Australoid, Mongoloid, Negroid, and sometimes others such as Capoid. ...

Contents

Archeological record

At the beginning of the 20th century European explorers such as Sven Hedin, Albert von Le Coq and Sir Aurel Stein all recounted their discoveries of desiccated bodies in their search for antiquities in Central Asia.[1]:10 Since then many other mummies have been found and analysed, most of them now displayed in the museums of Xinjiang. Most of these mummies were found on the eastern (around the area of Lopnur, Subeshi near Turfan, Kroran, Kumul) and southern (Khotan, Niya, Qiemo) edge of the Tarim Basin. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Sven Hedin. ... Albert von Le Coq (1860 - 1930) was a German archaeologist and explorer of Central Asia. ... Sir M(arc) Aurel Stein (1862 - 1943), born in Budapest, was a Hungarian Jewish archaeologist who became a British citizen. ... Antiquity means different things: Generally it means ancient history, and may be used of any period before the Middle Ages. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Lop Nur (ear-shaped) from space, September 1992 Lop Nur (Lake Lop; alternately Lop Nor, Lo-pu po or Taitema Lake) is a group of small, now seasonal salt lakes and marshes between the Taklamakan and Kuruktag deserts in the southeastern portion of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in northwestern China... position in China Street of Turfan View of the Flaming mountains Emin minaret, Turfan Turfan (Uyghur: تۇرپان; Uyghur latin: Turpan; Modern Chinese 吐魯番, Pinyin: TÇ”lÇ”fán; ) is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Kumul or Hami (Uyghur: قۇمۇل/K̢umul; Chinese: 哈密; Pinyin: Hāmì) is an oasis in Xinjiang (China); it is also the name of a modern city and the sourrounding district. ... Mosque in Khotan. ... A Tarim Basin mummy photographed by Aurel Stein circa 1910 Niya is an archaeological site located on the southern edge of the Tarim Basin in modern-day Xinjiang, Autonomous Region of China. ... Qiemo is a town located in Xinjiang, China. ... Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ...


The earliest Tarim mummies, found at Qäwrighul and dated to 1800 BC, are of a Caucasoid physical type whose closest affiliation is to the Bronze Age populations of southern Siberia, Kazakhstan, Central Asia, and Lower Volga.[1]:237 Typical Caucasoid skull Caucasoid is a racial classification usually used as part of a phenotypal system, also including other classifications such as Australoid, Mongoloid, Negroid, and sometimes others such as Capoid. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... “Siberian” redirects here. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ...


The cemetery at Yanbulaq contained 29 mummies which date from 1100–500 BC, 21 of which are Mongoloid—the earliest Mongoloid mummies found in the Tarim basin—and 8 of which are of the same Caucasoid physical type found at Qäwrighul.[1]:237 Typical Mongoloid Skull A portrait of the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan; the Mongolians, for which the term Mongoloid was named after, are an example of the prototype Northern Mongoloid. ... Typical Mongoloid Skull A portrait of the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan; the Mongolians, for which the term Mongoloid was named after, are an example of the prototype Northern Mongoloid. ... Typical Caucasoid skull Caucasoid is a racial classification usually used as part of a phenotypal system, also including other classifications such as Australoid, Mongoloid, Negroid, and sometimes others such as Capoid. ...


The most famous[citation needed] mummies are the tall, red-haired "Chärchän man" or the "Ur-David" (1000 BC); his son (1000 BC), a small 1-year-old baby with blond hair protruding from under a red and blue felt cap, and blue stones in place of the eyes; the "Hami Mummy" (c. 1400–800 BC), a "red-headed beauty" found in Qizilchoqa; and the "Witches of Subeshi" (4th or 3rd century BC), who wore tall pointed hats.


Many of the mummies have been found in very good condition, owing to the dryness of the desert, and the desiccation of the corpses it induced. The mummies share many typical Caucasoid body features (elongated bodies, angular faces, recessed eyes), and many of them have their hair physically intact, ranging in color from blond to red to deep brown, and generally long, curly and braided. It is not known whether their hair has been bleached by internment in salt. Their costumes, and especially textiles, may indicate a common origin with Indo-European neolithic clothing techniques or a common low-level textile technology.[citation needed] Desiccation is the state of extreme dryness, or the process of extreme drying. ... This article is about the type of fabric. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ...


Genetic links

DNA sequence data[2] shows that at least one mummy had a haplotype characteristic of western Eurasia, confirming the earlier suggestion that the mummies are of at least partial West Asian descent. part of a DNA sequence A DNA sequence (sometimes genetic sequence) is a succession of letters representing the primary structure of a real or hypothetical DNA molecule or strand, The possible letters are A, C, G, and T, representing the four nucleotide subunits of a DNA strand (adenine, cytosine, guanine... A haplotype is the genetic constitution of an individual chromosome. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


A team of Chinese and American researchers working in Sweden tested DNA from 52 separate mummies, including the mummy denoted "Beauty of Loulan." By genetically mapping the mummies' origins, the researchers confirmed the theory that these mummies were of West Asian descent. Victor Mair, a University of Pennsylvania professor and project leader for the team that did the genetic mapping, commented that these studies were: Victor H. Mair is Professor of Chinese Language and Literature in the Department of East Asian Languages and Civilizations at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, United States. ... This article is about the private Ivy League university in Philadelphia. ...

...extremely important because they link up eastern and western Eurasia at a formative stage of civilization (Bronze Age and early Iron Age) in a much closer way than has ever been done before.[3]

This evidence corroborated the earlier link made between the textiles found with the mummies with early European textile and weave types and the superficial observation that the mummies seemed to have blond and red hair. An earlier study by Jilin University had found a mtDNA haplotype characteristic of Western Eurasian populations[citation needed]. West Eurasia is an area bounded by the Sahara and the Indian Ocean to the south, the Atlantic to the west, and the Arctic Ocean to the north. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... Jilin University (JLU) is a leading national university under the direct jurisdiction of Chinas Ministry of Education. ... Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is DNA which is not located in the nucleus of the cell but in the mitochondria. ...


In trying to trace the origins of these peoples Victor Mair's team suggested that these peoples may have arrived in the region by way of the forbidding Pamir Mountains about 5000 years ago.


Needless to say this evidence is considered controversial. It refutes the contemporary nationalist claims of the regional Uighur peoples who claimed to be the indigenous peoples of the Xinjiang, rather than the Chinese Hans. In comparing the DNA to the modern day Uighur peoples, they found some genetic similarities with the mummies, but "no direct links".


About the controversy Mair has stated that:

The new finds are also forcing a reexamination of old Chinese books that describe historical or legendary figures of great height, with deep-set blue or green eyes, long noses, full beards, and red or blond hair. Scholars have traditionally scoffed at these accounts, but it now seems that they may be accurate.[cite this quote]

Chinese scientists were initially hesitant to give up the DNA samples because they were sensitive about the nationalist Uighur claims, and to prevent a pillaging of national monuments by foreigners.


Posited origins

Physical anthropologists propose the movement of at least two Caucasoid physical types into the Tarim basin, which Mallory & Mair (2000:317–318) associate with the Tocharian and Iranian (Saka) branches of the Indo-European language family, respectively. Typical Caucasoid skull Caucasoid is a racial classification usually used as part of a phenotypal system, also including other classifications such as Australoid, Mongoloid, Negroid, and sometimes others such as Capoid. ... A Tarim Basin mummy photographed by Aurel Stein circa 1910. ... Tocharian is one of the most obscure branches of the group of Indo-European languages. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ...


B. E. Hemphill's biodistance analysis of cranial metrics (as cited in Larsen 2002 and Schurr 2001) has questioned the identification of the Tarim Basin population as European, noting that the earlier population has close affinities to the Indus Valley population, and the later population with the Oxus River valley population. Because craniometry can produce results which make no sense at all (e.g. the close relationship between Neolithic populations in Russia and Portugal) and therefore lack any historical meaning, any putative genetic relationship must be consistent with geographical plausibility and have the support of other evidence.[1]:236 This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A Tarim Basin mummy photographed by Aurel Stein circa 1910. ... A Tarim Basin mummy photographed by Aurel Stein circa 1910. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ...


Han Kangxin (as cited in Mallory & Mair 2000:236–237), who examined the skulls of 302 mummies, found the closest relatives of the earlier Tarim Basin population in the populations of the Afanasevo culture situated immediately north of the Tarim Basin and the Andronovo culture that spanned Kazakhstan and reached southwards into West Central Asia and the Altai. A Tarim Basin mummy photographed by Aurel Stein circa 1910. ... Shaded area represents Minusa River basin of the upper Yenisei River catchment, and approximate center of the Afanasevo culture. ... Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ... Map of the approximate maximal extent of the Andronovo culture. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


It is the Afanasevo culture to which Mallory & Mair (2000:294–296, 314–318) trace the earliest Bronze Age settlers of the Tarim and Turpan basins. The Afanasevo culture (c. 3500–2500 BC) displays cultural and genetic connections with the Indo-European-associated cultures of the Eurasian Steppe yet predates the specifically Indo-Iranian-associated Andronovo culture (c. 2000–900 BC) enough to isolate the Tocharian languages from Indo-Iranian linguistic innovations like satemization.[1]:260, 294–296, 314–318 Shaded area represents Minusa River basin of the upper Yenisei River catchment, and approximate center of the Afanasevo culture. ... A Tarim Basin mummy photographed by Aurel Stein circa 1910. ... The Tarim River (Mandarin Dayan) is the principal river of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Turfan (Modern Chinese 吐魯番; pinyin: Tulufan, ancient Chinese Gaochang, also: Kao-chang, Turpan) is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Shaded area represents Minusa River basin of the upper Yenisei River catchment, and approximate center of the Afanasevo culture. ... It has been suggested that Pontic-Caspian steppe be merged into this article or section. ... Map of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture (red), its expansion into the Andronovo culture during the 2nd millennium BC, showing the overlap with the BMAC in the south. ... Map of the approximate maximal extent of the Andronovo culture. ... Tocharian is one of the most obscure branches of the group of Indo-European languages. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... Diachronic map showing the Centum (blue) and Satem (red) areals. ...


Hemphill & Mallory (2004) confirm a second Caucasoid physical type at Alwighul (700–1 BC) and Krorän (AD 200) different from the earlier one found at Qäwrighul (1800 BC) and Yanbulaq (1100–500 BC): A Tarim Basin mummy photographed by Aurel Stein circa 1910. ...

This study confirms the assertion of Han [1998] that the occupants of Alwighul and Krorän are not derived from proto-European steppe populations, but share closest affinities with Eastern Mediterranean populations. Further, the results demonstrate that such Eastern Mediterraneans may also be found at the urban centers of the Oxus civilization located in the north Bactrian oasis to the west. Affinities are especially close between Krorän, the latest of the Xinjiang samples, and Sapalli, the earliest of the Bactrian samples, while Alwighul and later samples from Bactria exhibit more distant phenetic affinities. This pattern may reflect a possible major shift in interregional contacts in Central Asia in the early centuries of the second millennium BC.

Mallory & Mair (2000:318) associate this later (700 BC–200 AD) Caucasoid physical type with the populations who introduced the Iranian Saka language to the western part of the Tarim basin. The Mediterranean Basin refers to the lands around and surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Amu Darya (Darya means river) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large delta. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... A Tarim Basin mummy photographed by Aurel Stein circa 1910. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ...


From Libby Rosof (1997) "Penn Researcher Finds Chinese Mummies’ Surprising Roots":

"In examining small bags some of the mummies wore around their necks, Mair’s team found a connection to Iranian culture. The bags, which were buried with some mummies buried between 1000 B.C. to 200-to-300 A.D., contained ephedra, a medicinal shrub used in Zoroastrian religious rituals. “The ephedra indicates that some of these people were almost certainly speaking an Iranian language,” [Mair] said."[4]

Mair concluded (Mair etc al, 2006): Victor H. Mair is Professor of Chinese Language and Literature in the Department of East Asian Languages and Civilizations at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, United States. ... Ephedra in medicine. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family. ...

"From the evidence available, we have found that during the first 1,000 years after the Loulan Beauty, the only settlers in the Tarim Basin were Caucasoid. East Asian peoples only began showing up in the eastern portions of the Tarim Basin about 3,000 years ago, Mair said, while the Uighur peoples arrived after the collapse of the Orkon Uighur Kingdom, largely based in modern day Mongolia, around the year 842."

The Uyghur (also spelled Uighur; Uyghur: ئۇيغۇر; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) are a Turkic people of Central Asia. ...

Historical records and associated manuscript

Tocharians

The Indo-European Tocharian languages also have been attested in the same geographical area, and although the first known epigraphic evidence dates to the 6th century CE, the degree of differentiation between Tocharian A and Tocharian B, and the absence of Tocharian language remains beyond that area, tends to indicate that a common Tocharian language existed in the same area during the second half of the 1st millennium BC. Although Tocharian texts have never been found in direct relation with the mummies, their identical geographical location and common non-Chinese origin suggest that the mummies were related to the Tocharians and spoke a similar Indo-European language. The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... Tocharian is one of the most obscure branches of the group of Indo-European languages. ... The 1st millennium BC encompasses the Iron Age and sees the rise of successive empires. ... The Tocharians or Tusharas as known in Indian literature were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ...


The Tocharian were described as having full beards, deep-set eyes and high noses and with no sign of decline as attestation in the Chinese sources for the past 1,000 years. This was first noted after the Tocharian had came under the steppe nomads and Chinese subjugation. During the 3rd to 4th century CE, the Tocharian reached their height by incorporating adjoining states.[5]:34-57, 77-88, 96-103


Yuezhi

In the much easterly geographical area, reference to the Yuezhi name in Guanzi was made around 7th century BCE by the Chinese economist Guan Zhong, though the book is generally consider to be a forgery of later generations.[6]:115-127 The contributed author, Guan Zhong described the Yuzhi 禺氏, or Niuzhi 牛氏, as a people from the north-west who supplied jade to the Chinese from the nearby mountains of Yuzhi 禺氏 at Gansu. A large part of the Yuezhi, vanquished by the Xiongnu, were to migrate to southern Asia in the 2nd century BC, and later establish the Kushan Empire in northern India and Afghanistan. Languages Unknown, although the epigraphy ranges from Greek language to Bactrian, and often considered to have spoken a Tocharian language. ... Guanzi Guan zi can also refer to the classic Chinese work the Guan-zi The guan (管; pinyin: guÇŽn; literally pipe or tube) is a Chinese double reed wind instrument. ... Guan Zhong (管仲) (born 725 BC, died in 645 BC) was a politician in the Spring and Autumn Period. ... Guan Zhong (管仲) (born 725 BC, died in 645 BC) was a politician in the Spring and Autumn Period. ... A selection of antique, hand-crafted Chinese jade (jadeite) buttons Unworked Jade Jade is used as an ornamental stone, the term jade is applied to two different rocks that are made up of different silicate minerals. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... A Xiongnu belt buckle. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ...


Roman accounts

Pliny the Elder (, Chap XXIV "Taprobane") reports a curious description of the Seres (in the territories of northwestern China) made by an embassy from Taprobane (Ceylon) to Emperor Claudius, saying that they "exceeded the ordinary human height, had flaxen hair, and blue eyes, and made an uncouth sort of noise by way of talking", suggesting they may be referring to the ancient Caucasian populations of the Tarim Basin: A Tarim Basin mummy photographed by Aurel Stein circa 1910. ... Seres (Σηρες) was the ancient Greek and Roman name for the northwestern part of China and its inhabitants. ... The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (ශ්රී ලංකා in Sinhala / இலங்கை in Tamil) (known as Ceylon before 1972) is a tropical island nation off the southeast coast of the Indian subcontinent. ... For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ...

"They also informed us that the side of their island (Taprobane) which lies opposite to India is ten thousand stadia in length, and runs in a south-easterly direction--that beyond the Emodian Mountains (Himalayas) they look towards the Serve (Seres), whose acquaintance they had also made in the pursuits of commerce; that the father of Rachias (the ambassador) had frequently visited their country, and that the Seræ always came to meet them on their arrival. These people, they said, exceeded the ordinary human height, had flaxen hair, and blue eyes, and made an uncouth sort of noise by way of talking, having no language of their own for the purpose of communicating their thoughts. The rest of their information (on the Serae) was of a similar nature to that communicated by our merchants. It was to the effect that the merchandise on sale was left by them upon the opposite bank of a river on their coast, and it was then removed by the natives, if they thought proper to deal on terms of exchange. On no grounds ought luxury with greater reason to be detested by us, than if we only transport our thoughts to these scenes, and then reflect, what are its demands, to what distant spots it sends in order to satisfy them, and for how mean and how unworthy an end!"

The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (ශ්රී ලංකා in Sinhala / இலங்கை in Tamil) (known as Ceylon before 1972) is a tropical island nation off the southeast coast of the Indian subcontinent. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Controversy

The focus by some scholars and writers on the racial or ethnic identity of the Tarim Mummies has been criticised as being motivated by Eurocentrism and Indo-European chauvinism. Light (1999a, 1999b) argues that the Euro-American scholars and their publicists should not get so excited about finding people who look like themselves that they present only evidence for European connections, while neglecting artifacts of a more complex past. He considered the Mysterious Mummies of China, a NOVA/WGBH documentary first aired on PBS January 1999 to be distorted. An ethnic group is a human population whose members identify with each other, usually on the basis of a presumed common genealogy or ancestry (Smith 1986). ... Eurocentrism is the practice, conscious or otherwise, of placing emphasis on European (and, generally, Western) concerns, culture and values at the expense of those of other cultures. ... A Tarim Basin mummy photographed by Aurel Stein circa 1910. ... A Tarim Basin mummy photographed by Aurel Stein circa 1910. ... 2000 density of European Americans A European American, or more commonly a Euro-American, is an American of European descent, usually referring to white people or Caucasians. ... A European is primarily a person who was born into one of the countries within the continent of Europe. ... Artists conception of a white dwarf star accreting hydrogen from a larger companion A nova (pl. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled WGBH-TV, WGBH (FM) and WGBX-TV, accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ...


Light (1999b) suggests that the documentary treats present-day local Uyghurs as primitives whose history and cultural changes are immaterial: Only their origins matter. Never mentioning that Islamic cultural influences have been strong here for nearly a millennium. He also concludes that the mummies who breached China's fabled isolation 1,000 years earlier than previously thought provide no "startling conclusion." And considered China's "fabled isolation" as a fable. A Tarim Basin mummy photographed by Aurel Stein circa 1910. ... The Uyghur (also spelled Uighur; Uyghur: ئۇيغۇر; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) are a Turkic people of Central Asia. ... Primitive - A band from St. ... Look up origin in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( ▶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... A millennium (pl. ...


Light (1999a) "[He] argues he is trying to show the links of East and West, but he does it by keeping them racially separate. In contrast, the graves are full of racially indistinct corpses. It is a mixed society, but the implicit assumption is that the valuable cultural skills came with Caucasoids from the West." A Tarim Basin mummy photographed by Aurel Stein circa 1910. ...


Cultural exchanges

The presence of Indo-European speakers in the Tarim Basin in the 1st millennium BC suggests that cultural exchanges happened between Indo-European and Chinese populations at a very early date. It has been suggested that such activities as chariot warfare and bronze-making may have been transmitted to the east by these Indo-European nomads. The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... Hittite chariot (drawing of an Egyptian relief) Approximate historical map of the spread of the chariot, 2000–500 BC. A chariot is a two-wheeled, horse-drawn vehicle. ... Ancient warfare is war as conducted from the beginnings of recorded history to the end of the ancient period. ... Assorted ancient Bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ...


These theories would go against the idea that the East and West developed their civilizations independent of each other, but suggest, on the contrary that, some form of transmission may have happened.


The supply of jade from the Tarim Basin from ancient times is well excavated, according to Liu (2001): "It is well known that ancient Chinese rulers had a strong attachment to jade. All of the jade items excavated from the tomb of Fuhao of the Shang dynasty, more than 750 pieces, were from Khotan in modern Xinjiang. As early as the mid-first millennium BCE the Yuezhi engaged in the jade trade, of which the major consumers were the rulers of agricultural China." A Tarim Basin mummy photographed by Aurel Stein circa 1910. ... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ... Mosque in Khotan. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Mallory & Mair (2000)
  2. ^ Saiget, Robert J.. "Caucasians preceded East Asians in basin", The Washington Times, News World Communications, 2005-04-19. Retrieved on 2007-08-20. (English) Archived from the original on 2005-04-20. “A study last year by Jilin University also found that the mummies' DNA had Europoid genes.” 
  3. ^ Robertson, Benjamin. "China history unravelled by mummies", Al Jazeera English, Aljazeera.net, 2006-05-14. Retrieved on 2007-08-20. (English) 
  4. ^ Rosof, Libby (1997-09-09). "Penn Researcher Finds Chinese Mummies' Surprising Roots". Almanac 44 (3): 12-13. Retrieved on 2007-08-20. 
  5. ^ Yu, Taishan (2003). A Comprehensive History of Western Regions, 2nd edition, Zhengzhou: Zhongzhou Guji Press. ISBN 7-5348-1266-6. 
  6. ^ Liu, Jianguo (2004). Distinguishing and Correcting the pre-Qin Forged Classics. Xi'an: Shaanxi People's Press. ISBN 7-224-05725-8. 

A Tarim Basin mummy photographed by Aurel Stein circa 1910. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...   (Chinese: ; Pinyin: Jílín; Wade-Giles: Chi-lin; Postal System Pinyin: Kirin; Manchu: Girin ula), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • The Mummies of Ürümchi. Elizabeth Wayland Barber (1999). London. Pan Books. ISBN 0-330-36897-4
  • Warrior Women: An Archaeologist’s Search for History’s Hidden Heroines. Jeannine Davis-Kimball with Mona Behan (2002). Warner Books, New York. First Trade Edition 2003. ISBN 0-446-67983-6 (pbk)
  • Hemphill, Brian E. & J.P. Mallory (2004), "Horse-mounted invaders from the Russo-Kazakh steppe or agricultural colonists from Western Central Asia? A craniometric investigation of the Bronze Age settlement of Xinjiang", American Journal of Physical Anthropology 125: 199ff.
  • Larsen, Clark Spencer (2002), "Bioarchaeology: The Lives and Lifestyles of Past People", Journal of Archaeological Research 10 (2): 119–166, June 2002.
  • Li, Shuicheng (1999), "A Discussion of Sino-Western Cultural Contact and Exchange in the Second Millennium BC Based on Recent Archeological Discoveries", Sino-Platonic Papers (no. 97), December 1999.
  • Light, Nathan (1999a), "Hidden Discourses of Race: Imagining Europeans in China", presented at the Association for Asian Studies conference, Boston. Retrieved on 2007-08-20.
  • Light, Nathan (1999b), "Tabloid Archaeology: Is Television Trivializing Science?", Discovering Archaeology: 98-101, March-April 1999.
  • Liu, Xinru (2001), "Migration and Settlement of the Yuezhi-Kushan. Interaction and Interdependence of Nomadic and Sedentary Societies", Journal of World History 12 (2): 261-292.
  • Mallory, J. P. & Victor H. Mair (2000), The Tarim Mummies: Ancient China and the Mystery of the Earliest Peoples from the West, London: Thames & Hudson.
  • Pliny the Elder, The Natural History.
  • Schurr, Theodore G. (2001), "Tracking Genes Across the Globe: A review of Genes, Peoples, and Languages, by Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza.", American Scientist 89 (1), January-February 2001.

JP Mallory is the nom-de-plume of Irish-American archaeologist and Indo-Europeanist Prof. ... JP Mallory is the nom-de-plume of Irish-American archaeologist and Indo-Europeanist Prof. ... Victor H. Mair is Professor of Chinese Language and Literature in the Department of East Asian Languages and Civilizations at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, United States. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ...

See also

Horseman, Pazyryk felt artifact, c. ...

External links

  • The Mummies of Xinjiang by Evan Hadingham DISCOVER Vol. 15 No. 04, April 1994
  • Genetic testing reveals awkward truth about Xinjiang’s famous mummies (AFP) Khaleej Times Online, 19 April 2005

  Results from FactBites:
 
Tarim Basin (646 words)
The Tarim Basin is one of the largest endorheic drainage basins in the world, lying between several mountain ranges in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in China's far west.
The Silk road in the Tarim Basin between Kashgar (Template:Coor dm) and Yumen (Template:Coor dm) split in two routes, along the northern and the southern edges of the Taklamakan.
The Chinese managed to take control of the Tarim Basin from the Xiongnu at the end of the 1st century CE under the leadership of general Ban Chao (32-102 CE).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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