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Encyclopedia > Tarantula
Tarantula
Brachypelma smithi
Brachypelma smithi
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Arachnida
Order: Araneae
Suborder: Mygalomorphae
Superfamily: Theraphosoidea
Family: Theraphosidae
Thorell, 1870
Diversity
113 genera, 897 species

Subfamilies

Acanthopelminae
Aviculariinae
Eumenophorinae
Harpactirinae
Ischnocolinae
Ornithoctoninae
Poecilotheriinae
Selenocosmiinae
Selenogyrinae
Spelopelminae
Stromatopelminae
Theraphosinae
Thrigmopoeinae Tarantula is also: Tarantulas (Transformers) Tarantula (book) Tarantula (album) Tarantula (movie) - 1955 Sci-Fi film starring John Agar & Mara Corday This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 762 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1167 × 918 pixel, file size: 893 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Extant orders Acarina Amblypygi Araneae Opiliones Palpigradi Pseudoscorpionida Ricinulei Schizomida Solifugae Uropygi Wikispecies has information related to: Arachnida Arachnids are a class (Arachnida) of joint-legged invertebrate animals in the subphylum Chelicerata. ... Diversity 111 families, 40,000 species Suborders Mesothelae Mygalomorphae Araneomorphae  See table of families Wikispecies has information related to: Spiders Spiders are predatory invertebrate animals that have two body segments, eight legs, no chewing mouth parts and no wings. ... Families Antrodiaetidae (folding trapdoor spider) Atypidae (atypical tarantula) Ctenizidae (trapdoor spider) Cyrtaucheniidae (wafer trapdoor spider) Dipluridae (funnel-web tarantula) Hexathelidae (venomous funnel-web tarantula) Mecicobothriidae (dwarf tarantulas) Theraphosidae (tarantula) The Mygalomorphae, (also called the Orthognatha), are an infraorder of spiders. ... Diversity 2 families, 905 species Families Theraphosidae Paratropididae The Theraphosoidea are a superfamily of mygalomorph spiders. ... Tord Tamerlan Teodor Thorell (May 3, 1830 - December 22, 1901) was a Swedish arachnologist. ... This page lists all described species of the spider family Theraphosidae as of June 7, 2006. ... Image File history File links Distribution. ... Diversity 2 species Species Acanthopelminae is a subfamily of New World tarantulas. ... Genera Augacephalus Ceratogyrus Eucratoscelus Harpactira Harpactirella Idiothele Pterinochilus Trichgnathella Harpactirinae (commonly called baboon spiders) are a subfamily of old-world tarantulas which are native to the continent of Africa. ... Ornithoctoninae, also known as Earth tigers, are a sub-family of old-world tarantulas, which were first described in 1895 by Reginald Innes Pocock. ...

Tarantula is the common name for a group of "hairy" (so called, because of the numerous hair-like setae covering their cuticle), often very large spiders belonging to the family Theraphosidae, of which approximately 900 species have been identified. Tarantulas hunt prey in both trees and on the ground. All tarantulas can emit silk, whether they be arboreal or terrestrial species. Arboreal species will typically reside in a silken "tube web", and terrestrial species will line their burrows or lairs with web to catch wandering prey. They mainly eat insects and other arthropods, using ambush as their primary method. The biggest tarantulas can kill animals as large as lizards, mice, or birds. Most tarantulas are harmless to humans, and some species are popular in the exotic pet trade while others are eaten as food. These spiders are found in tropical and desert regions around the world. Diversity 111 families, 40,000 species Suborders Mesothelae Mygalomorphae Araneomorphae  See table of families Wikispecies has information related to: Spiders Spiders are predatory invertebrate animals that have two body segments, eight legs, no chewing mouth parts and no wings. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ...


The name tarantula comes from the town of Taranto in Italy and was originally used for an unrelated species of European spider. (See Wolf spider for more information about this spider). In Africa, Theraphosids are frequently referred to as "baboon spiders". Asian forms are known as "earth tigers" or "bird spiders". Australians refer to their species as "barking spiders", "whistling spiders," or "bird spiders". People in other parts of the world also apply the general name "mygales" to Theraphosid dookie. Taranto is a coastal city in Apulia, southern Italy. ... Diversity 107 genera, 2320 species Genera Adelocosa Alopecosa Arctosa Geolycosa Hogna Lycosa Pardosa Pirata Sosippus Trochosa many more Wolf spiders are members of the family Lycosidae, so named because their method of hunting is to run down their prey. ...


There are other species also referred to as tarantulas outside this family; the evolution of the name Tarantula is discussed below. This article primarily concerns the Theraphosids.

Contents

Morphology

Like all arthropods, the tarantula is an invertebrate that relies on an exoskeleton for muscular support. A tarantula’s body consists of two main parts, the prosoma or the cephalothorax (the former is most often used because there is no analogous "head") and the abdomen or opisthosoma. The prosoma and opisthosoma are connected by the pedicle or what is often called the pregenital somite. This waist-like connecting piece is actually part of the prosoma and allows the opisthosoma to move in a wide range of motion relative to that of the prosom. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... The cephalothorax is an anatomical term used of arachnid and malacostracan arthropods for the first major body section. ... The opisthosoma is the posterior portion of the arachnids body behind the prosoma. ... In anatomy, the pedicle (also spelled pedicel) is the segment between the transverse process and the vertebral body. ...


Depending on the species, the body length of tarantulas range from 2.5 - 10 cm (1-4 inches), with 8-30 cm (3 to 12 inch) leg spans (their size when including their legs). Legspan is determined by measuring from the tip of the back leg to the tip of the front leg on the same side, although some people measure from the tip of the first leg to the tip of the fourth leg on the other side. The largest species of tarantulas can weigh over 9 grams (0.3 ounces). One candidate for the title of the largest of all species, the Theraphosa blondi (goliath birdeater) from Venezuela and Brazil has been reported to have a weight of 3 ounces and a leg span of up to 13 inches (33 cm). The males have the long length, and the females have lots of girth. Binomial name Theraphosa blondi (Latreille, 1804) The Goliath birdeater (also called the Bird eating spider) (Theraphosa blondi) is an arachnid which belongs to the tarantula family, and is arguably the largest spider in the world. ...


Theraphosa apophysis (the pinkfoot goliath) was described 187 years after the Goliath birdeater; therefore its characteristics are not as well attested. However, legspans of up to 33 cm (13 inches) have been reported for that species. T. blondi is generally thought to be the heaviest tarantula, and T. apophysis the largest legspan. Two other species, Lasiodora parahybana and Lasiodora klugi, (the Brazilian salmon birdeater) gets very large and rivals the size of both Theraphosa blondi and Theraphosa apophysis, and some have even made claims to same size and even bigger sizes than the two Theraphosa species. The Brazilian Salmon Pink (Lasiodora parahybana) is a popular species of tarantula kept as pets in the tarantula keeping hobby today. ...


The majority of North American tarantulas are brown. Many species have more extensive coloration patterns, ranging from cobalt blue (Haplopelma lividum), black with white stripes (Eupalaestrus campestratus or Aphonopelma seemanni), to metallic blue legs with vibrant orange abdomen (Chromatopelma cyaneopubescens, green bottle blue). Their natural habitats include savanna, grasslands such as the pampas, rainforests, deserts, scrubland, mountains and cloud forests. They are generally divided into terrestrial types that frequently make burrows and arboreal types that build tented shelters well off the ground. The cobalt blue tarantula (Haplopelma lividum) is a tarantula species that is native to Burma and Thailand. ... Diversity 1 species Binomial name Chromatopelma cyaneopubescens (Strand, 1906) The greenbottle blue tarantula, a native of Venezuela, has some of the most dramatic coloring of any spider species. ... Savannah redirects here. ... The Konza tallgrass prairie in the Flint Hills of northeastern Kansas. ... The pampas (from Quechua for plain) are the fertile lowlands that extend across c. ... A rainforest is a forested biome with high annual rainfall. ... This article is about arid terrain. ... Scrubland is plant community characterized by scrub vegetation. ... For other uses, see Mountain (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Appendages

Male Aphonopelma (Iodius?) Tarantula
Male Aphonopelma (Iodius?) Tarantula

The eight legs, the two chelicerae with their fangs, and the pedipalps are attached to the prosoma. The chelicerae are two single segment appendages that are located just below the eyes and directly forward of the mouth. The chelicerae contain the venom glands that vent through the fangs. The fangs are hollow extensions of the chelicerae that inject venom into prey or animals that the tarantula bites in defense, and they are also used to masticate. These fangs are articulated so that they can extend downward and outward in preparation to bite or can fold back toward the chelicerae as a butchers knife blade folds back into its handle. The chelicerae of tarantulas completely contain the venom glands and the muscles that surround them and can cause the venom to be forcefully injected into prey. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 426 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Wild male tarantula. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 426 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Wild male tarantula. ... Types of chelicerae: jackknife (in green), scissor (in blue) and 3-segmented chelate (in red) The Chelicerae are mouth parts of the Chelicerata, an arthropod subphylum that includes arachnids, Merostomata (horseshoe crabs), and Pycnogonida (sea spiders). ... Thelyphonida, in dorsal view, with pedipalps highlighted in green Pedipalps, the second pair of appendages of the cephalothorax in Arachnida, is homologous with mandibles in Crustacea, and corresponding to the mandibles of insects. ...


The pedipalpi are two six–segment appendages connected to the thorax near the mouth and protruding on either side of both chelicerae. In most species of tarantula, the pedipalpi contain sharp jagged plates used to cut and crush food often called the coxae or maxillae.As with other spiders, the terminal portion of the pedipalpi of males function as part of its reproductive system. Male spiders spin a silken platform (sperm web) on the ground onto which they release semen from glands in their opistoma. Then they insert their pedipalps into the semen, absorb the semen into the pedipalps, and later insert the pedipalps (one at a time) into the reproductive organ of the female, which is located in her abdomen. The terminal segments of the pedipalps of male tarantulas are larger in circumference than those of a female tarantula. Coxa or coxa can mean:- Coxa is a name for the star Theta Leonis: see Chertan. ... The maxillae are the largest bones of the face, except for the mandible, and form, by their union, the whole of the upper jaw. ...


A tarantula has 4 pairs of legs but 6 pairs of total appendages. Each leg has seven segments which from the prosoma out are: coxa, trochanter, femur, patella, tibia, tarsus and pretarsus, and claw. Two or three retractable claws are at the end of each leg. These claws are used to grip surfaces for climbing. Also on the end of each leg, surrounding the claws, is a group of hairs. These hairs, called the scopula, help the tarantula to grip better when climbing surfaces like glass. The fifth pair are the pedipalps which aid in feeling, gripping prey, and mating for a mature male. The sixth pair of appendages are the fangs.


The seventh and eighth pairs of appendages are the four spinnerettes, which also are hypothesized by some to have been leglike appendages. When walking, a tarantula's first and third leg on one side move at the same time as the second and fourth legs on the other side of his body. The muscles in a tarantula's legs cause the legs to bend at the joints, but to extend a leg, the tarantula increases the pressure of blood entering the leg.


Tarantulas, like almost all other spiders, have their spinnerets at the end of the opisthosoma. Unlike spiders that on average have six, tarantulas have two or four spinnerets. Spinnerets are flexible tubelike structures from which the spider exudes its silk. The tip of each spinneret is called the spinning field. Each spinning field is covered by as many as one hundred spinning tubes through which silk is produced. This silk hardens on contact with the air to become a thread like substance.


Digestive system

The tarantula’s mouth is located under its chelicerae on the lower front part of its prosoma. The mouth is a short straw-shaped opening which can only suck, meaning that anything taken into it must be in liquid form. Prey with large amounts of solid parts such as mice must be crushed and ground up or predigested, which is accomplished by spraying the prey with digestive juices that are excreted from openings in the chelicerae.


The tarantula’s digestive organ (stomach) is a tube that runs the length of its body. In the prosoma, this tube is wider and forms the sucking stomach. When the sucking stomach's powerful muscles contract, the stomach is increased in cross-section, creating a strong sucking action that permits the tarantula to suck its liquified prey up through the mouth and into the intestines. Once the liquified food enters the intestines, it is broken down into particles small enough to pass through the intestine walls into the haemolymph (blood stream) where it is distributed throughout the body.


Nervous system

closeup of a tarantula's eye
closeup of a tarantula's eye

A tarantula's central nervous system (brain) is located in the bottom of the inner prosoma. The central nervous system controls all of the body's activities. A tarantula maintains awareness of its surroundings by using its sensory organs, setae. Although it has eyes, a tarantula’s sense of touch is its keenest sense and it often uses vibrations given off by its prey's movements to hunt. A tarantula's setae are very sensitive organs and are used to sense chemical signatures, vibration, wind direction and possibly even sound. Tarantulas are also very responsive to the presence of certain chemicals such as pheromones. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ...


The eyes are located above the chelicerae on the forward part of the prosoma. They are small and usually set in two rows of four. Most tarantulas are not able to see much more than light, darkness, and motion. Arboreal tarantulas see better than terrestrial tarantulas.


Respiratory system

In all types of tarantulas there are two book lungs (breathing organs). The book lungs are located in a cavity inside the lower front part of the abdomen near where the abdomen connects to the cephalothorax. Air enters the cavity through a tiny slit on each side of and near the front of the abdomen. Each lung consists of 15 or more thin sheets of folded tissue arranged like the pages of a book. These sheets of tissue are supplied by blood vessels. As air enters each lung, oxygen is taken into the blood stream through the blood vessels in the lungs. Needed moisture may also be absorbed from humid air by these organs.


Circulatory system

A tarantula’s blood is unique; an oxygen-transporting protein is present (the copper-based hemocyanin) but not enclosed in blood cells like the erythrocytes of mammals. A tarantula’s blood is not true blood but rather a liquid called haemolymph, or hemolymphy. There are at least four types of hemocytes, or hemolymph cells. The tarantula’s heart is a long slender tube that is located along the top of the opisthosoma. The heart is neurogenic as opposed to myogenic, so nerve cells instead of muscle cells initiate and coordinate the heart. The heart pumps hemolymph to all parts of the body through open passages often referred to as sinuses, and not through a circular system of blood vessels. If the exoskeleton were to be breached, loss of hemolymph could kill the tarantula unless the wound were small enough that the hemolymph could dry and close the wound. Single Oxygenated Hemocyanin protein from Octopus Hemocyanins (also spelled haemocyanins) are respiratory proteins containing two copper atoms that reversibly bind a single oxygen molecule (O2). ...

Thermal image of a cold-blooded tarantula on a warm-blooded human hand
Thermal image of a cold-blooded tarantula on a warm-blooded human hand

Besides the normal "hairs" covering the body of tarantulas, some also have a dense covering of irritating hairs called urticating hairs, on the opisthosoma, that they sometimes use as a protection against enemies.[1] These hairs are only present on New World species and are absent on specimens of the Old World. Image File history File links Wiki_tarantula. ... Image File history File links Wiki_tarantula. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans, Asians, and Africans before the voyages of Christopher Columbus; it includes Europe, Asia, and Africa (collectively known as Africa-Eurasia), plus surrounding islands. ...


These fine hairs are barbed and designed to irritate. They can be lethal to small animals such as rodents. Some people are allergic to these hairs. Exposure to urticating hairs should be strictly avoided. Species with urticating hairs can kick off these hairs: they are launched into the air at a target using their back pairs of legs. Tarantulas also use these hairs for other means; using them to mark territory or to line the web or nest (the latter such practice may discourage flies from feeding on the spiderlings). Urticating hairs do not grow back, but are replaced with each molt. For other uses, see Fly (disambiguation) and Flies (disambiguation). ...


To predators and other kinds of enemies, these hairs can range from being lethal to simply being a deterrent. With humans, they can cause irritation to eyes, nose, and skin, and more dangerously, the lungs and airways, if inhaled. The symptoms range from species to species, from person to person, from a burning itch to a minor rash. In some cases, tarantula hairs have caused permanent damage to human eyes.[2] Tarantula hair has been used as the main ingredient in the novelty item "itching powder",[citation needed]. Some tarantula enthusiasts have had to give up their spiders because of allergic reactions to these hairs (skin rashes, problems with breathing, and swelling of the affected area). Itching powder refers to a group of powders or powder-like substances which induce itching when applied onto human skin. ...


Some setae are used to stridulate which makes a hissing sound. These hairs are usually found on the chelicerae. Stridulation seems to be more common in Old World species. Stridulation is the act of producing sound by rubbing together certain body parts. ...


Sexual dimorphism

Some tarantula species exhibit pronounced sexual dimorphism. Males tend to be smaller(especially the abdomen which can appear quite narrow) and may be quite dull when compared to their female counter parts., as in the species Haplopelma lividum. Mature male tarantulas also have tibial hooks on their front legs which are used to restrain the female's fangs during copulation. There are urban legends about being able to tell the sex of a tarantula by size alone, but unless the male has matured visual sexing is very difficult. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Female (left) and male Common Pheasant, illustrating the dramatic difference in both color and size, between the sexes Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species. ...


A non-matured male's sex can be determined by looking at a cast exuvium for exiandrous fusillae or a spermathecae. Ventral sexing is less reliable but if done correctly, it is relatively reliable. Males have much shorter lifespans than females because they die relatively soon after maturing. Few live long enough for a post-ultimate molt. It is unlikely that it happens much in natural habitat because they are vulnerable, but it has happened in captivity, although rare. Most males do not live through this molt as they tend to get their emboli (mature male sexual organs on pedipalps) stuck in the molt. Most tarantulas kept as pets are desired to be female. Wild caught tarantulas are often mature males because they wander out in the open and are more likely to be caught while females are in burrows. A tarantula huddle up in the corner with its legs tucked close to it, that doesn't react, or reacts slowly to touch, is stressed. A dying tarantula will curl its legs like a clutched hand under it. Its movement is hydraulically motivated and an extended leg takes more energy than a curled one. If a tarantula does this, it needs to go into some sort of small environment such as a small tupperware with water (either on a towelette or a water bowl) and be put in the dark for a few days. Tarantulas do not die on their backs unless there is trouble molting.


Excessive dryness can kill tarantulas, especially tropical tarantulas. Although higher humidity helps with molting, it appears that for many tarantulas, humidity does not highly affect molting as much as the actual hydration of the tarantula prior to molting. Most notably though, Theraphosa species must be high in humidity to molt. All tarantulas require a water dish.


Ecology

Tarantulas are nocturnal predators, killing their prey by injecting venom through their fangs. The hungry tarantula waits partially hidden at the entrance to its retreat to ambush passing prey. It has sensitive "hairs" (setae) that enable it to detect the size and location of potential victims from the vibrations caused by their movements. Like many other spiders, it cannot see much more than light, darkness, and movement (see spiders for more about their eyesight), and uses its sense of touch to perceive the world around it. That being said, they are anything but sloppy or imprecise about the way they capture their prey. They generally seem to choose prey on the basis of how dangerous it is perceived to be, the general size of the potential prey animal, etc. Some tarantulas succeed in occasionally capturing small birds, small lizards, small snakes, small mammals such as mice, and even small fish, but their ordinary prey consists of insects such as crickets (for ground dwellers) and moths (for arboreal species).[3] Families Suborder Mesothelae     Liphistiidae (primitive burrowing spiders) Suborder Mygalomorphae     Atypidae (atypical tarantula)     Antrodiaetidae (folding trapdoor spider)     Mecicobothriidae (dwarf tarantulas)     Hexathelidae (venomous funnel-web tarantula)     Dipluridae (funnel-web tarantula)     Cyrtaucheniidae (wafer trapdoor spider)     Ctenizidae (trapdoor spider)     Theraphosidae (tarantula) Suborder Araneomorphae     Hypochilidae (lampshade spider)     Filistatidae (crevice weaver)     Sicariidae (recluse spider)     Scytodidae (spitting...


Life cycle

Ecdysis

the molting process
the molting process

Like other spiders, tarantulas have to shed their exoskeleton periodically in order to grow, a process called molting. Young tarantulas may do this several times a year as a part of their maturation process, while full grown specimens will only molt once every year or so, or sooner in order to replace lost limbs or lost urticating hairs[citation needed]. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... An exoskeleton is an external anatomical feature that supports and protects an animals body, in contrast to the internal endoskeleton of, for example, a human. ... Ecdysis is the molting of the cuticula in arthropods and related groups (Ecdysozoa). ...


Tarantulas may live for years--most species taking 2 to 5 years to reach adulthood, but some species may take up to 10 years to reach full maturity. Upon reaching adulthood, males typically have but a 1 to 1.5 year period left to live and will immediately go in search of a female with which to mate. It is rare that upon reaching adulthood the male tarantula will molt again.


Females will continue to molt after reaching maturity. Female specimens have been known to reach 30 to 40 years of age, and have survived on water alone for up to 2.5 years. Grammostola rosea spiders are renowned for going for long periods without eating.


Reproduction

As with other spiders, the mechanics of intercourse are quite different from those of mammals. Once a male spider reaches maturity and becomes motivated to mate, it will weave a web mat on a flat surface. The spider will then rub its abdomen on the surface of this mat and in so doing release a quantity of semen. It may then insert its pedipalps (short leg-like appendages between the chelicerae and front legs) into the pool of semen. The pedipalps absorb the semen and keep it viable until a mate can be found. When a male spider detects the presence of a female, the two exchange signals to establish that they are of the same species. These signals may also lull the female into a receptive state. If the female is receptive then the male approaches her and inserts his pedipalps into an opening in the lower surface of her abdomen. After the semen has been transferred to the receptive female's body, the male will generally quickly leave the scene before the female recovers her appetite.


Females deposit 50 to 2000 eggs, depending on the species, in a silken egg sac and guard it for 6 to 7 weeks. The young spiderlings remain in the nest for some time after hatching where they live off the remains of their yolk sac before dispersing.


Taxonomy

The family Theraphosidae is divided up into 12 subfamilies, containing over 100 genera and around 900 species between them. This page lists all described species of the spider family Theraphosidae as of June 7, 2006. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ...

  • Acanthopelminae, first described by Frederick Octavius Pickard-Cambridge in 1897, is a subfamily of small, terrestrial New World tarantulas. This subfamily has only one genus, Acanthopelma, and two species, A. beccarri and A. rufescens, found in Guyana and Central America.
  • Aviculariinae are a subfamily of tropical, tree-dwelling New World tarantulas. They range from the Caribbean to South America, and are commonly known as "pinktoe" tarantulas. The genera Avicularia, Ephebopus and Pachistopelma possess urticating hairs, but cannot "flick" them into the air; instead the hairs are pressed into an enemy upon contact.
  • Eumenophorinae are a subfamily of old-world tarantulas, mostly from Africa and surrounding regions. In addition, some authors place genus Proshapalopus (a genus found in Brazil, and not in Africa) in this sub-family.
  • Harpactirinae are a group of old-world tarantulas from Africa, though smaller than Eumenophorinae. They are known as baboon spiders for their hairy legs and the thick black scorpulae at the end of their feet, which are said to resemble baboons.
  • Ischnocolinae contains spiders from around the world.
  • Poecilotheriinae are tree spiders from India and Sri Lanka, some of which are considered Template:Endangered species. This subfamily contains only a single genus.
  • Selenocosmiinae is a subfamily which consists mainly of tarantulas from East Asia and Australia. Like the East Asian tarantulas in Ornithoctoninae, these are known for their strong venom and defensive disposition. The genera Psalmopoeus and Tapinauchenius do not have urticating hairs, unusual among New World species.
  • Selenogyrinae consists of tarantulas from India and Africa.
  • Stromatopelminae are tree-dwelling tarantulas from western Africa.
  • Theraphosinae consists of new-world terrestrial tarantulas with urticating hairs. The majority of spiders kept as pets are of this sub-family.
  • Thrigmopoeinae are Indian tarantulas.

A few genera are presently not well-classified, and/or have classifications which are disputed, including Brachionopus, Cardiopelma and Proshapalopus Diversity 2 species Species Acanthopelminae is a subfamily of New World tarantulas. ... Frederick Octavius Pickard-Cambridge (November 3, 1860 - ?) was an English arachnologist. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... West Indies redirects here. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Genera Augacephalus Ceratogyrus Eucratoscelus Harpactira Harpactirella Idiothele Pterinochilus Trichgnathella Harpactirinae (commonly called baboon spiders) are a subfamily of old-world tarantulas which are native to the continent of Africa. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Baboon (disambiguation). ... Ornithoctoninae, also known as Earth tigers, are a sub-family of old-world tarantulas, which were first described in 1895 by Reginald Innes Pocock. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. ... Diversity 3 species Species H. hainanum H. huwenum H. schmidti Chinese Bird Spider is an English name given to several species of old-world tarantulas which are found in the Peoples Republic of China and Vietnam. ... Ornithoctoninae, also known as Earth tigers, are a sub-family of old-world tarantulas, which were first described in 1895 by Reginald Innes Pocock. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ...


Pets

Adult Mexican redknee
Chilean Rose tarantula
Chilean Rose tarantula

Tarantulas can be kept as pets and are considered good "apartment pets" by many, being quiet animals, requiring surprisingly little maintenance or cleaning, since unlike snakes and lizards they have no detectable odor. Because of their docile behavior, the species most commonly kept as pets are the Chilean rose tarantula (Grammostola rosea), for their price and the Mexican redknee tarantula (Brachypelma smithi), for their beauty. These two species are also some of the easier to care for and are usually easy to handle, while other species (Including most Asian species, such as the cobalt blue tarantula ) are more aggressive and shouldn't be handled. Some of the more docile types seem to have a habit of relaxing in people's hands, perhaps attracted by the warmth. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (640x640, 28 KB)Image of a Brachypelma Smithii tarantula. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (640x640, 28 KB)Image of a Brachypelma Smithii tarantula. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1141x923, 302 KB) Chilean Rose Tarantula, seen at Hawkesbury Show, Hawkesbury, South Gloucestershire, England. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1141x923, 302 KB) Chilean Rose Tarantula, seen at Hawkesbury Show, Hawkesbury, South Gloucestershire, England. ... This article is about animals kept for companionship. ... Families Acrochordidae Aniliidae Anomalepididae Anomochilidae Atractaspididae Boidae Bolyeriidae Colubridae Cylindrophiidae Elapidae Hydrophiidae Leptotyphlopidae Loxocemidae Pythonidae Tropidophiidae Typhlopidae Uropeltidae Viperidae Xenopeltidae Snakes are cold blooded legless reptiles closely related to lizards, which share the order Squamata. ... This page is about Lizards, the order of reptile. ... Binomial name (Walckenaer, 1837) The Chilean rose tarantula (Grammostola rosea) is probably the most common species of tarantula available in pet stores today, due to the large number of wild caught specimens exported cheaply from their native Chile into the US pet trade. ... Binomial name Brachypelma smithi F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897 The Mexican redknee tarantula (Brachypelma smithi) is a species of terrestrial tarantula native to Mexico, but might be found in small numbers in neighboring countries. ... The cobalt blue tarantula (Haplopelma lividum) is a tarantula species that is native to Burma and Thailand. ...


Tarantulas make quite inexpensive pets. Most species can be purchased as juveniles for $20-$50 USD. Adults can be quite expensive as they approach breeding age, and adults of many species can easily reach the several hundred US dollar range. Housing for most species can cost another 40 USD.


A terrarium with an inch or two of damp ground coconut fiber, or a mixture of soil and sphagnum moss (but not with cedar shavings as they are toxic to many spiders) on bottom provides an ideal habitat. (Burrowing tarantulas will require a much deeper layer.) Ambient temperature and humidity vary by species, with most thriving between 75 degrees and 80°F (24 to 27°C) and between 40% and 80% humidity. A terrarium is a clear container (often plastic or glass) used to grow plants and to examine or hold small creatures. ... Species See text. ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ...


Tarantulas can be fed living animals such as insects, small mice or Pinky Mice, and small fish in the water bowl. Tarantulas should not be fed vertebrates on a regular basis as the calcium in the bones will cause complications during molting and may cause death. A tropical roach colony is a good way to maintain a food supply for a number of tarantulas. The discoid cockroach and death's head cockroach in particular are very easy to care for and will not infest the home if they escape. The death's head cockroaches can be kept in an aquarium with no lid since they cannot climb glass and don't fly. Maintaining a colony of death's head cockroaches only requires keeping them in the dark, feeding them a handful of dog food every couple of weeks and misting them with water every day or two. White fancy mouse Fancy mice (fancy, in this context, means hobby) are domesticated versions of the common or house mouse (Mus musculus). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The discoid cockroach is also commonly called the false deaths head cockroach. ... Blaberus Craniifer The true deaths head cockroach is very similar to the discoid roach and is a nice display animal for entymologists due to its striking appearance. ...


Other tarantulas that may make interesting pets are the Brazilian (or "giant") whiteknee, Chaco golden knee, and Brazilian salmon pink birdeater. These are three of the larger species, each growing over 8 inches with the Brazilian birdeater sometimes reaching 10 inches and considered by many to be the largest species that is docile enough to handle. The foregoing are terrestrial tarantulas, i.e., they generally live in burrows or natural shelters near the ground. Arboreal tarantulas require different housing since, when adult, they make webbed shelters well above ground. Those include Avicularia avicularia and Avicularia metallica, which are generally quite calm and rarely bite. (Any spider will bite if it is being hurt or put in fear for its life.) The arboreal spiders can have large legspans, but their bodies are much less massive than the typical terrestrial tarantulas. Binomial name (Koch, 1841) Synonyms Mygale geniculata Scurria geniculata The Brazilian whiteknee tarantula, Acanthoscurria geniculata, is a species of tarantula native to Brazil. ... Binomial name Grammostola aureostriata Schmidt 2001 One of the larger species of tarantula, the Chaco golden knee (Grammostola aureostriata) is known to reach 22 cm (8. ... The Brazilian Salmon Pink (Lasiodora parahybana) is a popular species of tarantula kept as pets in the tarantula keeping hobby today. ...


Consumption

Avicularia metallica, immature female
Avicularia metallica, immature female

On one of their TV specials, National Geographic illustrated the methods used by some Amazonian peoples to hunt and cook tarantulas. A tarantula was captured by holding it down with a stick and its legs were then bent upward and bound together. The creature was then roasted alive in a folded leaf. On that show, the American participant tasted the meat and commented that it reminded him of shrimp. The Goliath birdeater tarantula (Theraphosa Blondi) is considered a delicacy by the indigenous Piaroa of Venezuela. Another appearance of the tarantula as food was made on Anthony Bourdain's A Cook's Tour. Fried tarantulas are also considered a delicacy in Cambodia.[4] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1368x1712, 2803 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tarantula Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1368x1712, 2803 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tarantula Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ... Binomial name (Latreille, 1804) The Goliath Bird Eating Spider (also called the Birdeater) (Theraphosa blondi) is an arachnid which belongs to the tarantula family, and is arguably the largest spider in the world. ... The Piaroa are an indigenous American ethnic group living along the banks of the Orinoco and its tributaries in present day Venezuela, and in a few scattered locations elsewhere in Venezuela and in Colombia. ... Anthony Michael Tony Bourdain (born June 25, 1956) is an American author and the Chef-at-Large of Brasserie Les Halles, based in New York City with locations in Miami, Florida, and Washington, D.C.[1] Bourdain is also host of the Travel Channels culinary and cultural adventure program... A Cooks Tour is a book written by chef Anthony Bourdain in 2001. ... Thai zebra tarantula (Haplopelma albostriatum) A fried spider is a regional delicacy of Cambodia. ...


Bites

Despite their often scary appearance and reputation, none of the true tarantulas are known to have a bite which is deadly to humans. In general the effects of the bites of all kinds of tarantulas are not well known. While the bites of many species are known to be no worse than a wasp sting, accounts of bites by some species are reported to be very painful. Because other proteins are included when a toxin is injected, some individuals may suffer severe symptoms due to an allergic reaction rather than to the venom. For both those reasons, and because any deep puncture wound can become infected, care should be taken not to provoke any tarantula into biting. Tarantulas are known to have highly individualistic responses. Some members of species generally regarded as aggressive can be rather easy to get along with, and sometimes a spider of a species generally regarded as docile can be provoked. Anecdotal reports indicate that it is especially important not to surprise a tarantula. Chelicerae of a black wishbone (Nemesiidae) spider, a mygalomorph Spiders occasionally bite humans. ...


Some species of tarantula, particularly those of the Poecilotheria varieties from South Asia (India, Sri Lanka, etc) are known to possess uniquely potent venom which can cause serious muscle cramps, temporary and localized paralysis, and deep sleep (sometimes compared to coma-like symptoms) in addition to the severe pain associated with the bite itself. In addition to the inherent risk of their venom these spiders are also notoriously easy to provoke and remarkably fast strikers making them unsuitable as pets for anyone but experienced handlers. Common names of some of these tarantula include Sri Lankan Ornamental, Salem Ornamental, Pedersen's Ornamental, Indian Ornamental, Fringed Ornamental, et al.


New World tarantulas (those found in North and South America) are equipped with urticating hairs on their abdomen, and will almost always use these as a first line of defense. These hairs will irritate sensitive areas of the body and especially seem to target curious animals who may sniff these hairs into the mucous membranes of the nose. Some species have more effective urticating hairs than others. The goliath birdeater is one species known for its particularly irritating urticating hairs. Old world tarantulas (from Asia) have no urticating hairs, and are more likely to attack when disturbed. Old world tarantulas often have more potent, medically significant venom. This article belongs in one or more categories. ...


Before biting, tarantulas may signal their intention to attack by rearing up into a "threat posture", which may involve raising their prosoma and lifting their front legs into the air, spreading and extending their fangs, and (in certain species) making a loud hissing noise called Stridulating. Their next step, short of biting, may be to slap down on the intruder with their raised front legs. If that response fails to deter the attacker they may next turn away and flick urticating hairs toward the pursuing predator. Their next response may be to leave the scene entirely, but, especially if there is no line of retreat, their next (or first) response may also be to whirl suddenly and bite. Tarantulas can be very deceptive in regard to their speed because they habitually move very slowly, but are able to deliver an alarmingly rapid bite when sufficiently motivated.


There are, however, dangerous spiders which are not true tarantulas but which are frequently confused with them. It is a popular urban legend that there exist deadly varieties of tarantulas somewhere in South America. This claim is often made without identifying a particular spider although the "banana tarantula" is sometimes named. A likely candidate is the dangerous Brazilian wandering spider (Phoneutria nigriventer), as it is sometimes found hiding in clusters of bananas and is one of several spiders called the "banana spider." It is not a tarantula but it is fairly large (4-5 inches long), somewhat hairy, highly venomous to humans, and is regarded as aggressive. Another dangerous type of spider confused with tarantulas are the venomous funnel-web tarantulas, which despite their name are not theraphosids. The best known of these is the Sydney funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus), a spider which is aggressive, highly venomous, and prior to the development of antivenom in the 1980s, was responsible for numerous deaths in Australia. These spiders are members of the same suborder as the true tarantulas, but are not found in family Theraphosidae. An urban legend or urban myth is similar to a modern folklore consisting of stories often thought to be factual by those circulating them. ... Diversity 5 species Type species Phoneutria fera Perty, 1833 Species The Brazilian wandering spider (Phoneutria spp. ... or It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sydney funnel-web spider. ... Binomial name Atrax robustus Pickard-Cambridge, 1877 The Sydney funnel-web spider, also called a funnel-web tarantula, (Atrax robustus) is regarded by some to be the most dangerous spider in the world. ... Antivenom (or antivenin, or antivenene) is a biological product used in the treatment of venomous bites or stings. ...


First aid

A tarantula on a person.
A tarantula on a person.

Encourage bleeding to wash out the puncture wounds from within, then clean the bite site with soap and water and protect it against infection. As with other puncture wounds, antiseptics may be of limited use since they may not penetrate to the full depth of a septic wound, so wounds should be monitored for heat, redness, or other signs of infection. Skin exposures to the urticating hairs can be treated by applying and then pulling off some sticky tape such as duct tape, which carries the hairs off with it. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 356 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 356 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


If any breathing difficulty or chest pain occurs, go to a hospital as this may indicate an anaphylactic reaction. As with bee stings, the allergic reaction may be many times more dangerous than the toxic effects of the venom. If this occurs an EpiPen (an autoinjector of epinephrine, also known as adrenaline) should be administered as soon as possible, as complete airway blockage can occur within 20 minutes of exposure to the allergen, depending on the severity of the allergy. Anaphylaxis is an acute systemic (multi-system) and severe Type I Hypersensitivity allergic reaction in humans and other mammals. ... A 0. ...


Etymology

The word tarantula applies to several very different kinds of spider. The spider originally bearing that name is one of the wolf spiders, Lycosa tarantula, found in the region surrounding the city of Taranto (or Tarentum in Latin), a town in Southern Italy. Compared to true tarantulas, wolf spiders are not particularly large or hairy. Diversity 111 families, 40,000 species Suborders Mesothelae Mygalomorphae Araneomorphae  See table of families Wikispecies has information related to: Spiders Spiders are predatory invertebrate animals that have two body segments, eight legs, no chewing mouth parts and no wings. ... Diversity 107 genera, 2320 species Genera Adelocosa Alopecosa Arctosa Geolycosa Hogna Lycosa Pardosa Pirata Sosippus Trochosa many more Wolf spiders are members of the family Lycosidae, so named because their method of hunting is to run down their prey. ... Binomial name Lycosa tarantula (Linnaeus, 1758) Synonyms Aranea tarantula Lycosa tarantula Lycosa rubiginosa Tarentula apuliae Tarentula rubiginosa Tarentula fasciiventris Wikispecies has information related to: Lycosa tarantula The Tarantula spider whose scientific name is Lycosa tarantula is a wolf spider from the area around a city in Italy now called Taranto... Taranto is a coastal city in Apulia, southern Italy. ...


The bite of L. tarantula was once believed to cause a fatal condition called tarantism, whose cure was believed to involve wild dancing of a kind that has come to be identified with the tarantella. However, modern research has shown that the bite of L. tarantula is not dangerous to human beings. There appears to have existed a different species of spider in the fields around Taranto responsible for fairly severe bites. The likely candidate (and the only spider found in the area which is dangerous to man) is the malmignatte or Mediterranean black widow. This spider, which belongs in the genus Latrodectus, is a close relative of the black widow and red-back spiders, and has a bite which is medically significant. However, the so-called tarantulas were fairly large, frequently visible (as is typical of wolf spiders), and thus drew more attention. These factors, combined with the belief in the fatality of tarantism, assured the other kind of spiders generally called tarantulas a fearsome reputation. Tarantism is, allegedly, a deadly envenomation resulting from the bite of a kind of wolf spider called a tarantula (Lycosa_tarentula). ... The tarantella (tarentule, tarentella, tarantelle, tarentelle, tarantel) is a traditional dance 6/8 or 4/4 time characterised by the rapid whirling of couples. ... Binomial name Latrodectus tredecimguttatus Rossi, 1790 Male The spider Latrodectus tredecimguttatus, commonly known as the European or Mediterranean black widow, malmignatte spider, or karakurt (Russian: КАРАКУРТ, or steppe spider), is one of the widow spiders in the genus Latrodectus. ... The scientific term for the widow spider is a member of the spider genus Latrodectus. ... Species Fabricius, 1775 Chamberlin & Ivie, 1935 Walckenaer, 1837 The black widow spider () is a spider notorious for its neurotoxic venom. ... Binomial name Thorell, 1870 The redback spider (Latrodectus hasselti) is a potentially dangerous spider native to Australia. ... Spiders having medically significant venom exist in almost all parts of the world except those that are coldest. ...


When theraphosidae were encountered by European explorers in the Americas, they were named "tarantulas". Nevertheless, these spiders belong to the suborder Mygalomorphae, and are not at all closely related to wolf spiders. World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Families Antrodiaetidae (folding trapdoor spider) Atypidae (atypical tarantula) Ctenizidae (trapdoor spider) Cyrtaucheniidae (wafer trapdoor spider) Dipluridae (funnel-web tarantula) Hexathelidae (venomous funnel-web tarantula) Mecicobothriidae (dwarf tarantulas) Theraphosidae (tarantula) The Mygalomorphae, (also called the Orthognatha), are an infraorder of spiders. ...


The name "tarantula" is also applied to other large-bodied spiders, including the purseweb spiders or atypical tarantulas, the funnel-web tarantulas (Dipluridae and Hexathelidae), and the dwarf tarantulas. These spiders are related to true tarantulas (all being mygalomorphs), but are classified in different families. Huntsman spiders of the family Sparassidae are also informally referred to as "tarantulas" because of their large size. They are not related, belonging to the suborder Araneomorphae. Genera Atypus Sphodros Atypus piceus The atypical tarantulas or purseweb spiders (family Atypidae) consist of only two genera. ... Genera See text Funnel-web tarantulas (family Dipluridae) resemble other mygalomorphs in having downward stabbing fangs and two pairs of booklungs. ... Genera Atrax Hadronyche The venomous funnel-web tarantulas (family Hexathelidae) are notorious for the inclusion of the Sydney funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus). ... Genera Hexura (Simon, 1884) Hexurella (Gertsch & Platnick, 1979) Mecicobothrium (Holmberg, 1882) Megahexura (Kaston, 1972) Dwarf tarantulas, also known as sheet funnel-web spiders are a type of spider from the family Mecicobothriidae. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... Diversity 82 genera, 1009 species Genera Delena Heteropoda Holconia Isopeda Isopedella Leucorchestris Micrommata Neosparassus Olios Pediana Pseudopoda Thelcticopis Many others Huntsman spider is a common name given to the family Sparassidae (formerly Heteropodidae). ... Genera Delena (Flat huntsman spider) Heteropoda (Brown huntsman spider) Holconia (Banded huntsman spider) Isopeda Isopedella Neosparassus (Shield hunstman spider) Pediana Numerous others, see links Huntsman spiders is a common name given to the family Sparassidae (formerly Heteropodidae). ... The Araneomorphae, previously called the Labidognatha, are a suborder of spiders. ...


See also

This page lists all described species of the spider family Theraphosidae as of June 7, 2006. ... Diversity 111 families Families see table The Araneae are an order of the arthropod class Arachnida with about 40,000 described species, although there are probably many species that have escaped the human eye to this day, and lots of specimen stored in collections waiting to be described and classified. ... Genera Pepsis Hemipepsis The tarantula hawk is the common name for species in the genera Pepsis and Hemipepsis of the family Pompilidae, in the insect Order Hymenoptera. ... For other uses, see Wasp (disambiguation). ...

Notes

  1. ^ Cooke, J.A.L., Roth, V.D., Miller, F.H. (1972). The urticating hairs of theraphosid spiders. American Museum novitates 2498. PDF (12Mb) - Abstract
  2. ^ Blaikie, Andrew J; John Ellis, Roshini Sanders, Caroline J MacEwen (24 May 1997). "Eye disease associated with handling pet tarantulas: three case reports". BMJ 314: 1524. Retrieved on 2007-03-06. 
  3. ^ Herbert W. Levi and Lorna R. Levi, Spiders and Their Kin, p. 20,
  4. ^ Ray, Nick (2002), Lonely Planet Cambodia, Lonely Planet Publications, ISBN 1-74059-111-9. p. 308.

is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... The British Medical Journal (BMJ) is a medical journal published weekly in the United Kingdom by the British Medical Association (BMA). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

Zootaxa is an international journal for animal taxonomists. ...

External links

Wikispecies has information related to:
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Theraphosidae
Societies
Other sites
  • Tarantulas.us - Forums - Tarantula Discussion Boards and Caresheets.
  • Arachnoboards - Arachnid discussion board
  • Tarantula care - Gallery of tarantulas and other arachnids.
  • Tarantulas.us - Gallery - Photo gallery of tarantula's species.
  • How to Pick a tarantula and Care for a tarantula
  • Birdspiders.com - Rick C. West's Site. Includes a gallery of tarantula pictures by species in alphabetical order.
  • Caresheets of several tarantula species
  • Information on tarantulas, scorpions, and other invertebrates
  • http://homepage.ntlworld.com/spydawebb/index.html
  • Stanley A. Schultz and Marguerite J. Schultz, "Common and scientific name correlations of the theraphosid tarantulas", University of Calgary
  • http://www.tarantulatour.com
  • - Tarantulas Photo Gallery - Tarantula photos (Mexican Red Knee, Green Bottle Blue, Salmon Pink etc)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Tarantula- EnchantedLearning.com (272 words)
Tarantulas are large hairy spiders that live in warm areas around the world, including South America, southern North America, southern Europe, Africa, southern Asia, and Australia.
Tarantulas kill their prey using venomous fangs; they also inject a chemical into the prey that dissolves the flesh.
Tarantulas have a hard exoskeleton and not an internal skeleton.
Tarantula - MSN Encarta (1422 words)
Tarantulas, like all spiders, are arachnids and differ from insects in a number of ways: Tarantulas have eight walking legs rather than six; they have only two body segments instead of three, with a combined head and thorax (cephalothorax) and an abdomen; and they lack antennas.
Tarantulas or theraphosids are considered primitive spiders and are classified in the suborder Mygalemorphae, a group distinct from more advanced “true” spiders in the suborder Araneomorphae.
Some tarantulas also produce sticky silk at the tips of their feet to help grip slippery surfaces—this ability may be an important clue as to how spider silk first evolved.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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