FACTOID # 9: The bookmobile capital of America is Kentucky.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Tar (lute)
Tar
Tar
Woman playing the tar in a painting from the Hasht-Behesht Palace in Isfahan, Iran, 1669
Woman playing the tar in a painting from the Hasht-Behesht Palace in Isfahan, Iran, 1669
Iranian Tar
Iranian Tar

The tar is a long-necked, waisted lute found in Azerbaijan, Iran, Armenia, Georgia, and other areas near the Caucasus region. The word tar (تار) itself means "string" in Persian. This is claimed to be the root of the names of the Persian setar and the guitar as well as less widespread instruments such as the dutar and the Indian sitar. The exact place of origin of the tar cannot be confirmed. However, the tar was invented in the territories of, or influenced by, the Persian Empire: Persia (Iran), Afghanistan, and parts of the former Soviet republics, such as Azerbaijan and Georgia. ImageMetadata File history File links Iranian_tar. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Iranian_tar. ... Image File history File links Hasht-Behesht_Palace_tar. ... Image File history File links Hasht-Behesht_Palace_tar. ... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ... Image File history File links Iranian_tar2. ... Image File history File links Iranian_tar2. ... A renaissance-era lute. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Hamid Motebassem Playing Setar Setar Azerbaijani Setar Setar (Persian: سه‌تار seh three tār string) is an Iranian musical instrument. ... For other uses, see Guitar (disambiguation). ... Dotar Khorasan The dutar (also dotar or doutar) is a traditional long-necked two-stringed lute found in Central Asia. ... Diagram of some sitar parts. ...


Tar is one of the most important Iranian and Azerbaijani musical instruments. The formation, compilation, edition, and inheritance of the most authentic and most comprehensive versions of radif are all worked on tar. The general trends of Persian classical music have been deeply influenced by tar players. Radif means order in Persian. ...

Contents

Physical characteristics

The tar appeared in its present form in the middle of the eighteenth century. The body is a double-bowl shape carved from mulberry wood, with a thin membrane of stretched lamb-skin covering the top. The long flat fingerboard has twenty-five to twenty-eight adjustable gut frets, and there are three double courses of strings. Its range is about two and one-half octaves, and it is played with a small brass plectrum. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... For other uses, see Mulberry (disambiguation). ... Sheep redirects here. ... For other uses, see Fingerboard (disambiguation). ... The neck of a guitar showing the first four frets. ... The strings of a harp A string is the vibrating element which is the source of vibration in string instruments, such as the guitar, harp, piano, and members of the violin family. ... For other uses, see Octave (disambiguation). ... Brazen redirects here. ... Various guitar picks A plectrum is a small flat tool used to pluck or strum a stringed instrument. ...


The long and narrow neck has a flat fingerboard running level to the membrane and ends in an elaborate pegbox with six wooden tuning pegs of different dimensions, adding to the decorative effect. It has three courses of double "singing" strings (each pair tuned in unison: the first two courses in plain steel, the third in wound copper), that are tuned in fourths (C, G, C) plus one "flying" bass string (wound in copper and tuned in G, an octave lower than the singing middle course) that runs outside the fingerboard and passes over an extension of the nut. There are also two pairs of shorter sympathetic strings that run under the bass and over two small copper bridges about midway on the upper side of the fingerboard: their tuning is variable according to the piece to be played and with the performer's tastes: (the tuning is somewhat imprecise also because both strings of the same pair are tightened by the same peg). A pegbox is the part of certain stringed musical instruments (violin, viola, cello, double bass) that houses the tuning pegs. ... Sympathetic strings are strings on musical instruments which begin resonating, not due to any external influence such as picking or bowing, but due to another note (or frequency). ...


The Persian tar used to have five strings. The sixth string was added to the tar by Darvish Khan. This string is today's fifth string of the Iranian tar. The Azerbaijani tar, designed by Sadigjan, has a slightly different build and has more strings. It is an essential component of the traditional Azeri mugham trio (see Sazanda). Darvish-Khan was an Iranian contemporary Musician. ... Mugham also spelled as Mugam (Azeri: MuÄŸam) is one of the many musical traditions of Azerbaijan. ...


Music therapy

The melodies performed on tar were considered useful for headache, insomnia and melancholy, as well as for eliminating nervous and muscle spasms. Listening to this instrument was believed to induce a quiet and philosophical mood, compelling the listener to reflect upon life. Its solemn melodies were thought to cause a person to relax and fall asleep.


The author of Qabusnama (11th century) recommends that when selecting musical tones (perde), to take into account the temperament of the listener (see Four temperaments). He suggested that lower pitched tones (bem) were effective for persons of sanguine and phlegmatic temperaments, while higher pitched tones (zil) were helpful for those who were identified with a choleric temperament or melancholic temperament. Seen here is the last page of a Qabus nameh manuscript located in the library of The Malik National Museum of Iran, dated 1349. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Some contemporary tar players

  • Jalil Shahnaz
  • Farhang Sharif
  • Hooshang Zarif
  • Lotfollah Majd
  • Fereydoun Hafezi
  • Ramiz Quliyev[1]
  • Mohammad Reza Lotfi
  • Haji Memmedov
  • Majid Derakhshani
  • Hossein Alizadeh
  • Dariush Talaei
  • Dariush Pirniyakan
  • Shahram Mirjalaali
  • Parham Nassehpoor
  • Payam Jahanmani
  • Hamid Motebassem
  • Kayvan Saket
  • Daniel Hormozi
  • Aidin Okhovat

Mohammad Reza Lotfi was born in 1947 in Gorgan, northern Iran. ... Alizadeh at a concert in London Hossein Alizadeh (Persian: ) who is of Azerbaijani descent, is a Grammy Award nominated Iranian composer, Radif-preserver, researcher, teacher, and excellent tar and setar instrumentalist and improvisor, dubbed by many as an Ostad (Master of Persian music). ... Parham Nassehpoor The multi-instrumentalist Parham Nassehpoor (Persian: ‎ ​) was born in 1976 in Tehran, Iran. ... Hamid Motebassem (b. ... Kayvan Saket (in Persian: ) is an Iranian composer, Radif-preserver, researcher, teacher, and excellent Tar and Setar instrumentalist and improvisor, dubbed by many as an Ostad (Master of Persian music). ...

See also

Music of Azerbaijan includes various arrays of styles that reflect influences from the musics of the Caucasus, Central Asia, and Iran. ... Figurines playing stringed instruments, excavated at Susa, 3rd millennium BC. Iran National Museum. ... Armenia is situated close to the Caucasus Mountains, and its music is a mix of indigenous folk music, perhaps best-represented by Djivan Gasparyans well-known duduk music, as well as light pop, and extensive Christian music, due to Armenias status as the oldest Christian nation in the...

External links

  • Medieval music therapy
  • Nay-Nava the Encyclopedia of Persian Music Instruments
  • dejkam.com (mp3's)
  • tebyan.net (wma)
  • Dariush Talai
  • Parham Nassehpoor (mp3's)
Santur Woman playing the santur in a painting from the Hasht-Behesht Palace in Isfahan Iran, 1669 The santur (سنتور – also santÅ«r, santour, santoor) is a hammered dulcimer of Iran. ... A woodwind instrument is an instrument in which sound is produced by blowing against an edge or by a vibrating with air a thin piece of wood known as a reed. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1656x2208, 681 KB) en: Ottoman military band. ... For other meanings, see Zurna (disambiguation) and Surna (disambiguation) The Zurna (also called Surnay, birbynÄ—, lettish horn, surla, sornai, zournas, zurma) is an Anatolian woodwind instrument. ... The Tulum is a musical instrument, a form of bagpipe from Turkey. ... // Definition An ancient word for bagpipes in Trebizond are in the text of Evliya Çelebi (17. ... The gaida (also spelled gajda) is a bagpipe from South Eastern Europe (The Balkans). ... A duduk The duduk (pronounced ) is a traditional woodwind instrument of Armenian origins. ... The arghul, also spelled argul, arghoul, arghool, argol or yarghul (Palestine), is a traditional Arabic musical instrument. ... For other uses, see Ney (disambiguation). ... A 1919 Kaval. ... The sipsi is a Turkish woodwind instrument. ... A Flageolet is a woodwind musical instrument and a member of the fipple flute family. ... The tin whistle, also called the tinwhistle, whistle, pennywhistle, or Irish whistle, is a simple six-holed woodwind instrument. ... The Taragot is a musical instrument similar to a saxaphone. ... For other uses, see Ney (disambiguation). ... Percussion redirects here. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1440x1920, 530 KB) en: Ottoman military band. ... Moroccan bendir with snares The bendir (erbeni or arbani) is a frame drum used as a traditional instrument throughout North Africa, more specifically in Tunisia. ... The word daf and similar can mean: The word daff is a colloquial short form of daffodil. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Tapan. ... Custom simbati from Egypt The goblet drum (also chalice drum) is a goblet shaped hand drum used mostly in Arabic, Jewish, Assyrian, Persian, Balkan, Greek, Armenian, Azeri and Turkish music. ... Naqareh The Naqareh is a drum with a rounded back and a hide head. ... A Kus (Persian کوس kÅ«s) is a large-sized ancient Persian kettledrum, similar to a Timpani. ... Kudüm is one of the most fundamental rhythm instruments in classical Turkish music. ... A Turkish crescent, (also Turkish jingle, Chinese pavilion, jingling johnny, Schellenbaum, chapeau chinois) is a percussion instrument consisting of a long pole with numerous bells connected to one end, using crescent shaped crosspieces. ... A pair of zils from the Khan El-Khalili market in Cairo Zils (also zills or finger cymbals) are tiny cymbals used in belly dancing and similar performances. ... Renoirs 1909 painting Dancing girl with castanets Castanets A castanet is a percussion instrument (idiophone), much used in oriental (Moorish and Ottoman music), Roman music, Spanish music and Latin American music. ... Turkish musical instruments can be broadly classified into five categories, namely Ottoman classical, Western influenced modern, Ottoman Harem Music, Folk music and Roman. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Ottoman classical music (Türk Sanat Müziği) is a kind of music that developed parallel with the Ottoman Empire. ... A modern mehter marching band Ottoman military bands are thought to be the oldest variety of military marching band in the world. ... Genres: Alternative - Classical - Dance - Folk - Hip hop - Jazz - Military - Ottoman - Opera - Pop - Religious - Rock Awards Kral MV, MÃœ-YAP, MGD Charts Billboard Charts Music Festivals Istanbul International Music Festival, Istanbul International Jazz Festival, Izmir European Jazz Festival, Aspendos International Opera and Ballet Festival Media Rolling Stone (Türkiye), MTV (T...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Tar (lute) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (255 words)
The tar is a long-necked, waisted lute found in Iran, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia and other areas near the Caucasus region.
However Tar was invented in the territories of, or influenced by, the Persian Empire: Persia (Iran), Afghanistan, parts of the former soviet republics, such as Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan.
Tar is one of the most important classical Persian and Azerbaijani musical instruments.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m