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Encyclopedia > Taoism
Taoism Portal
Part of a series on

Taoism

Aum
Fundamentals
Dao - De
Wuji - Taiji
Yin-Yang - Wu xing
QiNeidan
Wu wei
Texts
Daode jing
Zhuangzi - Liezi
Daozang
Wen-tzu
Deities
Three Pure Ones
Five Supremes
Guan Shengdi
Eight Immortals
Yellow EmperorXiwangmu
Jade EmperorChang'e
Others
Prominent Taoists
Laozi · Zhuangzi
Zhang Daoling · Zhang Jiao
Ge Hong · Chen Tuan
Wang Chongyang
Schools
Five Pecks of Rice
Yellow Turbans
ShangqingLingbao
Quanzhen – Zhengyi
Xuanxue
Sacred Sites
Grotto-heavens
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Taoism (pronounced /ˈdaʊ.ɪ.zəm/ or /ˈtaʊ.ɪ.zəm/; also spelled Daoism) refers to a variety of related philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. These traditions have influenced East Asia for over two thousand years and some have spread internationally.[1] The Chinese character Tao 道 (or Dao, depending on the romanisation scheme) means "path" or "way", although in Chinese religion and philosophy it has taken on more abstract meanings. Taoist propriety and ethics emphasize the Three Jewels of the Tao: compassion, moderation, and humility. Taoist thought focuses on wu wei (non-action), spontaneity, transformation and emptiness/omnipotence. An emphasis is placed on the link between people and nature, and that this link lessens the need for rules and order, leading one to a better understanding of the world and one's surroundings.[citation needed] Image File history File links Yin_yang. ... This article is about the Chinese character and the philosophy it represents. ... De (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: te) is a key concept in Chinese philosophy, usually translated inherent character; inner power; integrity in Daoism, moral character; virtue; morality in Confucianism and other contexts, and quality; virtue (guna) or merit; virtuous deeds (punya) in Chinese Buddhism. ... This article is about a concept in Taoism. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Chữ nôm: Hán tá»±: The Taijitu of Zhou Dun-yi In Chinese philosophy, yin and yang (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) are generalized descriptions of the antitheses or mutual correlations in human perceptions of phenomena... Bön Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (MahābhÅ«ta) Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Japanese (Godai) Earth (地) Water (æ°´) Air / Wind (風) Fire (火) Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Chinese (Wu Xing) In traditional Chinese philosophy, natural phenomena can be classified into the Wu Xing... For other uses, see QI (disambiguation). ... Neidan, a Chinese method of internal alchemy. ... Wu wei (trad. ... The Tao Te Ching (道德經, Pinyin: D Jīng, thus sometimes rendered in recent works as Dao De Jing; archaic pre-Wade-Giles rendering: Tao Teh Ching; roughly translated as The Book of the Way and its Virtue (see dedicated chapter below on translating the title)) is an ancient Chinese scripture... Zhuangzi (Traditional: 莊子; Simplified: 庄子, Pinyin: Zhuāng Zǐ, Wade-Giles: Chuang TzÅ­, lit. ... The Liezi (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Lieh Tzu; literally [Book of] Master Lie) is a Daoist text attributed to Lie Yukou, a circa 5th century BCE Hundred Schools of Thought philosopher, but Chinese and Western scholars believe it was compiled around the 4th century CE. // The first two references to... The Daozang (Daoist Cannon) consists of almost 5000 individual texts that were collected circa C.E. 400 (quite some time after the Dao De Jing and Zhuang Zi which are the core Daoist texts). ... The Three Pure Pellucid Ones (Chinese: 三清; Cantonese: Sarm Tsing; Mandarin: San-ching), also translated as The Three Pure Ones, The Three Clarities, or The Three Purities, are the three highest Taoist deities. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Guan (é—œ) Guan Yu (關羽) (160–219) was a general under the warlord Liu Bei during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era of China. ... For other uses, see Eight Immortals (disambiguation). ... Yellow Emperor The Yellow Emperor or Huang Di (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: huángdì) is a legendary Chinese sovereign and cultural hero who is said to be the ancestor of all Han Chinese. ... Xiwangmu near Kaohsiung, Taiwan The Queen Mother of the West (Chinese: 西王母; pinyin: XÄ«wángmÇ”; Japanese: Seiōbo), in Chinese mythology, is the ruler of the western paradise and goddess of immortality. ... The Jade Emperor (Chinese: ; pinyin: or 玉帝 Yù Dì), are known by many names including Heavenly Grandfather (天公 Tiān Gōng), the Pure August Jade Emperor, August Personage of Jade (玉皇上帝 Yu Huang Shangdi or 玉皇大帝 Yu Huang Dadi), is formally known as Peace-Absolving Central-August-Spirit Exalted-Ancient-Buddha-Most-Pious... A classic portrait of Change, from the Ming Dynasty, 16th-17th century Change flies to the moon, from Myths and Legends of China, 1922 by E. T. C. Werner Change, Chang-O or Chang-Ngo (Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as Heng-E or Heng-O (姮娥; H... Chen Po (Chen Tuan, Chen Hsi I) 871-989 Ge Hong 284–364 Ho Yen Guo Xiang (Kuo Hsiang) d. ... Laozi (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Lao Tzu; also Lao Tse, Laotze, Lao Zi, and in other ways) was an ancient Chinese philosopher. ... Zhuangzi (Traditional: 莊子; Simplified: 庄子, Pinyin: Zhuāng Zǐ, Wade-Giles: Chuang TzÅ­, lit. ... Celestial Master Zhang Daoling Zhang Daoling (Chang Tao-ling), aka Zhang Ling. ... Zhang Jiao or Zhang Jue (d. ... Ge Hong(葛洪) (284-364, also known as Zhichuan) was a minor southern official during the Jin dynasty (263-420), best known for his interest in Daoism, alchemy, and techniques of longevity. ... Chen Tuan (陳摶) (birthname: Chen Tuan, name as a sage: Chen Hsi I, Chen Xi Yi) (871-989) was a legendary Taoist sage. ... Wang Chongyang (11 January 1113 – 22 January 1170) [Chinese calendar: 宋徽宗政和二年十二月廿二 – 金世宗大定十年正月初四] (Traditional Chinese: 王重陽; Simplified Chinese: 王重阳; pinyin: Wáng Chóngyáng) was a Song Dynasty Taoist who was one of the founders of Quanzhen Taoism in the twelfth century. ... Tianshi Dao (Simplified Chinese:天师道, Traditional Chinese: 天師道, pinyin: Tiān ShÄ« Dào) or Way of the Celestial Masters is a Chinese Daoist movement that was founded by Zhang Daoling in 142 CE. At its height, the movement controlled a theocratic state in Sichuan. ... Combatants Yellow Turbans Han Dynasty Commanders Zhang Jiao Zhang Bao Zhang Liang He Jin Huangfu Song Lu Zhi Zhu Jun Dong Zhuo Cao Cao Strength 360,000 Various Casualties Unknown Unknown The Yellow Turban Rebellion, sometimes also translated as the Yellow Scarves Rebellion, (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was a... The Shangqing School (Chinese:上清) is a Daoist movement that began during in the aristocracy of the Western Jin dynasty. ... Lingbao refers to a branch of Taoism that originated in the late 4th century CE. Lingbao can be translated as numinous gem or spiritual treasure. ... the Quanzhen School is an important school in Chinese Taoism. ... Zhengyi Dao (Simplified Chinese: 正一道, Traditional Chinese: 正一道) or Way of Orthodox Oneness or Way of Orthodox Unity is a Chinese Daoist movement that has roots in the Celestial Masters sect. ... Xuanxue(chinese:玄學) is a sub-discipline of Confucianism and Taoism, its main theme is to study the very nature of being, similar to ontology while not being the chinese counterpart of it. ... Grotto-heavens (Chinese:洞天; Pinyin: Dongtian) are a type of sacred Daoist site. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Philosophy (from the Greek words philos and sophia meaning love of wisdom) is understood in different ways historically and by different philosophers. ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A Chinese character or Han character (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, rarely Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... This article is about the Chinese character and the philosophy it represents. ... Dào is the pinyin romanization of the Chinese character 道, representing a word usually rendered in English as Tao, and used as the root word for the English term Taoism. ... Temple incense in Taichung, Taiwan with Fu Dog behind. ... Yin Yang symbol and Ba gua paved in a clearing outside of Nanning City, Guangxi province, China. ... Wu wei (trad. ...


Nature and ancestor spirits are common in popular Taoism. Organized Taoism distinguishes its ritual activity from that of the folk religion, which some professional Taoists (Daoshi) view as debased. This sort of shamanism is eschewed for an emphasis on internal alchemy among the "elite" Taoists.[citation needed] This article is about the practice of shamanism; for other uses, see Shaman (disambiguation). ... Internal alchemy, also called spiritual alchemy, is a term used for different esoteric disciplines focused on balancing internal and spiritual energies. ...


Chinese alchemy, astrology, cuisine, several Chinese martial arts, Chinese traditional medicine, fengshui, and many styles of qigong breath training disciplines are intertwined with Taoism throughout history.[citation needed] For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... Chinese astrology is the divination of the future from the Chinese calendar, which is based on astronomy, and ancient Chinese philosophy. ... Chinese cuisine (Chinese: 中國菜) originated from different regions of China and has become widespread in many other parts of the world — from East Asia to North America, Australasia and Western Europe. ... Kung fu redirects here. ... Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) also known simply as Chinese medicine (Chinese: 中醫學 or 中药学, zhōngyào xŭe) or traditional Oriental medicine, is the name commonly given to a range of China thousands of years ago. ... Fēngshuǐ in the simplified characters standard in PRC. Feng Shui or fengshui (Simplified Chinese: 风水; Traditional Chinese: 風水; pinyin: ; IPA: (  listen)) is the ancient Chinese practice of placement and arrangement of space to achieve harmony with the environment. ... For the artist, see Qigong (artist). ...

This article contains Chinese text.
Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.

Contents

Image File history File links Zhongwen. ... The UTF-8-encoded Japanese Wikipedia article for mojibake, as displayed in ISO-8859-1 encoding. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A Chinese character or Han character (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, rarely Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ...

Categorization

There is debate over how, and whether, Taoism should be subdivided. Some scholars have divided it into the following three categories:[2]

  1. "Philosophical Taoism". (Daojia). A philosophical school based on the texts Tao Te Ching and Zhuangzi;
  2. "Religious Taoism". (Daojiao). A family of organized Chinese religious movements originating from the Celestial Masters movement during the late Han Dynasty and later including the "Orthodox" (Zhengyi) and "Complete Reality" (Quanzhen) sects, which trace back to Lao Zi or Zhang Daoling in the late Han Dynasty;
  3. "Folk Taoism". The Chinese folk religion.

This distinction is complicated by hermeneutic difficulty. The categorization of Taoist sects and movements is very controversial.[3] Many scholars believe that there is no distinction between Daojia and Daojiao.[4] Taoism's start is traced back to Lao-Tzu (Or Lao Zi) For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... The Tao Te Ching (道德經, Pinyin: D Jīng, thus sometimes rendered in recent works as Dao De Jing; archaic pre-Wade-Giles rendering: Tao Teh Ching; roughly translated as The Book of the Way and its Virtue (see dedicated chapter below on translating the title)) is an ancient Chinese scripture... Zhuangzi (Traditional: 莊子; Simplified: 庄子, Pinyin: Zhuāng Zǐ, Wade-Giles: Chuang TzÅ­, lit. ... Zhengyi Dao (Simplified Chinese: 正一道, Traditional Chinese: 正一道) or Way of Orthodox Oneness or Way of Orthodox Unity is a Chinese Daoist movement that has roots in the Celestial Masters sect. ... the Quanzhen School is an important school in Chinese Taoism. ... Lao Zi (Chinese 老子, also spelled Laozi, Lao Tzu, or Lao Tse) is a major figure in Chinese philosophy whose historical existence is debated. ... Celestial Master Zhang Daoling Zhang Daoling (Chang Tao-ling), aka Zhang Ling. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (206 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–220 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication... Clothed statues of Matsu/Mazu (Chinese goddess of the Sea) Chinese folk religion comprises the religion practiced in much of China for thousands of years which included ancestor veneration and drew heavily upon concepts and beings within Chinese mythology. ... Hermeneutics (Hermeneutic means interpretive), is a branch of philosophy concerned with human understanding and the interpretation of texts. ...


Beliefs

A Taoist Temple in Taiwan. The religious practice of Jingxiang, note images of the Fu Dog and Dragon can be seen.
A Taoist Temple in Taiwan. The religious practice of Jingxiang, note images of the Fu Dog and Dragon can be seen.

Taoism has never been a unified religion, but has rather consisted of numerous teachings based on various revelations. Therefore, different branches of Taoism often have very distinct beliefs. Nevertheless, there are certain core beliefs that nearly all the schools share.[5] Download high resolution version (400x611, 63 KB)Temple incense censer in Taichung, Taiwan with Fu Dog behind. ... Download high resolution version (400x611, 63 KB)Temple incense censer in Taichung, Taiwan with Fu Dog behind. ... Categories: Fictional dogs | Stub ... For other uses, see Dragon (disambiguation). ...


Principles

Taoism theology emphasizes various themes found in the Tao Te Ching and Zhuangzi, such as naturalness, vitality, peace, "non-action" (wu wei), emptiness (refinement), detachment, the strength of softness (or flexibility), receptiveness, spontaneity, the relativism of human ways of life, ways of speaking and guiding behavior. The Tao Te Ching (道德經, Pinyin: D Jīng, thus sometimes rendered in recent works as Dao De Jing; archaic pre-Wade-Giles rendering: Tao Teh Ching; roughly translated as The Book of the Way and its Virtue (see dedicated chapter below on translating the title)) is an ancient Chinese scripture...


Tao

Main article: Tao

Tao can be roughly stated to be the flow of the universe, or the force behind the natural order.[6] Tao is believed to be the influence that keeps the universe balanced and ordered. Tao is associated with nature, due to a belief that nature demonstrates the Tao.[7] The flow of qi, as the essential energy of action and existence, is compared to the universal order of Tao. Tao is compared to what it is not, like the negative theology of Western scholars.[8] It is often considered to be the source of both existence and non-existence. This article is about the Chinese character and the philosophy it represents. ... For other uses, see QI (disambiguation). ... Negative theology - also known as the Via Negativa (Latin for Negative Way) and Apophatic theology - is a theology that attempts to describe God by negation, to speak of God only in terms of what may not be said about God. ...


Tao is rarely an object of worship, being treated more like the Indian concepts of atman and dharma.[9] The word "Taoism" is used to translate different Chinese terms. Daojiao/Taochiao (道教 "teachings/religion of the Dao") refers to Daoism as a religion. Daojia/Taochia (道家 "school of the Dao") refers to the studies of scholars, or "philosophical" Taoism. However, most scholars have abandoned the dichotomy of "religious" and "philosophical" Taoism.[10] Atman is a Sanskrit word, normally translated as soul or self (also ego). ... For other uses, see Dharma (disambiguation). ...


De

For more details on this topic, see De (Chinese).

Tao is also associated with the complex concept of De () "power; virtue", which is the active expression of Tao.[11] De is the active living, or cultivation, of that "way".[12] De (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: te) is a key concept in Chinese philosophy, usually translated inherent character; inner power; integrity in Daoism, moral character; virtue; morality in Confucianism and other contexts, and quality; virtue (guna) or merit; virtuous deeds (punya) in Chinese Buddhism. ...


Wu wei

Main article: Wu wei

Wu wei (simplified Chinese: 无为; traditional Chinese: 無為; pinyin: wúwéi) is a central concept in Taoism. The literal meaning of wu wei is "without action". It is often expressed by the paradox wei wu wei, meaning "action without action" or "effortless doing".[13] The practice and efficacy of wu wei are fundamental in Taoist thought, most prominently emphasized in Taoism. The goal of wu wei is alignment with Tao, revealing the soft and invisible power within all things. It is believed by Taoists that masters of wu wei can control this invisible potential, the innate yin-action of the Way.[14] Wu wei (trad. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ...


In ancient Taoist texts, wu wei is associated with water through its yielding nature.[15] Water is soft and weak, but it can move earth and carve stone. Taoist philosophy proposes that the universe works harmoniously according to its own ways. When someone exerts his will against the world, he disrupts that harmony. Taoism does not identify man's will as the root problem. Rather, it asserts that man must place his will in harmony with the natural universe.[16]


P'u

P'u (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: pò, pú, pǔ, bú), often translated as "uncarved block" or "simplicity", literally means "uncut wood". It is a metaphor for the state of wu wei (無為) and the principle of jian (儉).[17] It represents a passive state of receptiveness. P'u is a symbol for a state of pure potential and perception without prejudice. In this state, Taoists believe everything is seen as it is, without preconceptions or illusion.[18] This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ...


P'u is seen as keeping oneself in the primordial state of tao.[19] It is believed to be the true nature of the mind, unburdened by knowledge or experiences.[20] In the state of p'u, there is no right or wrong, beautiful or ugly. There is only pure experience, or awareness, free from learned labels and definitions. It is this state of being that is the goal of following wu wei. This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Spirituality

Taoists believe that man is a microcosm for the universe.[21] The body ties directly into the Chinese five elements. The five organs correlate with the five elements, the five directions and the seasons.[22] Akin to the "hermetic maxim" of "as above, so below", Taoism posits that by understanding himself, man may gain knowledge of the universe, and vice versa. For the definition of the word microcosm, see here. ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... In traditional Chinese thought, natural phenomena can be classified into five elements, or phases: metal, wood, earth, water, fire (Chinese: 金 木 土 水 火). ... The word hermetic is commonly applied to literary or graphical symbolism that is exceedingly obscure, convoluted, or esoteric. ...


In Taoism, even beyond Chinese folk religion, various rituals, exercises, and substances are said to positively affect one's physical and mental health. They are also intended to align oneself spiritually with cosmic forces, or enable ecstatic spiritual journeys.[23][24] These concepts seem basic to Taoism in its elite forms. Internal alchemy and various spiritual practices are used by some Taoists to extend life, even to the point of immortality.[25] Internal alchemy, also called spiritual alchemy, is a term used for different esoteric disciplines focused on balancing internal and spiritual energies. ...


Ethics

For more details on this topic, see Three Jewels of the Tao.

The Three Jewels, or Three Treasures (Chinese: 三寶; pinyin: sānbǎo; Wade-Giles: san-pao), are basic virtues in Taoism. The Three Jewels are compassion, moderation and humility. They are also translated as kindness, simplicity and modesty. Arthur Waley describes them as "[t]he three rules that formed the practical, political side of the author's teaching". He correlated the Three Treasures with "abstention from aggressive war and capital punishment", "absolute simplicity of living", and "refusal to assert active authority".[26] The Three Jewels of the Tao are: compassion, simplicity, and patience. ...


The first of the Three Jewels is ci (Chinese: 慈; pinyin: cí; Wade-Giles: tz'u; literally "compassion, love, kindness"), which the Tao Te Ching parallels with familial and brotherly love. It is compared to loving others and the world as a person loves their own existence. The second is jian (Chinese: 儉; pinyin: jiǎn; Wade-Giles: chien; literally "moderation, economy, restraint"), which the Tao Te Ching praises. Jian is connected with the Taoist metaphor pu. (樸 "uncarved wood; simplicity"). It represents perfect efficiency and simplicity of desire. The third treasure is the phrase bugan wei tianxia xian (不敢為天下先), meaning "not dare to be first in the world". It is connected to a fear of death, out of a love for life. Taoism posits that to be first is to expose oneself to the world's destructive forces. Remaining behind and embracing humility allows time for one to bear fruit.


Pantheon

Chinese glazed stoneware statue of a Taoist deity, Ming Dynasty, 16th century.
Chinese glazed stoneware statue of a Taoist deity, Ming Dynasty, 16th century.
Further information: Category:Chinese deities

The traditional Chinese religion is polytheistic. Its many deities are part of a heavenly hierarchy that mirrors the bureaucracy of Imperial China. According to their beliefs, Chinese deities may be promoted or demoted for their actions. Some deities are also simply exalted humans, such as Guan Yu, the god of honor and piety. The particular deities worshiped vary according to geographical regions and historical periods in China, though the general pattern of worship is more constant.[27] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1152 × 1728 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1152 × 1728 pixel, file size: 1. ... Glaze is a thin shiny coating, or the act of applying the coating. ... A Staffordshire stoneware plate from the 1850s with transferred copper print - (From the home of JL Runeberg) Stoneware is a category of clay and a type of ceramic distinguished primarily by its firing and maturation temperature (from about 1200°C to 1315 °C). ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple gods or deities. ... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Guan (關) Guan Yu (關羽) (160–219) was a general under the warlord Liu Bei during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era of China. ...


There are disagreements regarding the proper composition of this pantheon.[28] Popular Taoism typically presents the Jade Emperor as the official head deity. Intellectual ("elite") Taoists, such as the Celestial Masters sect, usually present Laozi (Laojun, "Lord Lao") and the Three Pure Ones at the top of the pantheon of deities.[29][30] The Jade Emperor (Chinese: ; pinyin: or 玉帝 Yù Dì), are known by many names including Heavenly Grandfather (天公 Tiān Gōng), the Pure August Jade Emperor, August Personage of Jade (玉皇上帝 Yu Huang Shangdi or 玉皇大帝 Yu Huang Dadi), is formally known as Peace-Absolving Central-August-Spirit Exalted-Ancient-Buddha-Most-Pious... See also: List of deities Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The first Celestial Master Zhang Daoling The Way of the Celestial Master (Simplified Chinese:天师道, Traditional Chinese: 天師道, pinyin: tianshidao) is a Chinese Daoist movement that was founded by Zhang Daoling in 142 CE. At its height, the movement controlled a theocratic state in Sichuan. ... Laozi (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Lao Tzu; also Lao Tse, Laotze, Lao Zi, and in other ways) was an ancient Chinese philosopher. ... The Three Pure Pellucid Ones (Chinese: 三清; Cantonese: Sarm Tsing; Mandarin: San-ching), also translated as The Three Pure Ones, The Three Clarities, or The Three Purities, are the three highest Taoist deities. ...


While a number of immortals or other mysterious figures appear in the Zhuangzi, and to a lesser extent in the Tao Te Ching, these have generally not become the objects of worship. Traditional conceptions of Tao are not to be confused with the Western concepts of theism and monotheism. Being one with the Tao does not indicate a union with an eternal spirit in the Hindu sense, but rather living in accordance with nature.[31][32] Zhuangzi (Traditional: 莊子; Simplified: 庄子, Pinyin: Zhuāng Zǐ, Wade-Giles: Chuang TzÅ­, lit. ... The Tao Te Ching (道德經, Pinyin: D Jīng, thus sometimes rendered in recent works as Dao De Jing; archaic pre-Wade-Giles rendering: Tao Teh Ching; roughly translated as The Book of the Way and its Virtue (see dedicated chapter below on translating the title)) is an ancient Chinese scripture... Theism is the belief in the existence of one or more divinities or deities. ... For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity, or in the oneness of God. ...


Scripture

Taoist Priest in Macau, February 2006
Taoist Priest in Macau, February 2006

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (877x1361, 433 KB) Summary Taoist Priest in Macau, february 2006. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (877x1361, 433 KB) Summary Taoist Priest in Macau, february 2006. ...

Tao Te Ching

See also: Tao Te Ching

The Tao Te Ching, or Daodejing, is widely considered to be the most influential Taoist text.[33] It is a foundational scripture of central importance in Taoism. It has been used as a ritual text throughout the history of religious Taoism.[34] However, the precise date that it was written is the subject of debate: there are those who put it anywhere from the 6th century BCE to the 3rd century BCE.[35] The Tao Te Ching (道德經, Pinyin: D Jīng, thus sometimes rendered in recent works as Dao De Jing; archaic pre-Wade-Giles rendering: Tao Teh Ching; roughly translated as The Book of the Way and its Virtue (see dedicated chapter below on translating the title)) is an ancient Chinese scripture... BCE is a TLA that may stand for: Before the Common Era, date notation equivalent to BC (e. ...


Taoist commentators have deeply considered the opening lines of the Tao Te Ching. They are widely discussed in both academic and mainstream literature. A common interpretation is similar to Korzybski's observation that "the map is not the territory".[36] The opening lines, with literal and common translation, are: Alfred Korzybski (1879–1950), born in Warsaw, Poland, came from a family which had worked as mathematicians, scientists, and engineers for generations, and he chose to train as an engineer. ... The map/territory relation—the relationship between symbol and object—is one of the lasting philosophical quandaries. ...

道可道,非常道。 (Tao (way or path) can be said, not usual way)
"The Way that can be described is not the true Way."
名可名,非常名。 (names can be named, not usual names)
"The Name that can be named is not the constant Name."

Tao literally means "path" or "way"(and also means "say" or "be said"), and can figuratively mean "essential nature", "destiny", "principle", or "true path". The philosophical and religious "Tao" is infinite, without limitation. One view states that the paradoxical opening is intended to prepare the reader for teachings about the unteachable Tao.[37] Tao is believed to be transcendent, indistinct and without form. Hence, it cannot be named or categorized. Even the word "Tao" can be considered a dangerous temptation to make Tao a limiting "name".[38]


The Tao Te Ching is not thematically ordered. However, the main themes of the text are repeatedly expressed using variant formulations, often with only a slight difference.[39] The leading themes revolve around the nature of Tao and how to attain it. Tao is said to be unnameable and accomplishing great things through small means.[40] There is significant debate regarding which English translation of the Tao Te Ching is preferred, and which particular translation methodology is best. Discussions and disputes about various translations of the Tao Te Ching can become acrimonious, involving deeply entrenched views.[41]


Ancient commentaries on the Tao Te Ching are important texts in their own right. The Heshang Gong commentary was most likely written in the second century CE, and as perhaps the oldest commentary, contains the edition of the Tao Te Ching that was transmitted to the present day.[42] Other important commentaries include the Xiang'er, one of the most important texts from the Celestial Master movement, and Wang Bi's commentary.[43] The Xiang’er (Simplified Chinese: 想尔, Traditional Chinese: 想爾)is a commentary to the Daode jing that is best known for being one of the earliest surviving texts from the Way of the Celestial Master variant of Daoism. ... Wang Bi was a scholar of the Yi Jing (also known as I Ching). ...


Daozang

The Daozang (道藏, Treasury of Tao) is sometimes referred to as the Taoist canon. It was originally compiled during the Jin, Tang, and Song dynasties. The version surviving today was published during the Ming dynasty.[44][45]The Ming Daozang includes almost 1500 texts.[46] Following the example of the Buddhist Tripitaka, it is divided into three dong (洞, "caves", "grottoes"). They are arranged from "highest" to "lowest":[47][48] The Daozang (Daoist Cannon) consists of almost 5000 individual texts that were collected circa C.E. 400 (quite some time after the Dao De Jing and Zhuang Zi which are the core Daoist texts). ... The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin: jìn, 265-420), one of the Six Dynasties, followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... For other uses, see Liu Song Dynasty. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Many religions and spiritual movements believe that their sacred texts (or scriptures) are the Word of God, often feeling that the texts are wholly divine or spiritually inspired in origin. ... The Tripiá¹­aka (Sanskrit त्रिपिटक, lit. ...

  1. The Zhen ("real" or "truth"真) grotto. Includes the Shangqing texts.
  2. The Xuan ("mystery"玄) grotto. Includes the Lingbao scriptures.
  3. The Shen ("divine"神) grotto. Includes texts predating the Maoshan (茅山)revelations.

Daoshi generally do not consult published versions of the Daozang, but individually choose, or inherit, texts included in the Daozang. These texts have been passed down for generations from teacher to student.[49] The Shangqing School (Chinese:上清) is a Daoist movement that began during in the aristocracy of the Western Jin dynasty. ... Lingbao refers to a branch of Taoism that originated in the late 4th century CE. It is notable for its adoption of certain Mahayana Buddhist ideas and for its development of a system of ritual that was to become pervasive in Taoism and survive to the present. ... Shen can refer to the supreme kai in the Japanese anime series Dragon Ball Z. an abbrievation for Shanghai, Peoples Republic of China. ...


The Shangqing school has a tradition of approaching Taoism through scriptural study. It is believed that reciting certain texts often enough will be rewarded with immortality.[50] In Taiwan, one often finds Buddhist texts being chanted in Taoist temples.[citation needed]


Other texts

While the Tao Te Ching is most famous, there are other important texts in traditional Taoism. Taishang Ganying Pian ("Treatise of the Exalted One on Response and Retribution") discusses sin and ethics, and has become a popular morality tract in the last few centuries.[51] It asserts that those in harmony with Tao will live long and fruitful lives. The wicked, and their descendents, will suffer and have shortened lives.[52] Both the Taipingjing ("Scripture on Great Peace") and the Baopuzi ("Book of the Master Who Keeps to Simplicity") contain early alchemical formulas that early Taoists believed could lead to immortality.[53][54] A book titled "The Wisdom Of Laotse" offers a translation of "The Book of Tao" while comparing Laotse's philosophies against Kǒng Fūzǐ's (Confucius) [55]


Zhuangzi

The Zhuangzi (莊子) was named after its author, who also appears as a character in the book's narrative. It is more in the form of a collection of stories than the short aphorisms and maxims of the Tao Te Ching. Also among the cast of characters in the Zhuangzi's stories is Laozi of the Tao Te Ching, as well as Confucius. Zhuangzi (Traditional: 莊子; Simplified: 庄子, Pinyin: Zhuāng Zǐ, Wade-Giles: Chuang TzÅ­, lit. ... For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ...


History

Main article: History of Taoism
White Cloud Monastery, Beijing
White Cloud Monastery, Beijing

Taoism's origins may be traced to prehistoric Chinese religions in China. They are found in the composition of the Tao Te Ching (3rd or 4th century BCE). Laozi received imperial recognition as a divinity in the mid second century CE.[56] Taoism gained official status in China during the Tang Dynasty, whose emperors claimed Laozi as their relative.[57] Several Song emperors, most notably Huizong, were active in promoting Taoism, collecting Taoist texts and publishing editions of the Daozang.[58] Aspects of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism were consciously synthesised in the Neo-Confucian school, which eventually became Imperial orthodoxy for state bureaucratic purposes.[59] The Qing Dynasty, however, much favored Confucian classics and rejected Taoist works. During the eighteenth century, the imperial library was constituted, but excluded virtually all Taoist books.[60] By the beginning of the twentieth century, Taoism had fallen so much from favor, that only one complete copy of the Daozang still remained, at the White Cloud Monastery in Beijing.[61] Taoism is one of five religions recognised by the PRC, which insists on controlling its activities through a state bureaucracy (the China Taoist Association).[62] Taoisms origins may be traced to prehistoric Chinese religions in China; to the composition of the Tao Te Ching (3rd or 4th century BCE); or to the activity of Zhang Daoling (2nd century AD). ... Image File history File links Baiyun. ... Image File history File links Baiyun. ... The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... (5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Invasion of the Celts into Ireland Kingdom of Macedon conquers Persian empire Romans build first aqueduct Chinese use bellows The Scythians are beginning to be absorbed into the Sarmatian... Laozi (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Lao Tzu; also Lao Tse, Laotze, Lao Zi, and in other ways) was an ancient Chinese philosopher. ... Emperor Huizong (November 2, 1082 – June 4, 1135) was the eighth and one of the most famous emperors of the Song Dynasty of China, with a personal life spent amidst luxury, sophistication and art but ending in tragedy. ... Neo-Confucianism (理學 Pinyin: Lǐxué) is a term for a form of Confucianism that was primarily developed during the Song dynasty, but which can be traced back to Han Yu and Li Ao in the Tang dynasty. ... in Christianity: Eastern Christianity Oriental Orthodoxy Orthodox Christianity Orthodoxy by country in Judaism: Orthodox Judaism Modern Orthodox Judaism Jewish organisations: Orthodox Union Categories: ...


Adherents

The number of Taoists is difficult to estimate, partly for definitional reasons (who counts as a Taoist?), and partly for practical ones (it is illegal for private parties to conduct surveys in China). The number of people practicing some aspect of the Chinese folk religion might number in the hundreds of millions. (Adherents.com estimates "Traditional Chinese religion" at nearly four hundred million[63]). The number of people patronising Daoshi (Taoist priests or masters) would be smaller by several orders of magnitude, while the number of literary Daojia would be smaller yet. At the same time, most Chinese people and many others have been influenced in some way by Taoist tradition. Most estimates for the amount of Taoists (either worldwide or simply outside of mainland China) are 20–30 million.[64][65][66] [67][68][69][70]


Geographically, Taoism flourishes best in regions populated by Chinese people: mainland China, Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore, and various Chinese diaspora communities. Taoist literature and art has influenced the cultures of Korea, Japan and Vietnam, and these countries' folk religions have many common elements. Organized Taoism seems not to have attracted a non-Chinese following until modern times. In Taiwan, there is 4.5[71]–7.5 million people (33% of the population)[72] are Taoists. In Singapore, 8.5% of the population is Taoist.[73][74] There are also small numbers of Taoists in the Western world, and Japan, Vietnam and Korea are culturally influenced by Taoism even though the organized religion has mostly died out.


Practices

Detail of circa 1700 painting of a Taoist ritual for the dead, illustrating a scene from The Plum in the Golden Vase. Note the plaques at the back of the altar of the Three Purities, and the various ritual implements including incense burner and ritual sword on the right. (According to the novel the sword is engraved with the seven stars of the big dipper.) Bowls hold food offerings for the deceased woman, Li Ping'er.
Detail of circa 1700 painting of a Taoist ritual for the dead, illustrating a scene from The Plum in the Golden Vase. Note the plaques at the back of the altar of the Three Purities, and the various ritual implements including incense burner and ritual sword on the right. (According to the novel the sword is engraved with the seven stars of the big dipper.) Bowls hold food offerings for the deceased woman, Li Ping'er.
Taoist priests at Beijing's White Cloud Monastery
Chinese Taoist priests celebrating a ritual at the Wudangshan monastery

At certain dates, food may be set out as a sacrifice to the gods and/or spirits of the departed. (See, for example, Qingming Festival.) This may include slaughtered pigs and ducks, or fruit. Another form of sacrifice involves the burning of Joss paper or Hell Bank Notes, on the assumption that images thus consumed by the fire will reappear—not as a mere image, but as the actual item—in the spirit world, and be available for the departed spirit to use. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 639 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (800 × 751 pixel, file size: 234 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Illustration of Taoist ritual from c. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 639 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (800 × 751 pixel, file size: 234 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Illustration of Taoist ritual from c. ... Jin Ping Mei (金瓶梅; pinyin: Jīn Píngméi, The Plum in the Golden Vase, The Golden Lotus) is a Chinese realistic novel composed during the late Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), attributed to Lanling Xiaoxiao Sheng. ... Cliffside Temple at Wudangshan The Wudang Mountains (武當山; pinyin: wǔ dāng shān, also known as Wu Tang Shan or simply Wudang), are a small mountain range in the Hubei province of China, just to the south of the manufacturing city of Shiyan. ... Marcus Aurelius and members of the Imperial family offer sacrifice in gratitude for success against Germanic tribes: contemporary bas-relief, Capitoline Museum, Rome For other uses, see Sacrifice (disambiguation). ... Burning paper gifts for the departed. ... Joss paper Joss paper (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally gold paper), also known as ghost money, are sheets of paper that are burned in traditional Chinese deity or ancestor worship ceremonies during special holidays. ... The widely used $10,000 Hell note. ...


Secular Activities

Also at certain dates, street parades take place. These are lively affairs which invariably involve firecrackers and flower-covered floats broadcasting traditional music. Street parades may also include lion dances and dragon dances; human-occupied puppets (often of the "Seventh Lord" and "Eighth Lord"); jitong (乩童 male "Mediums") who mutilate their skin with knives; Bajiajiang, which are gongfu-practicing honor guards in demonic makeup; and palanquins carrying god-images. The various participants are not considered performers, but rather possessed by the god in question.[75] Japanese name Kanji: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Lion dance (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a form of traditional dance in Chinese culture, in which performers mimic a lions movements in a lion costume Asiatic lions[1] found in nearby India are the ones... Head of dragon dance costume Chinese Youth Society of Melbourne (Australia), performing at Chinese New Year - demonstrating a basic corkscrew trick Double dragon dance at Chongqing, China, September 28, 2002, during a weeklong celebration of modern Chinas National Day (October 1st) Dragon dance (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is... Alternative meaning: Kung Fu (TV series) Kung fu or gongfu (功夫, Pinyin: gōngfu) is a well-known Chinese term used in the West to designate Chinese martial arts. ... Japanese Palanquin Indian Palanquin A palanquin aka palkhi is a covered sedan chair (or litter) carried on four poles. ...


Fortune-telling—including astrology, I Ching, and other forms of divination—has long been considered a traditional Taoist pursuit.[76] Mediumship is also widely encountered. We may distinguish between martial forms of mediumship (like the aforementioned jitong) and X spirit-writing, typically through the practice of fuji (planchette writing).[77] For prophecy in the context of revealed religions see Prophet. ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... Alternative meaning: I Ching (monk) The I Ching (Traditional Chinese: 易經, pinyin y jīng; Cantonese IPA: jɪk6gɪŋ1; Cantonese Jyutping: jik6ging1; alternative romanizations include I Jing, Yi Ching, Yi King) is the oldest of the Chinese classic texts. ... For other uses, see Divination (disambiguation). ... Mediumship is a form of relationship to spirits practiced in many religions, including Spiritualism, Spiritism, Espiritismo, Candomblé, Voodoo, Kardecism, and Umbanda. ...

Taoist charm from Tien Hau Temple in San Francisco.
Taoist charm from Tien Hau Temple in San Francisco.

Many Taoists also participated in the reading and writing of books. Taoists of this type tend to be civil servants, elderly retirees, or in modern times, university faculty. While there is considerable overlap with religious Taoism, there are often important divergences in interpretation. Wang Bi, one of the most influential philosophical commentators on the Laozi (and Yijing) was in fact a Confucian.[78] Image File history File links 2004 Photo of Taoist charm distributed by Tien Hau Temple in San Francisco. ... Image File history File links 2004 Photo of Taoist charm distributed by Tien Hau Temple in San Francisco. ... Clothed statues of Matsu Matsu (Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ma-tsu; Pe̍h-ōe-jÄ«: Má-chó·; literally Mother-Ancestor), also spelled Mazu, is the Taoist goddess of the Sea who protects fishermen and sailors, and is revered as the patron saint who protects East Asians who are... Alternative meaning: I Ching (monk) The I Ching (Simplified Chinese: 易经; Traditional Chinese: 易經, Hanyu Pinyin: Yì Jīng; Cantonese IPA: jɪk6gɪŋ1; Cantonese Jyutping: jik6ging1; alternative romanizations include I Jing, Yi Ching, Yi King) is the oldest of the Chinese classic texts. ...


For many educated Chinese people (the Literati), life was divided into a social aspect, where Confucian doctrine prevailed, and a private aspect, with Taoist aspirations. Night-time, exile, or retirement provided the opportunity to cultivate Taoism and reread Laozi and Zhuangzi. The Literati often dedicated this period of life to arts such as calligraphy, painting, and poetry, or personal researches into antiquities, medicine, folklore, and so on.


A number of martial arts traditions, particularly T'ai Chi Ch'uan, Bagua Zhang, Won Yuen Yat Hey Jueng, Bak Mei Pai, Bok Fou Pai, Yaw Gong Moon and Xing Yi Quan, embody Taoist principles to a greater or lesser extent, and some practitioners consider their art to be a means of practicing Taoism.[79] The accuracy of these claims varies greatly depending on the particular art and/or practitioner. Tai Chi Chuan or Taijiquan (Chinese: 太極拳; pinyin: ; literally supreme ultimate fist), commonly known as Tai Chi, Tai Chi, or Taiji, is a nei chia (internal) Chinese martial art which is known for the claims of health and longevity benefits made by its practitioners and in some... BāguàzhÇŽng is one of the three major internal Chinese martial arts, the other two being Xingyiquan (形意拳) and Taijiquan (太極拳). BāguàzhÇŽng literally means eight trigram palm, referring to the trigrams of the Yijing, one of the canons of Taoism. ... Xingyiquan is one of the three major internal Chinese martial arts—the other two being Tai Chi Chüan and Baguazhang—and is characterised by aggressive, seemingly linear movements and explosive power. ...


It should be noted that while many Japanese and Korean martial and cultural traditions (i.e. judo, kendo, cha-do, kyu-do, shinto, Hapkido, Taekwondo, Tangsudo) have developed a distinctly zen character over the years, the "do" or "to" is in fact one of the Japanese / Korean pronunciations of the Chinese "tao" (alternatedly rendered as "dao" by some translators), and it is written with the same character. Again, the extent to which these practices reflect taoist principles varies depending on the specific school and practitioner.


Taoist symbols and images

Taijitu
Taijitu

There are many symbols and images that are associated with Taoism. Like the "cross" in Christianity, and the "wheel" in Buddhism, Taoism has Laozi, actual Chinese characters, and many other symbols that are often represented or associated with it. Image File history File links Yin_yang. ... Image File history File links Yin_yang. ... A reliquary in the form of an ornate Christian Cross Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The Dharmacakra (Sanskrit) or Dhammacakka (Pāli), Tibetan , Chinese fălún 法轮, Wheel of Dharma is an auspicious Buddhist symbol representing a Buddhas teaching of the path to enlightenment. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ...


The Taijitu ("yin and yang") symbol 太極圖 as well as the Bagua 八卦 ("Eight Trigrams") are associated with Taoist symbolism.[80] While almost all Taoist organizations make use of the yin and yang symbol, one could also call it Confucian, Neo-Confucian or pan-Chinese. The yin and yang make a backwards "S" shape, with yin (black or red) on bottom. One is likely to see this symbol as decorations on Taoist organization flags and logos, temple floors, or stitched into clerical robes. According to Song Dynasty sources, it originated around the 10th century.[81] Previously, yin and yang were symbolized by a tiger and dragon.[82] (This is one of the places where the surface Dao and the hidden dao is shown. On the surface the picture of the Dao with a Tiger and a dragon is no more than just a picture. But beneath is the one of the way to immortality called "The White Tigress and The Jade Dragon" and it is the pure Female-male energy.) Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Chữ nôm: Hán tá»±: The Taijitu of Zhou Dun-yi In Chinese philosophy, yin and yang (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) are generalized descriptions of the antitheses or mutual correlations in human perceptions of phenomena... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Chữ nôm: Hán tá»±: The Taijitu of Zhou Dun-yi In Chinese philosophy, yin and yang (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) are generalized descriptions of the antitheses or mutual correlations in human perceptions of phenomena...


The two major way that is used to day is White on top / black at bottom or Reverse Black on top / White at bottom. When it is White on top, it is called Early Heaven and symbolyse going back to the basic or keeping the mind and the body Young like a child. When it is black on top, it is called Later Heaven and is the way the world normally moves and normally means going to the grave.


The five directions as conceived by the ancient Chinese (east, south, west, north, center) each have their own attributes, as follows in the chart below.[83]

Direction Element / Phase / Symbol Season Force
East Wood Azure Dragon Spring Yang
South Fire Vermilion Bird Summer Yang
West Metal White Tiger Autumn Yin
North Water Black Tortoise Winter Yin
Center Earth Yellow Dragon Changing of the seasons Yin/Yang balance

Taoist temples may fly square or triangular flags. They typically feature mystical writing or diagrams and are intended to fulfill various functions including providing guidance for the spirits of the dead, to bring good fortune, increase life span, etc.[84] Other flags and banners may be those of the gods or immortals themselves.[85] Chinese Wood (木) | Fire (火) Earth (土) | Metal (金) | Water (水) Japanese Earth (地) | Water (水) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism and Buddhism Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water In traditional Chinese philosophy, natural phenomena can be classified into the Five Elements (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ): wood, fire... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Vermilion Bird (Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is one of the Four Symbols of the Chinese constellations. ... The White Tiger (Chinese: ; pinyin: Bái Hǔ) is one of the Four Symbols of the Chinese constellations. ... The Black Tortoise (Chinese: ; pinyin: , literally Black Warrior) is one of the Four Symbols of the Chinese constellations. ...

Paper lanterns outside of Taoist Benevolence Temple (Cíhuì Gōng) in Banqiao, Taipei.
Paper lanterns outside of Taoist Benevolence Temple (Cíhuì Gōng) in Banqiao, Taipei.

One sometimes sees a zigzag with seven stars, representing the Big Dipper (or the "Bushel", the Chinese equivalent). In the Shang dynasty the Big Dipper was considered a deity, while during the Han dynasty, it was considered a qi path of the circumpolar god, Taiyi.[86] Image File history File linksMetadata Taoistlanterns. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Taoistlanterns. ... This article is about the city. ... Big Dipper map A group of the brightest stars of the constellation Ursa Major, the Great Bear, form a well-known asterism that has been recognized as a distinct grouping in many cultures from time immemorial. ... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (206 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–220 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication...


Taoist temples in southern China and Taiwan may often be identified by their roofs, which feature Chinese dragons and phoenixes made from multi-colored ceramic tiles. They also stand for the harmony of yin and yang (with the phoenix being yin). A related symbol is the flaming pearl which may be seen on such roofs between two dragons, as well as on the hairpin of a Celestial Master.[87] But in general, Chinese Taoist architecture has no universal features that distinguish it particularly from other structures.[88] Japanese name Hiragana: KyÅ«jitai: Shinjitai: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Thai name Thai: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: The Chinese dragon is a Chinese mythical creature, depicted as a long, scaled, snake-like creature with four claws. ... Fenghuang sculpture, Nanning city, Guangxi, China. ...


Relations with other religions and philosophies

Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism are one, a painting in the litang style portraying three men laughing by a river stream, 12th century, Song Dynasty.
Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism are one, a painting in the litang style portraying three men laughing by a river stream, 12th century, Song Dynasty.

The origins of Taoism and other philosophical schools are intimately related. The authorship of the Daodejing is assigned to Laozi, traditionally thought to be a teacher of Confucius, yet appears to be reacting against Confucian doctrine (suggesting the text comes after Confucianism). Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu), the other defining philosopher of Taoism, reacted both to the Confucian-Mohist ethical disputes and to related developments in theory of names (language). There is little evidence of a link between Laozi and Zhuangzi—whose most frequent interactions are with Hui Shi (of the school of names). However, the chapters of the Zhuangzi written after his death include dialogues between Laozi and Confucius that mimic (or inspire?) the style of the Daodejing, suggesting the first association of the two texts dates from around that time. The "history of thought" contained in the Zhuangzi cites Laozi as a prior step (and demotes Hui Shi to a postscript). It includes the Mohists by name and the Confucians by implication and a cluster of other less well known thinkers. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... For other uses, see Liu Song Dynasty. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ...


These early Taoist texts reject numerous basic assumptions of Confucianism, embracing instead values based on nature, perspectivalism, and spontaneity. They express skepticism of conventional moralities and Mozi's Utilitarian or Mencius' benevolence based revisions. Since politics was conceived by these traditional schools as a scheme for unifying all "under the sky" in their favored dao, Taoists tend toward anarchism, mistrustful of hierarchical social structures and particularly, governments. (Zhuangzi argues that the proponents of benevolence and morality are usually found at the gates of feudal lords who have stolen their kingdoms.) Although philosophical Taoist appear to be anarchist, it is clearly an over statement. Mitigated Anarchism or libertarianism would better categorise the philosophical Taoists, they tend to believe in the idea that the government should act in a 'non acting' or 'wu wei' manner. This means that they should only act when necessary and their actions should not be felt directly by the people, nor should they be visible to the people. Chapters 57-81 of the Dao De Ching all deal with government, ruling, and appeasing the people. Anarchist redirects here. ... This article is about the political philosophy based on private property rights. ...


Taoist thought partly inspired Legalist philosophers, whose theories were used by Qin Shi Huang, founder of the Chinese Empire. The junction point can be found in the work of Hanfeizi, a prominent Legalist thinker who commented on the Tao Te Ching. Hanfeizi used some chapters of the book to justify a structured society based on law and punishment and on the undiscussed power of the Emperor. Legalism, in the Western sense, is an approach to the analysis of legal questions characterized by abstract logical reasoning focusing on the applicable legal text, such as a constitution, legislation, or case law, rather than on the social, economic, or political context. ... The monarch known now as Qin Shi Huang (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Shih-huang) (259 BCE – September 10, 210 BCE),[1] personal name Yíng Zhèng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE (officially still under the Zhou Dynasty), and... ...


The entry of Buddhism into China was via its dialectic with later Taoism which transformed them both. Over the centuries of Chinese interactions, Buddhism gradually found itself transformed from a competitor of Taoism, to a fellow inhabitant of the Chinese cultural ecosystem.[89] Originally seen as a kind of foreign Taoism, its scriptures were translated into Chinese with Taoist vocabulary. Chan Buddhism in particular is inspired by crucial elements of philosophical Taoism, ranging from distrust of scripture, text and language to its more positive view of "this life", practice, skill and the absorption in "every-moment". In the Tang period some Taoist schools incorporated such Buddhist elements as monasteries, vegetarianism, prohibition of alcohol, the celibacy of the clergy, the doctrine of emptiness, and the amassing of a vast collection of scripture into tripartite organisation.[90] However, there are some who argue that Taoism had vegetarianism first. Some Buddhist schools incorporated it later. Chan can be variation of 陳 (Chen), a Chinese family name. ...


Ideological and political rivals in ancient times, Taoism, Confucianism, and Buddhism have inevitably deeply influenced one another, and eventually achieved a kind of modus vivendi in which each has its own particular ecological niche within Chinese society. With time, most Chinese people likewise came to identify to some extent with all three traditions simultaneously. This became institutionalised by the time of the Song Dynasty, when aspects of the three schools were consciously synthesised in the Neo-Confucian school, which eventually became Imperial orthodoxy for state bureaucratic purposes. Modus vivendi is a Latin phrase. ... “Orthodox” redirects here. ...


The Vinegar Tasters (sometimes called Three Vinegar Tasters) is a popular painting (usually in scroll format) that explained Taoist ideals in relation to the Neo-Confucian school which began in the 10th century and gained prominence in the 12th century. The image depicts Laozi together with The Buddha, and Confucius. In these paintings the three are gathered around a vat of vinegar and the motto associated with the grouping is "the three teachings are one." (However, see The Vinegar Tasters for an alternate interpretation.) A traditional representation of The Vinegar Tasters. The Vinegar Tasters is an allegorical image representing Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism, and generally favourable to Taoism and critical of the other two. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ... Confucius (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kung-fu-tzu), lit. ... A traditional representation of The Vinegar Tasters. The Vinegar Tasters is an allegorical image representing Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism, and generally favourable to Taoism and critical of the other two. ...


Taoism does not fall strictly under an umbrella or a definition of an organized religion like the Abrahamic traditions, nor could it be studied as the originator or variants of Chinese folk religion, for the simple reason that these were not the tenets or core teachings of Taoism or those in Tao te Ching [91]. Robinet further and rightly asserted the nature of Taoism can be better understood as a psyche, and a way of life rather than a religion[92], as the adherents do not view Taoism in the manner analysed by historians who were neither Taoist and who did not understand the subject[93]. Clothed statues of Matsu/Mazu (Chinese goddess of the Sea) Chinese folk religion comprises the religion practiced in much of China for thousands of years which included ancestor veneration and drew heavily upon concepts and beings within Chinese mythology. ... The Tao Te Ching (道德經, Pinyin: D Jīng, thus sometimes rendered in recent works as Dao De Jing; archaic pre-Wade-Giles rendering: Tao Teh Ching; roughly translated as The Book of the Way and its Virtue (see dedicated chapter below on translating the title)) is an ancient Chinese scripture...


Indeed many scholastic work did conclude Taoism is a school of thought with a quest for Immortality [94][95]. In this light Taoism can not be compared with other religions. The Fountain of Eternal Life in Cleveland, Ohio Immortality (or eternal life) is the concept of living in physical or spiritual form for an infinite length of time, or in a state of timelessness. ...


New Age Takes

Western New Agers have embraced some aspects of Taoism: the name and concept of Dao, the names and concepts of yin and yang; an appreciation for Laozi and Zhuangzi, and a respect for other aspects of Chinese tradition such as qigong. At the same time, Western appropriations differ in subtle (or not so subtle) ways from their Asian sources. For example, the word Tao is used in numerous book titles which are connected to Chinese culture only tangentially. Examples would include Fritjof Capra's The Tao of Physics, or Benjamin Hoff's The Tao of Pooh. New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ... Dr. Fritjof Capra – photo by Kate Mount Fritjof Capra (born February 1, 1939) is an Austrian-born American physicist. ... The Tao of Physics (full title: The Tao of Physics: An Exploration of the Parallels Between Modern Physics and Eastern Mysticism) was a 1975 book by physicist Fritjof Capra, published by Shambhala Publications of Berkeley, California. ... Benjamin Hoff (born 1946) is the author of several books on Taoism, including his bestselling The Tao of Pooh and The Te of Piglet. ... Cover of The Tao of Pooh The Tao of Pooh is a book by Benjamin Hoff (Dutton Books: 1982, ISBN 0-525-24458-1). ...


Taoism has also been a resource for those in environmental philosophy, who see the non-anthropocentric nature of Taoism as a guide for new ways of thinking about nature and environmental ethics. Some consider Taoism to fit naturally with the radical environmental philosophy of deep ecology. Daoism and Ecology: Ways Within A Cosmic Landscape edited by N. J. Girardot, James Miller, and Liu Xiaogan is currently the most thorough introduction to studies done on concepts of nature and ecology within Taoism. Deep ecology is a recent branch of ecological philosophy (ecosophy) that considers humankind as an integral part of its environment. ...


See also

Anarchist redirects here. ... Eastern philosophy refers very broadly to the various philosophies of Asia, including Indian philosophy, Chinese philosophy, Persian philosophy, Japanese philosophy, and Korean philosophy. ... Chen Po (Chen Tuan, Chen Hsi I) 871-989 Ge Hong 284–364 Ho Yen Guo Xiang (Kuo Hsiang) d. ... In civics, minarchism, sometimes called minimal statism or small government, is the view that the size, role and influence of government in a free society should be minimal — only large enough to protect the liberty and property of each individual. ... Tao Yin (Chinese: 導引; pinyin: guide and pull) exercises were an ancient precursor of qigong, specifically practised in Chinese Taoist monasteries for health and spiritual cultivation, attested from at least 500 BC. Tao Yin is also said to be (along with Shaolin Chuan) a primary formative ingredient in the martial... map showing the prevalence of Dharmic (dark yellow), Taoic (light yellow), and Abrahamic (purple) religions in each country. ... Taoism is believed to be introduced into Vietnam during the Chinese Song Dynasty period. ... While there are many different historical and modern schools of Taoism, with different teachings on the subject, it is safe to say that many Taoists regard their diet as extremely important to their physical, mental and spiritual health in one way or another, especially where the amount of qi in... An ancient Chinese print depicting The Joining of the Essences. Daoist sexual practices (Simplified Chinese: 合气, Traditional Chinese: 合氣, pinyin: heqi) or The Joining of the Essences, is the way Daoists practiced sex. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Yingtan (鹰潭) is a small city in the east of Chinas Jiangxi province. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Miller (2003), p. ix.
  2. ^ Kohn (2000), pp. XI, XXIX.
  3. ^ Mair (2001) p. 174
  4. ^ Robinet (1997), p. 3.
  5. ^ Robinet (1997), p. 1.
  6. ^ Cane (2002), p. 13.
  7. ^ Martinson (1987), pp. 168-169.
  8. ^ Keller (2003), p. 289.
  9. ^ LaFargue (1994) p. 283.
  10. ^ Kirkland (2004) p. 2.
  11. ^ Sharot (2001), pp. 77-78, 88.
  12. ^ Maspero (1981), p. 32.
  13. ^ Kirkland (2004), p. 60.
  14. ^ Jones (2004), p. 255.
  15. ^ Oldmeadow (2007), p. 109.
  16. ^ Faching & deChant (2001), p. 35.
  17. ^ Slingerland (2003), p. 233.
  18. ^ Kraemer (1986), p. 286.
  19. ^ Carr & Zhang (2004), p. 209.
  20. ^ Martin (2005), p. 15.
  21. ^ Robinet (1997), p. 103.
  22. ^ Kohn (2000), p. 825.
  23. ^ Kohn (2000), p. 672.
  24. ^ Robinet (1993) p. 228.
  25. ^ Robinet (1997), p. 103.
  26. ^ Waley (1958), p. 225.
  27. ^ Maspero (1981), p. 92.
  28. ^ Segal (2006), p. 50.
  29. ^ Maspero (1981), p. 41.
  30. ^ Robinet (1997), p. 63.
  31. ^ Martinson (1987), pp. 168-169.
  32. ^ Faching & deChant (2001), p. 35.
  33. ^ Miller (2003), p. ix
  34. ^ Kohn & LaFargue (1998), p. 158.
  35. ^ Eliade (1984), p. 26
  36. ^ Barrett (2006), p. 40.
  37. ^ Kim (2003), pp. 21-22
  38. ^ Kohn & LaFargue (1998), pp. 104.
  39. ^ Kim (2003), p. 13
  40. ^ Van Voorst (2005), p. 165
  41. ^ Kohn & LaFargue (1998), pp. 185-86.
  42. ^ Schipper & Verellen (2004), p. 73.
  43. ^ Schipper & Verellen (2004), p. 74-77.
  44. ^ Schipper & Verellen (2004), p. 1.
  45. ^ Schipper & Verellen (2004), p. 30.
  46. ^ Schipper & Verellen (2004), p. 36.
  47. ^ Schipper & Verellen (2004), p. 15.
  48. ^ Litte (2000), p. 46
  49. ^ Schipper & Verellen (2004), p. 44.
  50. ^ Robinet (1997), p. 132.
  51. ^ Jordan: The Taoist Canon
  52. ^ Van Voorst (2005), p. 165
  53. ^ Schipper & Verellen (2004), p. 70-71.
  54. ^ Robinet (1997), p. 73.
  55. ^ "The Wisdom of Laotse" by Lin Yutang (1948) Random House
  56. ^ Robinet (1997), p. 50.
  57. ^ Robinet (1997), p. 184.
  58. ^ Robinet (1997), p. 213.
  59. ^ Kohn (2000), p. XVII.
  60. ^ Schipper (1993), p. 19.
  61. ^ Schipper (1993), p. 220.
  62. ^ Human Rights Without Frontiers "Religious Freedom in China in 2006"PDF (30.6 KiB) An address given to the Delegation EU-China of the European Parliament.
  63. ^ [http://www.adherents.com/Religions_By_Adherents.html Adherents.com - Major Religions of the World Ranked by Number of Adherents]
  64. ^ Taoism - ReligionFacts
  65. ^ Taoism
  66. ^ Catholic News - Since 1935 » Understanding Taoism
  67. ^ Tolerance.it
  68. ^ Adherents.com
  69. ^ http://www.ubfellowship.org/archive/readers/601_taoism.htm
  70. ^ TAOISM
  71. ^ Government Information Office, Taiwan (2002) TaoismRepublic of China Yearbook. Retrieved on: March 9, 2008.
  72. ^ China (includes Taiwan only)
  73. ^ Singapore Demographics Profile 2007
  74. ^ Demographics of Singapore: Information and Much More from Answers.com
  75. ^ Schipper (1993), p. 28-29.
  76. ^ Silvers (2005), p. 129-132.
  77. ^ Silvers (2005), p. 132. Discussing planchette writing
  78. ^ Schipper (1993), p. 192.
  79. ^ Silvers (2005), pp. 135-137
  80. ^ Little (2000), pp. 131-139
  81. ^ Little (2000), p. 131
  82. ^ Little (2000), p. 131
  83. ^ Little (2000), p. 129
  84. ^ Kohn (2004), p. 116. (Translating a monastic rule.)
  85. ^ Kohn (2004), p. 119
  86. ^ Little (2000), p. 128
  87. ^ Schipper (1993), p. 21.
  88. ^ Little (2000), p. 74
  89. ^ Maspero (1981), p. 46.
  90. ^ Maspero (1981), p. 50-51.
  91. ^ Robinet (1981), p. 103.
  92. ^ Robinet (1981), p. 20 stanza-1.
  93. ^ Robinet (1981), p. 3-4.
  94. ^ Maspero (1981), p. 211.
  95. ^ Creel (1982), p. 40

“PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Anatole, Alex. The Truth of Tao (Center of Traditional Taoist Studies, 2005). ISBN 0-9742529-0-5
  • Barrett, Rick. Taijiquan: Through the Western Gate (Blue Snake Books, 2006). ISBN 1583941398.
  • Cane, Eulalio Paul. Harmony: Radical Taoism Gently Applied (Trafford Publishing, 2002). ISBN 1412247780.
  • Carr, David T. & Zhang, Canhui. Space, Time, and Culture (Springer, 2004). ISBN 1402028237.
  • Chang, Stephen T. The Great Tao (Tao Longevity LLC, 1985). ISBN 0-942196-01-5.
  • Dean, Kenneth. Taoist Ritual and Popular Cults of Southeast China (Princeton: Princeton University, 1993).
  • Eliade, Mircea. A History of Religious Ideas, Volume 2. Translated by Willard R. Trask. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984.
  • Fasching, Darrell J. & deChant, Dell. Comparative Religious Ethics: a narrative approach (Blackwell Publishing, 2001). ISBN 0631201254.
  • Graham, A.C. Disputers of the Tao: Philosophical Argument in Ancient China (Open Court, 1993). ISBN 0-8126-9087-7
  • Graham, A.C. (translator). Chuang-tzu: The Inner Chapters (Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 2001). ISBN 0-87220-581-9
  • Jones, Richard H. Mysticism and Morality: a new look at old questions (Lexington Books, 2004). ISBN 0739107844.
  • Jordan, David K. Gods, Ghosts, and Ancestors: The Folk Religion of a Taiwanese Village (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972).
  • Kaltenmark, Max. Lao Tzu and Taoism (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1969 [original French 1965]).
  • Keller, Catherine. The Face of the Deep: A Theology of Becoming (Routledge, 2003). ISBN 0415256488.
  • Kim, Ha Poong. Reading Lao Tzu: A Companion to the Tao Te Ching With a New Translation (Xlibris Corporation, 2003). ISBN 1401083161.
  • Kirkland, Russel. Taoism: The Enduring Tradition (Routledge, 2004). ISBN 0415263220.
  • Knauer, Elfried R. "The Queen Mother of the West: A Study of the Influence of Western Prototypes on the Iconography of the Taoist Deity." In Contact and Exchange in the Ancient World. Ed. Victor H. Mair. University of Hawai'i Press. 2006 Pp. 62-115. ISBN 978-0-8248-2884-4; ISBN 0-8248-2884-4
  • Kohn, Livia. The Taoist Experience: An Anthology (Albany: SUNY Press, 1993).
  • Kohn, Livia, ed. Daoism Handbook (Leiden: Brill, 2000).
  • Kohn, Livia. The Daoist Monastic Manual: A Translation of the Fengdao Kejie (New York: Oxford University Press 2004)
  • Kohn, Livia & LaFargue, Michael, ed. Lao-Tzu and the Tao-Te-Ching (SUNY Press, 1998). ISBN 0791435997.
  • Kraemer, Kenneth. World Scriptures: An Introduction to Comparative Religions (Paulist Press, 1986). ISBN 0809127814.
  • LaFargue, Michael. Tao and Method: A Reasoned Approach to the Tao Te Ching (SUNY Press. 1994) ISBN 0791416011.
  • Lau, D. C. Lao Tzu: Tao Te Ching (London: Penguin Classics, 1963). ISBN 0-14-044131-X
  • Little, Stephen and Shawn Eichman, et al. Taoism and the Arts of China (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 2000). ISBN 0-520-22784-0
  • Liu Zhongyu, (Lü Pengzhi, trans.). "Daoist Folk Customs: Burning Incense and Worshiping Spirits." (Taoist Culture and Information Centre http://www.eng.taoism.org.hk/religious-activities&rituals/daoist-folk-customs/pg4-8-1.asp) (visited 3/23/2007).
  • Mair, Victor H. The Columbia History of Chinese Literature (Columbia University Press, 2001). ISBN 0231109849
  • Martin, William. A Path And A Practice: Using Lao Tzu's Tao Te Ching as a Guide to an Awakened Spiritual Life (Marlowe & Company, 2005). ISBN 1569243905.
  • Martinson, Paul Varo. A theology of world religions: Interpreting God, self, and world in Semitic, Indian, and Chinese thought (Augsburg Publishing House, 1987). ISBN 0806622539.
  • Maspero, Henri.Taoism and Chinese Religion (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1981). ISBN 0-87023-308-4
  • Miller, James. Daoism: A Short Introduction (Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 2003). ISBN 1-85168-315-1
  • Ni, Hua-Ching. Tao: The Subtle Universal Law and the Integral Way of Life (SevenStar Communications, 1998). ISBN 0-937064-65-3
  • Robinet. Isabelle. Taoist Meditation: The Mao-shan Tradition of Great Purity (Albany: SUNY Press, 1993 [original French 1989]).
  • Robinet, Isabelle. Taoism: Growth of a Religion (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997 [original French 1992]). ISBN 0-8047-2839-9
  • Saso, Michael R. Taoism and the Rite of Cosmic Renewal (2nd ed., Washington State University Press, 1990). ISBN 978-0-87422-054-4
  • Segal, Robert Alan. The Blackwell Companion to the Study of Religion (Blackwell Publishing, 2006). ISBN 0631232168.
  • Schipper, Kristopher. The Taoist Body (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993 [original French version 1982]).
  • Schipper, Kristopher and Franciscus Verellen. The Taoist Canon: A Historical Companion to the Daozang (Chicago: University of Chicago, 2004).
  • Sharot, Stephen. A Comparative Sociology of World Religions: virtuosos, priests, and popular religion (New York: NYU Press, 2001). ISBN 0814798055.
  • Silvers, Brock. The Taoist Manual (Honolulu: Sacred Mountain Press, 2005).
  • Sivin, Nathan. Chinese Alchemy: Preliminary Studies (Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1968).
  • Slingerland, Edward Gilman. Effortless Action: Wu-Wei as Conceptual Metaphor and Spiritual Ideal in Early China (Oxford University Press, 2003). ISBN 0195138996.
  • Sommer, Deborah. Chinese Religion: An Anthology of Sources (Oxford University Press, 1995). ISBN 0-19-508895-6
  • Van Voorst, Robert E. Anthology of World Scriptures (Thomson Wadsworth, 2005). ISBN 0534520995.
  • Waley, Arthur. The Way and Its Power: A Study of the Tao Te Ching and Its Place in Chinese Thought (Grove Press, 1958). ISBN 0802150853.

Further reading

  • Welch, H. and Seidel, A., Facets of Taoism (Yale University Press, 1979)

External links

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Organizations
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  • Taoist Culture and Information Center
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Taoism -- Beliefnet.com (401 words)
Philosophical Taoism is rational, contemplative, and nonsectarian, and it accepts death as a natural returning to the Tao.
Religious Taoism is magical, cultic, esoteric, and sectarian, and it emphasizes health and healing as ways to gain long life or even immortality.
T'ai chi and the medical practice of Quigong are modern manifestations of Taoism.
Taoism - Crystalinks (2911 words)
Aspects of both philosophical and religious Taoism were appropriated in East Asian cultures influenced by China, especially Korea, Japan, and Vietnam.
Taoism can also be called "the other way," for during its entire history, it has coexisted alongside the Confucian tradition, which served as the ethical and religious basis of the institutions and arrangements of the Chinese empire.
While in fundamental ways such a goal was incompatible with the aims of philosophical Taoism, there were hints in the texts of the philosophical tradition to the extension of life and the protection from harm possible for those in harmony with the Tao.
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