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Encyclopedia > Tantra
The Sri Yantra
The Sri Yantra

Tantra (Sanskrit: तन्त्र "weave" denoting continuity[1]), tantricism or tantrism is any of several esoteric traditions rooted in the religions of India. It exists in Hindu, Bönpo, Buddhist, and Jain forms. Tantra in its various forms has existed in India, China, Japan, Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Korea, Cambodia, Burma, Indonesia and Mongolia.[2] David Gordon White, while cautioning against attempting a rigorous definition of what is a protean practice, offers the following working definition: Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Tantra (Looms or Weavings), refer to numerous and varied scriptures pertaining to any of several esoteric traditions rooted in Hindu and Buddhist philosophy. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... In computer science, weaving describes the process of combining different aspects into a complete application. ... Look up Esotericism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Bön[1] (Tibetan: བོན་; Wylie: bon; Lhasa dialect IPA: [) is the oldest spiritual tradition of Tibet. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ...

"Tantra is that Asian body of beliefs and practices which, working from the principle that the universe we experience is nothing other than the concrete manifestation of the divine energy of the Godhead that creates and maintains that universe, seeks to ritually appropriate and channel that energy, within the human microcosm, in creative and emancipatory ways".[3] For the definition of the word microcosm, see here. ...

Contents

Overview

Robert Brown notes that the term "tantrism" is a construction of Western scholarship and that:

It is not a concept that comes from within the religious system itself, although it is generally recognized internally as different from the Vedic tradition. This immediately makes it suspect as an independent category.[4]

Rather than a single coherent system, Tantra is an accumulation of practices and ideas which has among its characteristics the use of ritual, energy work, in some sects transgressional acts, the use of the mundane to access the supramundane and the identification of the microcosm with the macrocosm.[5] The Tantric practitioner seeks to use the divine power that flows through the universe (including their own body) to attain purposeful goals. These goals may be spiritual, material or both.[6] Look up mundane in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the definition of the word microcosm, see here. ... Macrocosm and microcosm is an ancient Greek schema of seeing the same patterns reproduced in all levels of reality. ... Prana (, IAST: ) is a Sanskrit word meaning breath and refers to a vital, life-sustaining force of living beings and vital energy in natural processes of the universe. ...


A practitioner of tantra considers mystical experience or the guidance of a Guru imperative.[7] In the process of working with energy the Tantric has various tools at their disposal. These include yoga ~ to actuate processes that will yoke the practitioner to the divine. Also important are the use of visualizations of the deity and verbalisation or evocation through mantras ~ which may be construed as seeing and singing the power into being; identification and internalisation of the divine is enacted ~ often through a total identification with a deity, such that the aspirant 'becomes' the deity [8], the Ishta-Devata. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Guru (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Yoga (disambiguation). ... Visualization can refer to: Graphic Visualization as in any technique for creating images, diagrams, or animations to communicate any message. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In Tibet, many Buddhists carve mantras into rocks as a form of devotion. ... Ishta-Deva, or Ishta Devata is a term from Hinduism that means chosen Deity or revered aspect of God by a devotee and is a widely held concept in Smartism. ...


Hindu

The Tantric tradition may be considered as either parallel to, or intertwined with, the Vedic tradition. André Padoux notes that in India tantrism was marked by a rejection of the orthodox Vedic notions.[9] Maurice Winernitz, in his review of the literature of tantra, points out that while the Indian tantric texts are not positively hostile to the Vedas, they propound that the precepts of the Vedas are too difficult for our age, and that, for that reason, an easier cult and easier doctrine have been revealed in them.[10] Some orthodox Brahmans who accept the authority of the Vedas reject the authority of the Tantras.[11] N. N. Bhattacharyya explains that: Veda redirects here. ...

It is to be noticed that although later Tantric writers wanted to base their doctrines on the Vedas, the orthodox followers of the Vedic tradition invariably referred to Tantra in a spirit of denunciation stressing its anti-Vedic character.[12]

In contrast, the modern author Swami Nikhilananda wrote not only of the close affinity with the Vedas, but also that the development of Tantric thought shows the influence of the Upanishads, the Puranas and Yoga.[13] Swami Nikhilananda (1895-1973), was an initiated disciple of Sri Sarada Devi. ... The Upanishads (Devanagari: उपनिषद्, IAST: upaniṣad) are part of the Vedas and form the Hindu scriptures which primarily discuss philosophy, meditation, and the nature of God; they form the core spiritual thought of Vedantic Hinduism. ... Purana (Sanskrit: , meaning tales of ancient times) is the name of an ancient Indian genre (or a group of related genres) of Hindu or Jain literature (as distinct from oral tradition). ... For other uses, see Yoga (disambiguation). ...


Tantras exists in Shaiva, Vaisnava,[14] Ganapatya,[15] and Shakta forms, amongst others. Strictly speaking, within individual traditions tantric texts are classified as Shaiva Āgamas, Vaishnava Pāñcarātra Saṃhitās,[16] and Shakta Tantras, but there is no clear dividing line between these works and on a practical basis the expression "Tantra" is used generally for this class of works.[17] This article is about the religion Shaivism. ... Temple dedicated to the worship of Vishnu as Venkateswara. ... Ganapatya is a denomination of Hinduism that worships Ganesha (also called Ganapati) as the supreme God. ... Shiva and Shakti as One Shaktism is a denomination of Hinduism that worships Shakti, or Devi Mata -- the Hindu name for the Great Divine Mother -- in all of her forms whilst not rejecting the importance of masculine and neuter divinity (which are however deemed to be inactive in the absence... Genera Many: see text Agamas or Agamids are the Agamidae family of lizards, containing more than 300 species in Africa, Asia, Australia, and a few in Southern Europe. ... The Tantra (Looms or Weavings), refer to numerous and varied scriptures pertaining to any of several esoteric traditions rooted in Hindu and Buddhist philosophy. ...


Evolution and involution

According to Tantra, being-consciousness-bliss or Satchidananda has the power of both self-evolution and self-involution. Prakriti or 'reality' evolves into a multiplicity of creatures and things, yet at the same time always remains pure consciousness, being and bliss. In this process of evolution, Maya conceals Reality and separates it into opposites, such as conscious and unconscious, pleasant and unpleasant, and so forth. These determining conditions if not realised as illusion; bind, limit and fetter (pashu) the individual (jiva).[18] Satchitananda is a Hindu term literally meaning truth (sat), consciousness (chit), and bliss (ananda). ... Prakrit (also spelt Pracrit) (Sanskrit: , original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, i. ... Maya (illusion) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... In Hinduism and Jainism, a jiva is the immortal essence of a living being, subject to maya. ...


In this relative dimension, Shiva and Shakti are perceived as separate. However in Tantra, even in the state of evolution, Reality remains pure consciousness, being, and bliss, though Tantra does not deny either the act or fact of this evolution. In fact, Tantra affirms that both the world process itself and the individual jiva are themselves Real. In this, Tantra distinguishes itself from pure dualism as well as from the qualified non-dualism of Vedanta.[18] In Hinduism and Jainism, a jiva is the immortal essence of a living being, subject to maya. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Nonduality is the absence or belief in the absence of dualism or dichotomy. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


However, evolution or the 'outgoing current' is only one half of the functioning of Maya. Involution, or the 'return current', takes the jiva back towards the source or root of Reality, revealing the infinite. Tantra is understood to teach the method of changing the 'outgoing current' into the 'return current', transforming the fetters created by Maya into that which 'releases' or 'liberates'. This view underscores two maxims of Tantra: "One must rise by that by which one falls" and "the very poison that kills becomes the elixir of life when used by the wise."[18] This article needs cleanup. ...


The method

The Tantric method is to sublimate rather than negate relative reality. This method of sublimation consists of three phases: purification, elevation and the "reaffirmation of identity on the plane of pure consciousness."[18] In psychology, sublimation is a coping mechanism. ...


Ritual practices: Ordinary and Secret

Statue of the Tantric goddess Kali from Dakshineswar, West Bengal, India; along with her Yantra.
Statue of the Tantric goddess Kali from Dakshineswar, West Bengal, India; along with her Yantra.

Because of the wide range of communities covered by the term tantra, it is challenging and problematic to describe tantric practices definitively. Avalon (1918) does provide a useful dichotomy of the "Ordinary Ritual" [19] and the "Secret Ritual" [20]. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 285 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (324 × 681 pixel, file size: 205 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo of a Kali icon from Dakshineswar, West Bengal, India. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 285 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (324 × 681 pixel, file size: 205 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo of a Kali icon from Dakshineswar, West Bengal, India. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Dakshineswar, a small place situated alongside the Vivekananda Setu, in the Hoogly district, north of Calcutta, on the East bank of Hoogli River, is famous for its temples. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... The Sri Yantra. ...


Ordinary Ritual

Because of the wide range of communities covered by the term tantra, it is challenging and problematic to describe tantric practices of the ordinary rituals definitively. The ordinary ritual or puja may include any of the following elements: A puja as performed in Ujjain during the Monsoon on the banks of the overflowing river Shipra. ...


Mantra and yantra

As in other Hindu and Buddhist yoga traditions, mantra and yantra play an important part in Tantra for keening the mindstream and bodymind. The mantras and yantras as instruments, invoke specific Hindu deities such as Shiva and Kali. Similarly, puja may involve focusing on a yantra or mandala associated with a deity.[citation needed] This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... For other uses, see Yoga (disambiguation). ... In Tibet, many Buddhists carve mantras into rocks as a form of devotion. ... The Sri Yantra. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Bodymind is a compound conjunction of body and mind and may be used differently in different traditions, disciplines and knowledges. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... A puja as performed in Ujjain during the Monsoon on the banks of the overflowing river Shipra. ... The Sri Yantra. ... For the film, see Mandala (film). ...


Identification with deities

Tantra, being a development of early Hindu~Vedic thought, embraced the Hindu gods and goddesses, especially Shiva and Shakti, along with the Advaita philosophy that each represents an aspect of the ultimate Para Shiva, or Brahman. These deities may be worshipped externally with flowers, incense, and other offerings; but, more importantly, are engaged as attributes of Ishta Devata meditations, the practitioners either visualizing themselves as the deity or experiencing the darshan (vision) of the deity. In Buddhist tantra, this process is known as the practice of the Yidam or Deity Yoga.[21][citation needed] Advaita Vedanta is probably the best known of all Vedanta schools of Hinduism, the others being Dvaita and Vishishtadvaita. ... This page deals with the Hindu concept of The Supreme Reality. ... Ishta-Deva, or Ishta Devata is a term from Hinduism that means chosen Deity or revered aspect of God by a devotee and is a widely held concept in Smartism. ... For other senses of this word, see Meditation (disambiguation). ... (Darshan) is a Sanskrit term meaning sight (in the sense of an instance of seeing or beholding; from a root dṛś to see), vision, apparition, or glimpse. ... In Vajrayana Buddhism, a Yidam (Tibetan) or Ishtadevata (Sanskrit) is a fully enlightened being who is the focus of personal meditation, during a retreat or for life. ...


The Secret Ritual

The Secret Ritual may include any or all of the elements of the Ordinary Ritual either directly or substituted along with other sensate rites and themes such as a feast (food, sustenance), coitus (sexuality, procreation), charnel grounds (death, transition) and defecation, urination and vomiting (waste, renewal, fecundity).[citation needed] It was this sensate inclusion that fueled Zimmer's praise of Tantra as having a world-affirmative attitude: Heinrich Zimmer Heinrich Zimmer (b. ...

"In the Tantra, the manner of approach is not that of Nay but of Yea ... the world attitude is affirmative ... Man [sic] must approach through and by means of nature, not by rejection of nature".[22]

In Avalon's Chapter 27: The Pañcatattva (The Secret Ritual) of Sakti and Sakta (1918),[23] he states that the Secret Ritual (which he calls Panchatattva,[24] Chakrapuja and Panchamakara) involves: Sir John Woodroffe (1865-1936), also known by his pseudonym Arthur Avalon, got his B.C.L. (Bachelor of Civil Law) from University College, Oxford. ... Panchatattva is a concept of Gaudiya Vaishnava Theology (including ISKCON/Hare Krishna) describing five aspects of God: Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, and his contemporary companions Nityananda Prabhu, Advaita Acarya, Gadadhara Pandita, and Srivasa Thakura. ... A Ganachakra (Sanskrit gana (gathering); chakra (circle); Tib. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Worship with the Pañcatattva generally takes place in a Cakra or circle composed of men and women... sitting in a circle, the Shakti [or female practitioner] being on the Sadhaka's [male practitioner's]left. Hence it is called Cakrapuja. ...There are various kinds of Cakra -- productive, it is said, of differing fruits for the participator therein.

In this Chapter, Avalon also provides a series of variations and substitutions of the Panchatattva (Panchamakara) "elements" or tattva encoded in the Tantras and various tantric traditions and affirms that there is a direct correlation to the Tantric Five Nectars and the Mahābhūta. According to the Indian school of Samkhya philosophy, the Tattva are a way of directly experiencing the 5 alchemical elements. ... The Tantra (Looms or Weavings), refer to numerous and varied scriptures pertaining to any of several esoteric traditions rooted in Hindu and Buddhist philosophy. ... Panchamrita generally refers to a concoction used in Hindu worship services. ... Chinese Wood (木) | Fire (火) | Earth (土) | Metal (金) | Water (æ°´) Hinduism and Buddhism The Panchamahabhuta or The Panchatattva (The Five Great Elements) Vayu/Pavan (Air/Wind) Agni/Tejas (Fire) Akasha (Aether) Prithvi/Bhumi (Earth) Ap/Jala (Water) MahābhÅ«ta is Pāli for the Great Elements. ...

Sexual rites

Sexual rites may have emerged from early Hindu Tantra as a practical means of generating transformative bodily fluids.[25] These constituted a vital offering to Tantric deities. Sexual rites may also have evolved from clan initiation ceremonies involving the transaction of sexual fluids. Here the male initiate was inseminated or insanguinated with the sexual emissions of the female consort, sometimes admixed with the semen of the guru. He was thus transformed into a son of the clan (kulaputra) through the grace of his consort. The clan fluid (kuladravya) or clan nectar (kulamrita) was conceived as flowing naturally from her womb. Later developments in the rite emphasised the primacy of bliss and divine union, which replaced the more bodily connotations of earlier forms. Although popularly equated with Tantra in its entirety in the West, sexual rites were practiced by a minority of sects. For many practicing lineages, these maithuna practices progressed into psychological symbolism.[26] This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


When enacted as enjoined by the tantras the ritual culminates in a sublime experience of infinite awareness, by both participants. The Tantric texts specify that sex has three distinct and separate purposes — procreation, pleasure and liberation. Those seeking liberation eschew frictional orgasm for a higher form of ecstasy, as the couple participating in the ritual, lock in a static embrace. Several sexual rituals are recommended and practised. These involve elaborate and meticulous preparatory and purificatory rites. The act balances energies coursing within the pranic ida and pingala channels in the subtle bodies of both participants. The sushumna nadi is awakened and kundalini rises upwards within it. This eventually culminates in samadhi wherein the respective individualities of each of the participants are completely dissolved in the unity of cosmic consciousness. Tantrics understand the act on multiple levels. The male and female participants are conjoined physically and represent Shiva and Shakti, the male and female principles. Beyond the physical, a subtle fusion of Shiva and Shakti energies takes place resulting in a united energy field. On an individual level, each participant experiences a fusion of their own Shiva and Shakti energies.[27][citation needed] [28][citation needed] The Tantra (Looms or Weavings), refer to numerous and varied scriptures pertaining to any of several esoteric traditions rooted in Hindu and Buddhist philosophy. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Prana (, IAST: ) is a Sanskrit word meaning breath and refers to a vital, life-sustaining force of living beings and vital energy in natural processes of the universe. ... In Mysticism, ida is a nadi or psychic nerve. ... Pingala (पिङ्गल ) is the supposed author of the Chandas shastra (, also Chandas sutra ), a Sanskrit treatise on prosody considered one of the Vedanga. ... Shushumna is a Nadi in the human subtle body. ... In the chakra-system, a Nadi (plural: Nadis) is an energy formation which is a channel in which prana energy flows and may connect chakras. ... Kundalini ( ) is a Sanskrit word meaning either coiled up or coiling like a snake. ... Samadhi (Sanskrit, lit. ... Collective unconscious is a term of analytical psychology, and was originally coined by Carl Jung. ... Look up subtle in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Western views

The Sri Yantra (shown here in the three-dimensional projection known as Sri Meru or Maha Meru used mainly in rituals of the Srividya Shakta sects) is central to most Tantric forms of Shaktism.
The Sri Yantra (shown here in the three-dimensional projection known as Sri Meru or Maha Meru used mainly in rituals of the Srividya Shakta sects) is central to most Tantric forms of Shaktism.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Sri Chakra. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Devi. ... A Shakta, pronounced shaakt, is a follower of a sect of Hinduism which worships the Mother Goddess, or Shakti, in any of her various manifestations. ...

Sir John Woodroffe

The first Western scholar to take the study of Tantra seriously was Sir John Woodroffe (1865–1936), who wrote about Tantra under the nom de plume Arthur Avalon. He is generally held as the "founding father of Tantric studies."[29] Unlike previous Western scholars, Woodroffe was an apologist for Tantra, defending Tantra against its many critics and presenting Tantra as an ethical philosophical system greatly in accord with the Vedas and Vedanta.[30] Woodroffe himself practised Tantra as he saw and understood it and, while trying to maintain his scholastic objectivity, was considered a student of Hindu Tantric (in particular Shiva-Shakta) tradition.[31][citation needed] Sir John Woodroffe (1865–1936), also known by his pseudonym Arthur Avalon, received his B.C.L. (Bachelor of Civil Law) from University College, Oxford. ... A pen name or nom de plume is a pseudonym adopted by an author. ... The Vedas are part of the Hindu Shruti; these religious scriptures form part of the core of the Brahminical and Vedic traditions within Hinduism and are the inspirational, metaphysical and mythological foundation for later Vedanta, Yoga, Tantra and even Bhakti forms of Hinduism. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


Further development

Following Sir John Woodroffe, a number of scholars began to actively investigate the Tantric teachings. These included a number of scholars of comparative religion and Indology, such as: Agehananda Bharati, Mircea Eliade, Julius Evola, Carl Jung, Giuseppe Tucci and Heinrich Zimmer.[32] The Major religious groups of the world. ... Indology refers to the academic study of the history, languages, and cultures of the Indian subcontinent, and as such a subset of Asian studies. ... Agehananda Bharati (Vienna April 20, 1923- New York May 14, 1991) was the monastic name of Leopold Fischer. ... Mircea Eliade (March 13 [O.S. February 28] 1907 – April 22, 1986) was a Romanian historian of religion, fiction writer, philosopher, and professor at the University of Chicago. ... Julius Evola born Giulio Cesare Andrea Evola, aka Baron Evola (May 19, 1898-June 11, 1974), was an Italian esotericist and occult author, who wrote extensively on Hermeticism, the metaphysics of sex, Tantra, Buddhism, Taoism, mountaineering, the Holy Grail, militarism, aristocracy, on matters political, philosophical, historical, racial, religious, as well... “Jung” redirects here. ... Giuseppe Tucci (1894 or 1895 - 1984), born in Macerata, Italy was an italian archaeologist, anthropologist, journalist and writer. ... Heinrich Zimmer Heinrich Zimmer (b. ...


According to Hugh Urban, Zimmer, Evola and Eliade viewed Tantra as "the culmination of all Indian thought: the most radical form of spirituality and the archaic heart of aboriginal India", and regarded it as the ideal religion of the modern era. All three saw Tantra as "the most transgressive and violent path to the sacred."[33]


In the modern world

Following these first presentations of Tantra, other more popular authors such as Joseph Campbell helped to bring Tantra into the imagination of the peoples of the West. Tantra came to be viewed by some as a "cult of ecstasy", combining sexuality and spirituality in such a way as to act as a corrective force to Western repressive attitudes about sex.[34] For other uses, see Joseph Campbell (disambiguation). ...


As Tantra has become more popular in the West it has undergone a major transformation, which has made Modern Tantra, or the New Age interpretations of Tantra, more properly called Neotantra, different from the original Tantric traditions of India. For many modern readers, "Tantra" has become a synonym for "spiritual sex" or "sacred sexuality", a belief that sex in itself ought to be recognized as a sacred act which is capable of elevating its participants to a more sublime spiritual plane.[35] Though Neotantra may adopt many of the concepts and terminology of Indian Tantra, it often omits one or more of the following; the traditional reliance on guruparampara (the guidance of a guru), extensive meditative practice, and traditional rules of conduct - both moral and ritualistic. Neotantra is an adaptation of both Buddhist and Hindu Tantra- adopting components of dharma that feature recognition of the visible world as a manifestation of Lila of the Divine Mother with oneness between self and the visible world experienced in the sexual act symbolizing Shiva-Shakti union of the godhead. ... New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ... Neotantra is an adaptation of both Buddhist and Hindu Tantra- adopting components of dharma that feature recognition of the visible world as a manifestation of Lila of the Divine Mother with oneness between self and the visible world experienced in the sexual act symbolizing Shiva-Shakti union of the godhead. ... Parampara (Sanskrit: परम्परा) denotes a long succession of teachers and disciples in traditional Indian culture. ...


According to one author and critic on religion and politics, Hugh Urban:

Since at least the time of Agehananda Bharati, most Western scholars have been severely critical of these new forms of pop Tantra or neo-Tantra. This "California Tantra" as Georg Feuerstein calls it, is "based on a profound misunderstanding of the Tantric path. Their main error is to confuse Tantric bliss ... with ordinary orgasmic pleasure.[36] Agehananda Bharati (Vienna April 20, 1923- New York May 14, 1991) was the monastic name of Leopold Fischer. ... Dr. Georg Feuerstein (born 1947) is a well-known German-Canadian Indologist, and a Western authority on Yoga. ...

He goes on to say that he himself does not consider neo-Tantra "wrong" or "false" but rather "simply a different interpretation for a specific historical situation."[37]

Hindu Tantric practitioners

Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa (Bangla: রামকৃষ্ণ পরমহংস Ramkrishno Pôromôhongsho), born Gadadhar Chattopadhyay (Bangla: গদাধর চট্টোপাধ্যায় Gôdadhor Chôţţopaddhae) [1], (February 18, 1836–August 16, 1886) was a Hindu religious teacher and an influential figure in the Bengal Renaissance of the Nineteenth century. ... Shri Gurudev Mahendranath (April 29, 1911–August 30, 1991) was a British occultist, mystic, writer, poet, sannyasi, tantric guru, Avadhut and founder of the spiritual organization known as the International Nath Order. ...

See also

This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Kashmir Shaivism is a school of spiritual teaching and practice that arose during the eighth century in Kashmir, India. ... Lakshmi is a common aspect of Shakti Shakti meaning force, power or energy is the Hindu concept or personification of Gods female aspect, sometimes referred to as The Divine Mother. Shakti represents the active, dynamic principles of feminine power. ... Sir John Woodroffe (1865–1936), also known by his pseudonym Arthur Avalon, received his B.C.L. (Bachelor of Civil Law) from University College, Oxford. ... Vasugupta (860–925) was the author of the famous Shiva Sutras. ... For other uses, see Yoga (disambiguation). ... The two paths of Tantra - Dakshinachara (Right-Hand Path), and Vamachara (Left-Hand Path) are viewed by Tantrists as equally valid approaches to enlightenment; Vamachara, however, is considered to be the faster and more dangerous of the two, not suitable for all practitioners. ... The term Dakshinachara (Right-Hand Path) is a technical term used to refer to Tantric sects that do not engage in these heterodox practices. ... A dakini (Sanskrit: sky dancer; Chinese language: 空行女) is a Tantric priestess of ancient India who carried the souls of the dead to the sky. This Buddhist figure is particularly upheld in Tibetan Buddhism. ... Shingon (眞言, 真言 true words, also kongōjō 金剛乘, 金剛乗 pinyin jÄ«ngāngchéng diamond vehicle), is a major school of Japanese Buddhism, and is the other branch of Vajrayana Buddhism besides Tibetan Buddhism. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A Ganachakra (Sanskrit gana (gathering); chakra (circle); Tib. ... In wicca, the Great Rite is ritualistic sexual intercourse. ... Coitus reservatus, also known as karezza, is a form of sexual intercourse in which the man does not attempt to ejaculate within the woman, but instead attempts to remain at the plateau phase of intercourse for as long as possible. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sex magic or sexual magic is a term for various types of sexual activity used in magical, theurgical, or otherwise religious and spiritual pursuits. ... Expanded orgasm is any sexual experience more intense and extensive than what can be described as, or included in the definition of, a regular orgasm. ... An ancient Chinese print depicting The Joining of the Essences. Daoist sexual practices (Simplified Chinese: 合气, Traditional Chinese: 合氣, pinyin: heqi) or The Joining of the Essences, is the way Daoists practiced sex. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Norbu, p. 49
  2. ^ White (2000), p. 7
  3. ^ White (2000), p. 9
  4. ^ Quotation from Brown, Robert L., "Introduction", in: Harper (2002), p. 1.
  5. ^ Harper (2002), p. 2
  6. ^ Harper (2002), p. 3
  7. ^ Satyananda (2000) [page # needed]
  8. ^ Harper (2002), p. 3-5
  9. ^ For tantrism as marked by rejection of Vedic rules and notions see: Padoux, André, "What do we mean by Tantrism?" in: Harper (2002), p. 23.
  10. ^ For comment on the contrast between Vedic and tantric teaching see: Winternitz, volume 1, p. 587.
  11. ^ For rejection of the authority of the Vedas by "many orthodox Brahmans" see: Flood (1996), p. 122.
  12. ^ Bhattacharyya, p. 20.
  13. ^ Nikhilananda (1982), pp. 145-149
  14. ^ For a review of tantra in early Vaisnavism see: Bhattacharyya, pp. 182-188.
  15. ^ For a detailed discussion of Ganapatya tantric ritual see: Bühnemann.
  16. ^ For Pāñcarātra Saṃhitās as representing tantric Vaishnavism, see: Flood (1996), p. 122.
  17. ^ For terminology of Āgamas, Saṃhitās, and Tantras see: Winternitz, p. 587.
  18. ^ a b c d Nikhilanada (1982), pp. 145-160
  19. ^ Shakta Sadhana (The Ordinary Ritual). Retrieved on 2007-08-28.
  20. ^ The Pañcatattva (The Secret Ritual). Retrieved on 2007-09-28.
  21. ^ Dalai Lama (1987). No book title given. [page # needed].
  22. ^ quoted in Urban (2003), p. 168
  23. ^ The Pañcatattva (The Secret Ritual). Retrieved on 2007-09-28.
  24. ^ Panchatattva has a number of meanings in different traditions. The term "panchatattva" is also employed by the Gaudiya Vaishnavism. Rosen, Steven J. Sri Pancha Tattva: The Five Features of God 1994 ISBN 0-9619763-7-3 Folk Books, New York
  25. ^ White (2000) [page # needed]
  26. ^ White (2000) [page # needed]
  27. ^ Satyananda, [page # needed].
  28. ^ Woodroffe (1959), [page # needed].
  29. ^ Urban (2003), p. 22
  30. ^ Urban (2003), p. 135
  31. ^ [page # needed]: See Arthur Avalon, trans. Tantra of the Great Liberation: Mahanirvana Tantra (London: Luzac & Co., 1913); Avalon, ed. Principles of Tantra: the Tantratattva of Shriyukta Shiva Chandra Vidyarnava Bhattacharyya Mahodaya (London: Luzac & Co., 1914-16); Woodroffe, Shakti and Shakta: Essays and Addresses on the Shakta Tantrashastra (London : Luzac & Co., 1918)
  32. ^ Urban (2003), pp. 165-166
  33. ^ Urban (2003), pp. 166-167
  34. ^ For "cult of ecstasy" see: Urban (2003), pp. 204-205.
  35. ^ For "Tantra" as a synonym for "spiritual sex" or "sacred sexuality", see: Urban (2003), pp. 204-205
  36. ^ Quotation from Urban (2003), pp. 204-205.
  37. ^ For quotation "simply a different interpretation for a specific historical situation" see: Urban (2003), pp. 204-205

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Panchatattva is a concept of Gaudiya Vaishnava Theology (including ISKCON/Hare Krishna) describing five aspects of God: Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, and his contemporary companions Nityananda Prabhu, Advaita Acarya, Gadadhara Pandita, and Srivasa Thakura. ... Gaudiya Vaishnavism, (Bengal) Vaishnavism, is a sect of Hinduism founded by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. ...

References

  • Avalon, Arthur (1918). Sakti and Sakta. Ganesh and Co. 
  • Avalon, Arthur (1972). Tantra of the great liberation - Mahanirvana Tantra. New York: Dover publications. ISBN 0-486-20150-3. 
  • Bhattacharyya, N. N.) (1999). History of the Tantric Religion. New Delhi: Manohar. ISBN 81-7304-025-7.  Second Revised Edition
  • Bühnemann, Gudrun) (1988). The Worship of Mahāgaṇapati According to the Nityotsava. Institut für Indologie. ISBN 81-86218-12-2.  First Indian Edition, Kant Publications, 2003.
  • Harper, Katherine Anne (ed.); Robert L. Brown (ed.) (2002). The Roots of Tantra. State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-5306-5. 
  • Nikhilananda, Swami (1982). Hinduism: Its meaning for the Liberation of the Spirit, 2nd, Sri Ramakrishna Math. 
  • Norbu, Chögyal Namkhai (1999). The Crystal and The Way of Light: Sutra, Tantra and Dzogchen. Snow Lion Publications. ISBN 1559391359. 
  • Saraswati, Swami Satyananda (2000). Sure Ways to Self Realization. Yoga Publications Trust. ISBN 8185787417. 
  • Urban, Hugh (2003). Tantra: Sex, Secrecy, Politics, and Power in the Study of Religions. University of California Press. ISBN 0520236564. 
  • Wangyal Rinpoche, Tenzin; Dahlby, Mark (1998). The Tibetan Yogas of Dream and Sleep. N.Y.: Snow Lion Publications. ISBN 1559391014. 
  • White, David Gordon (ed.) (2000). Tantra in Practice. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-05779-6. 
  • Winternitz, Maurice (1972). History of Indian Literature. New Delhi: Oriental Books Reprint Corporation.  Second revised reprint edition. Two volumes. First published 1927 by the University of Calcutta.

Swami Nikhilananda (1895-1973), was an initiated disciple of Sri Sarada Devi. ...

Further reading

  • Avalon, Arthur. The Serpent Power. Ganesh and Co. ISBN 81-85988-05-6. 
  • Bagchi, P.C.; Magee, Michael (trans.) (1986). Kaulajnana-nirnaya of the School of Matsyendranath Varanasi: Prachya Prakashan. 
  • Davidson, Ronald M. (2003). Indian Esoteric Buddhism: A Social History of the Tantric Movement. Columbia University Press. ISBN 81-208-1991-8. 
  • Davidson, Ronald M. (2005). Tibetan Renaissance : Tantric Buddhism in the Rebirth of Tibetan Culture. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-13471-1. 
  • Feuerstein, Georg (998). Tantra: The Path of Ecstasy. Boston: Shambhala. ISBN 1-57062-304-X. 
  • Guenon, Rene (1966). Studies in Hinduism (Études sur l'Hindouisme). 
  • Gyatso, Geshe Kelsang (2003). Tantric Grounds and Paths. Glen Spey: Tharpa Publications. 
  • Gyatso, Tenzin (14th Dalai Lama); Tsong-ka-pa, Jeffrey Hopkins (1987). Deity Yoga. Snow Lion Publications. ISBN 0-937938-50-5. 
  • Kane, Pandurang Vaman. History of Dharmashastra (Ancient and Mediaeval Religious and Civil Law). Poona:Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. 
  • Magee, Michael, tr. (1984). Yoni Tantra. 
  • Mahendranath, Shri Gurudev (1990). The Scrolls of Mahendranath. Seattle: International Nath Order. 
  • McDaniel, June (2004). Offering Flowers, Feeding Skulls: Popular Goddess Worship in West Bengal. New York: Oxford University Press. 
  • Mookerji, Ajit (1997). The Tantric Way: art, science, ritual. London: Thames and Hudson. 
  • Rao, T. A. Gopinatha (1981). Elements in Hindu Iconography Vol 1. Madras: Law Printing House. 
  • Sivananda, Swami. Kundalini Yoga. 
  • Urban, Hugh (2002). "The Conservative Character of Tantra: Secrecy, Sacrifice and This-Worldly Power in Bengali Śākta Tantra". International Journal of Tantric Studies 6 (1). 
  • Walker, Benjamin (1982). Tantrism: It's Secret Principles and Practices. London: Acquarian Press. ISBN 0-85030-272-2. 
  • White, David Gordon (2003). Kiss of the Yogini : "Tantric Sex" in its South Asian Contexts. University Of Chicago Press. 
  • White, David Gordon (1998). The Alchemical Body : Siddha Traditions in Medieval India. University Of Chicago Press. 
  • Woodroffe, John. Mahanirvana Tantra (Tantra of the Great Liberation). Retrieved on 2007-05-17. 

Dr. Georg Feuerstein (born 1947) is a well-known German-Canadian Indologist, and a Western authority on Yoga. ... René Guénon (aka Sheikh Abd Al Wahid Yahya) (1886-1951) was a French-born author, philosopher, and social critic of the early 20th century. ... Tenzin Gyatso (born 6 July 1935) is the fourteenth and current Dalai Lama. ... Je Tsongkhapa (Tsong-kha-pa) in the fifth vison of Khedrub Jey (Mkhas-grub) Tsongkhapa (Tibetan: ཙོང་ཁ་པ་; Wylie: Tsong-kha-pa) (1357 - 1419) , whose name means The Man from Onion Valley, was the founder of the Geluk (Dge-lugs) school of Tibetan Buddhism. ... Shri Gurudev Mahendranath (April 29, 1911–August 30, 1991) was a British occultist, mystic, writer, poet, sannyasi, tantric guru, Avadhut and founder of the spiritual organization known as the International Nath Order. ... Benjamin Walker (November 25, 1913) is the truncated pen name of George Benjamin Walker, who also writes under the pseudonym Jivan Bhakar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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