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Encyclopedia > Tanker (ship)
Commercial crude oil supertanker AbQaiq.
Commercial crude oil supertanker AbQaiq.

A tanker is a ship designed to transport liquids in bulk. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x436, 79 KB)Caption: 030628-N-6077T-003 Central Command Area of Responsibility (Jun. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x436, 79 KB)Caption: 030628-N-6077T-003 Central Command Area of Responsibility (Jun. ... A supertanker is an unofficial nickname that applies to a certain class of tanker ship built to transport very large quantities of liquids; in practice this typically refers to crude oil. ... Italian Full rigged ship Amerigo Vespucci in New York Harbor, 1976 A ship is a large watercraft capable of offshore navigation. ... A liquid will assume the shape of its container. ... Bulk Liquids is a term associated with commerical transportaion of liquids in large volumes, usually not including petroleum products. ...


Tankers can range in size of capacity from several hundred tons, which includes vessels for servicing small harbours and coastal settlements, to several hundred thousand tons, for long-range haulage. A wide range of products are carried by tankers, including: Tonnage is a measure of the size or cargo capacity of a ship. ...

Tankers are a relatively new concept, dating from the later years of the 19th century. Before this, technology had simply not supported the idea of carrying bulk liquids. The market was also not geared towards transporting or selling cargo in bulk, therefore most ships carried a wide range of different products in different holds and traded outside fixed routes. Liquids were usually loaded in casks - hence the term "tonnage", which refers to the volume of the holds in terms of the amount of tuns of wine (casks) that could be carried. Even potable water, vital for the survival of the crew, was stowed in casks. Carrying bulk liquids in earlier ships posed several problems: Oil refineries are key to obtaining hydrocarbons; crude oil is processed through several stages to form desirable hydrocarbons, used in fuel and other commercial products. ... Synthetic motor oil An oil is any substance that is in a viscous liquid state (oily) at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer, and is both hydrophobic (immiscible with water, literally water fearing) and lipophilic (miscible with other oils, literally fat loving). This general definition includes compound classes with otherwise unrelated... 45 kg LPG cylinders Liquefied petroleum gas (also called LPG, LP Gas, or autogas) is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles, and increasingly replacing chlorofluorocarbons as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant to reduce damage to the ozone layer. ... Liquefied natural gas or LNG is natural gas that has been processed to remove either valuable components e. ... Water and steam are two different forms of the same chemical substance A chemical substance is any material with a definite chemical composition, no matter where it comes from. ... Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... C8H8 redirects here. ... For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Freshwater, Isle of Wight. ... A glass of red wine This article is about the alcoholic beverage. ... Tonnage is a measure of the size or cargo capacity of a ship. ...

  • The holds: on timber ships the holds were not sufficiently water or air-tight to prevent a liquid cargo from spoiling or leaking. The development of iron and steel hulls solved this problem.
  • Loading and Discharging: Bulk liquids must be pumped - the development of efficient pumps and piping systems was vital to the development of the tanker. Steam engines were developed as prime-movers for early pumping systems. Dedicated cargo handling facilities were now required ashore too - as was a market for receiving a product in that quantity. Casks could be unloaded using ordinary cranes, and the awkward nature of the casks meant that the volume of liquid was always relatively small - therefore keeping the market more stable.
  • Free Surface Effect: Describes the effect a large surface area of liquid in a ship will have on the stability of that ship. See Naval Architecture. Liquids in casks posed no problem, but one tank across the beam of a ship could pose a stablity problem. Extensive sub-division of tanks solved this problem.

In the end, the tanker had it's beginnings in the oil industry, as oil companies sought cheaper ways to transport their refinery product to their customers. The Oil Tanker was born. Nowadays, most liquids are cheaper to transport in bulk, and dedicated terminals exist for each product. Large storage tanks ashore are used to store the product until it can be subdivided into smaller volumes for delivery to smaller customers. General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... The steel cable of a colliery winding tower. ... The metacentric height (GM) is a characteristic of a ship which helps determines its stability in the water. ... Steamer New York in c. ... Synthetic motor oil An oil is any substance that is in a viscous liquid state (oily) at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer, and is both hydrophobic (immiscible with water, literally water fearing) and lipophilic (miscible with other oils, literally fat loving). This general definition includes compound classes with otherwise unrelated...


Even the Guinness brewery company in Dublin had a tanker fleet to export the famous stout to the UK. Guinness logo Guinness is Good for You - Irish language advertisement. ... Dublin city centre at night WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Leinster County: Dáil Éireann: Dublin Central, Dublin North Central, Dublin North East, Dublin North West, Dublin South Central, Dublin South East European Parliament: Dublin Dialling Code: +353 1 Postal District(s): D1-24, D6W Area: 114. ...


Different products require different handling and transport. Thus special types of tankers have been built, such as "chemical tankers" and "oil tankers". "LNG carriers", as they are typically known, are a relatively rare tanker designed to carry liquefied natural gas. A chemical tanker is a type of tanker designed to transport chemicals in bulk. ... A tanker is usually a vehicle carrying large amounts of liquid fuel. ... An LNG carrier is a ship designed for transporting liquefied natural gas. ...


Among oil tankers, supertankers are designed for transporting oil around the Horn of Africa from the Middle East. The floating storage and offloading unit (FSO) Knock Nevis, formerly the ULCC Jahre Viking, is the largest vessel in the world. The supertanker is 458 metres (1504 feet) in length and 69 m (226 ft) wide. A supertanker is an unofficial nickname that applies to a certain class of tanker ship built to transport very large quantities of liquids; in practice this typically refers to crude oil. ... The Horn of Africa. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... A Floating Storage and Offloading unit (FSO) is, as its name suggests, a floating storage device, usually for oil. ... The Knock Nevis is a Norwegian owned supertanker, formerly known as Seawise Giant, Happy Giant, and Jahre Viking. ... ‹ The template below (Unit of length) is being considered for deletion. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


Supertankers are one of the three preferred methods for transporting large quantities of oil, along with pipeline transport and rail. However such tankers can create environmental disasters from oil spills especially if an accident causes the ship to sink. See Exxon Valdez, Braer, Prestige oil spill, Torrey Canyon, and Erika for examples of coastal accidents. An elevated section of the Alaska Pipeline. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... An oil spill is the unintentional release of liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment as a result of human activity. ... This article is about the tank vessel Exxon Valdez. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Volunteers cleaning the coastline in Galicia in the aftermath of the Prestige catastrophe, March, 2002 The Prestige was an oil tanker whose sinking in 2002 off the Galician coast caused a large oil spill. ... The Torrey Canyon was the first of the big supertankers, capable of carrying a cargo of 120,000 tons of crude oil, and was wrecked off the western coast of Cornwall in 1967 causing an environmental disaster. ... Erika was the name of a tanker built in 1975 and last chartered by Total-Fina-Elf. ...


Size

Tankers used for liquid fuels are classified according to their capacity.


In 1954 Shell Oil developed the afra system (average freight rate assessment) for fiscal reasons. Tankers were divided in groups of different sizes. To make it an independent instrument, Shell consulted the London Tanker Brokers’ Panel (LTBP). At first, they divided the groups as General Purpose for tankers under 25,000 deadweight tonnage (dwt); Medium Range for ships between 25,000 and 45,000 dwt; and Large Range for the then-enormous ships that were larger then 45,000 dwt. The ships became larger during the 1970s, and the list was extended, where the tons are long tons:[1] Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A Shell petrol station sign in the UK The Royal Dutch/Shell Group of Companies (called Shell Oil in North America), has its headquarters split between the Shell Centre in London, United Kingdom and The Hague, Netherlands. ... Tonnage is a measure of the size or cargo capacity of a ship. ... A long ton is the name used in the US for the unit called the ton in the avoirdupois or Imperial system of measurements, as used (alongside the metric system) in the United Kingdom and to some extent in other Commonwealth countries. ...

  • 10,000–24,999 dwt: General Purpose tanker
  • 25,000–44,999 dwt: Medium Range tanker
  • 45,000–79,999 dwt: LR1 (Large Range 1)
  • 80,000–159,999 dwt: LR2 (Large Range 2)
  • 160,000–319,999 dwt: VLCC (Very Large Crude Carrier)
  • 320,000–549,999 dwt: ULCC (Ultra Large Crude Carrier)

The following groups are used for use on the oil market:

Based on the 2007 status list of the 500 largest supertankers prepared by Visser [2] there are almost 380 vessels in the size range 279,000-320,000 dwt, making this by far the most popular size range among the larger VLCCs. Only 7 vessels are larger than this, and about 90 between 220,000 and 279,000. The term Seawaymax refers to vessels which are the maximum size that can fit through the canal locks of the St Lawrence Seaway. ... Handymax is a naval architecture term for a Bulk carrier between 30,001 and 50,000 DWT. Length 150-200 m (492-656 feet). ... The two ships seen here seem almost to be touching the walls of the Miraflores Locks. ... An Aframax ship is an oil tanker with capacity between 80,000 dwt and 120,000 dwt. ... Suezmax is a naval architecture term for the largest ships capable of fitting through the Suez Canal fully loaded, and is almost exclusively used in reference to tankers. ... Malaccamax is a naval architecture term for the largest ships capable of fitting through the Straits of Malacca. ...


Image:Distribution_of_supertanker_sizes.png Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


References

  1. ^ Surveyor, American Bureau of Shipping, Winter 2002
  2. ^ [1]

External links

Nautical Portal
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • [2] Auke Visser's supertankers information page.
  • ship-photos.de: Categorized ship photos.
  • [3] Poten & Partners: A collection of articles relating to tankers
  • [4] Pictures of wine tankers
  • [5] Picture of Navigator A

  Results from FactBites:
 
Tanker - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (244 words)
Tanker (ship), a ship designed to carry bulk liquids, particularly oil
A Tanker, in the massive-multiplayer lingo, a character able to resist or shrug off heavy amounts of damage relatively unharmed.
A party with a tanker usually use him as a monster bait -- while he 'takes' the damage, the rest of the party members actually kill the monsters.
Tanker (ship) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (385 words)
Tankers can range in size from several hundred tons, designed for servicing small harbours and coastal settlements, to several hundred thousand tons, with these being designed for long-range haulage.
Among oil tankers, supertankers were designed for carrying oil around the Horn of Africa from the Middle East; the supertanker Knock Nevis being the largest vessel in the world.
Tankers used for liquid fuels are classified according to their capacity.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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