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Encyclopedia > Tank
Soldiers from U.S. 3d Armored Cavalry Regiment provide overwatch for troops from their M1 Abrams tank in Biaj, Iraq
Soldiers from U.S. 3d Armored Cavalry Regiment provide overwatch for troops from their M1 Abrams tank in Biaj, Iraq

A tank is a tracked, armoured fighting vehicle designed for front-line combat and combines strong strategic and tactical offensive and defensive capabilities. Firepower is normally provided by a large-calibre main gun in a rotating turret and secondary machine guns, while heavy armour and all-terrain mobility provide protection for the tank and its crew, allowing it to perform all primary tasks of the armoured troops on the battlefield.[1] Look up tank in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1564x1276, 243 KB) Soldiers from 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment conduct security with their M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank for a cordon and search operation in Biaj, Iraq. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1564x1276, 243 KB) Soldiers from 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment conduct security with their M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank for a cordon and search operation in Biaj, Iraq. ... Top Left: Branch Insignia of the 3d ACR Top Right: Shoulder Sleve Insignia of the 3d ACR Bottom Right: Distinctive Unit Insignia of the 3d ACR (nicknamed the BUG) The 3d Armored Cavalry Regiment is a regiment of the United States Army currently stationed at Fort Carson, southwest of Colorado... The M1 Abrams is a military tank produced in the United States. ... An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is a military vehicle, protected by armour and armed with weapons. ... A front line is a line of confrontation in an armed conflict, most often a war. ... A strategy is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal. ... Military tactics (Greek: TaktikÄ“, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... In military science, defense (or defence) is the art of preventing an enemy from conquering territory; usually via fortifications. ... This article is about the armoured fighting vehicle. ... The word caliber (American English) or calibre (British English) comes from the Italian calibro, itself from the Arabic quâlib, meaning mould. ... A M1 Abrams firing. ... Turret (highlighted) attached to a tower on a baronial building in Scotland In architecture, a turret is a small tower that projects from the wall of a building, such as a medieval castle or baronial house. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... A destroyed M113 armoured personnel carrier show a section of the armour. ... This article is about the armoured fighting vehicle. ... This article is about the armoured fighting vehicle. ... For the surname Battle, see Battle (surname). ...


Tanks were first manufactured during World War I in an effort to break the bloody deadlock of trench warfare. The British Army was the first to field a vehicle that combined three key characteristics: mobility over barbed wire and rough terrain, armour to withstand small arms fire and shrapnel and the firepower required to suppress or destroy machine gun nests and pillboxes. Despite some success and a significant psychological effect on the German infantry, "the tank in 1918 was not a war-winning weapon."[2] Little Willie, the first tank prototype, had riveted armour, flat caterpillar tracks, and no main gun. ... {{subst:empty template|}} {{Copyviocore |url= |month = {{subst:CURRENTMONTHNAME}} |day = {{subst:CURRENTDAY}} |year = {{subst:CURRENTYEAR}} |time = {{subst:CURRENTTIME}} |timestamp = {{subst:CURRENTTIMESTAMP}}}} Trench warfare is a form of warfare where both combatants have fortified positions and fighting lines are static. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Typical modern agricultural barbed wire. ... Small arms captured in Fallujah, Iraq by the US Marine Corps in 2004 The term small arms generally describes any number of smaller infantry weapons, such as firearms that an individual soldier can carry. ... It has been suggested that Fragmentation (weaponry) be merged into this article or section. ... Censorship is the control of speech and other forms of human expression, often by government intervention. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... Bunkers in Albania A bunker is a defensive military fortification. ... Psychology (ancient Greek: psyche = soul and logos = word) is the study of mind, thought, and behaviour. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


Interwar developments culminated in the blitzkrieg employed by the German Wehrmacht during World War II and the contribution of the panzers to this doctrine. Hard lessons learned by the Allies during WWII cemented the reputation of the tank, appropriately employed in combined arms forces, as "indispensable to success in both tactical and strategic terms."[3] Today, tanks seldom operate alone, being organized into armoured units and operating in combined-arms formations. Despite their apparent invulnerability, without support tanks are vulnerable to anti-tank artillery, helicopters and aircraft, enemy tanks, anti-tank and improvised mines, and (at close range or in urban environments) infantry.[4] This article is about the military term. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... This article deals with the history of the tank in World War II. // At the start of the war, the Soviet T-34 was easily the most capable tank in the world. ... Panzers is a popular World War II computer game created by Hungarian game developer Stormregion. ... German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ... Combined arms is an approach to warfare which seeks to integrate different arms of a military to achieve mutually complementary effects. ... It has been suggested that Mechanized warfare be merged into this article or section. ... Combat engineers place satchel charges and detonating cord, preparatory to blowing up a railway bridge during the Korean War, 30 July 1950 Combat engineering is the practice of using the knowledge, tools and techniques of engineering in combat. ... Anti-tank, or simply AT, refers to any method of combating military armored fighting vehicles, notably tanks. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... A Russian Mil Mi-24 attack helicopter. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... “Minefield” redirects here. ... Explosive devices, as used by terrorists, guerrillas or commando forces, are formally known as Improvised Explosive Devices or IEDs. ... The path of this projectile launched from a height y0 has a range d. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ...


Due to its formidable capabilities and versatility the battle tank is generally considered a key component of modern armies,[5] but recent thinking has challenged the need for such powerful and expensive weaponry in a period characterized by unconventional and asymmetric warfare.[6] Ongoing research and development attempts to equip the tank to meet the challenges of the 21st century. Battlespace Weapons Tactics Strategy Organization Logistics Lists War Portal         Unconventional warfare (abbreviated UW) is the opposite of conventional warfare. ... Asymmetric warfare originally referred to war between two or more actors or groups whose relative power differs significantly. ... Tank research and development continues in many industrial countries despite the end of the Cold war. ... This article is about the armoured fighting vehicle. ...

History

Video clip of World War I tanks helping the Allies with an advance in Langres, France(1918)
British World War I Mark IV tank with experimental "Tadpole Tail"
British World War I Mark IV tank with experimental "Tadpole Tail"

The first proposal for a tank was by the Austrian Oberleutenant Günther Burstyn who, in 1911, proposed a design for "motor artillery" (Motorengeschütz) with a turret, but his design never progressed beyond a German patent in 1912.[7] Tanks of WWI.ogg Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Tanks of WWI.ogg Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Categories: France geography stubs | Communes of Haute-Marne ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A Mark I tank on 26 September 1916 (moving left to right). ... This article is about the history of the tank. ... Little Willie, the first tank prototype, had riveted armour, flat caterpillar tracks, and no main gun. ...


Tank or "landship" development, originally conducted by the British Navy under the auspices of the Landships Committee was sponsored by the First Lord of the Admiralty, Winston Churchill and proceeded through a number of prototypes culminating in the Mark I tank prototype, named Mother.[8] The first tank to engage in battle was designated D1, a British Mark I, during the Battle of Flers-Courcellette on 15 September 1916.[9] Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Historical stubs ... The First Lord of the Admiralty was a British government position in charge of the Admiralty. ... Churchill redirects here. ... The British Mark I was the worlds first combat tank, entering service in the middle of World War I, born of the need to break the domination of trenches and machine guns over the battlefields of the Western Front. ... The British Mark I was the worlds first combat tank, entering service in the middle of World War I, born of the need to break the domination of trenches and machine guns over the battlefields of the Western Front. ... For other battles known as Battle of the Somme, see Battle of the Somme (disambiguation). ...


In contrast to World War II, Germany fielded very few tanks during WWI, with only 15 of the A7V type being produced in Germany during the war.[10] The first tank versus tank action took place on 24 April 1918 at Villers-Bretonneux, France, when three British Mark IVs met three German A7Vs. The A7V was a tank introduced by Germany in 1918, near the end of World War I. The name is probably derived from the Allgemeines Kriegsdepartement 7 Abteilung Verkehrswesen (General War Department 7, Branch Transportation), although some theorize that Hauptmann Joseph Vollmer gave the V to the name. ... Villers-Bretonneux is a commune of the Somme département in France. ... A Mark I tank on 26 September 1916 (moving left to right). ... The A7V was a tank introduced by Germany in 1918, near the end of World War I. The name is probably derived from the Allgemeines Kriegsdepartement 7 Abteilung Verkehrswesen (General War Department 7, Branch Transportation), although some theorize that Hauptmann Joseph Vollmer gave the V to the name. ...


Mechanical problems, poor mobility and piecemeal tactical deployment limited the military significance of the tank in World War I and the tank did not fulfil its promise of rendering trench warfare obsolete. Nonetheless, it was clear to military thinkers on both sides that tanks would play a significant role in future conflicts.[8] Obsolescence is when a person or object is no longer wanted even though it is still in good working order. ...


Interwar years

In the interwar period tanks underwent further mechanical development and, in terms of tactics, J.F.C. Fuller's doctrine of spearhead attacks with massed tank formations was the basis for work by Heinz Guderian in Germany, Percy Hobart in Britain, Adna R. Chaffee, Jr. in the U.S., Charles de Gaulle in France, and Mikhail Tukhachevsky in the USSR. All came to similar conclusions, but in the Second World War only Germany would initially put the theory into practice on a large scale, and it was their superior tactics and French blunders, not superior weapons, that made blitzkrieg so successful in May 1940.[11] For information regarding tank development in this period, see tank development between the wars. This article is about the history of the tank. ... Major-General John Frederick Charles Fuller, CB, CBE, DSO, commonly J.F.C. Fuller, (September 1, 1878–February 10, 1966), was a British major-general, military historian and strategist, notable as an early theorist of modern armoured warfare, including categorising principles of warfare. ... This article is about the World War II general Heinz Guderian. ... Major-General Sir Percy Cleghorn Stanley Hobart (14 June 1885-19 February 1957) was a British military engineer and commander of the 79th Armoured Division during World War II. He was responsible for many of the specialised armoured vehicles (Hobarts Funnies) that took part in the invasion of Normandy. ... Adna Romanza Chaffee, Jr. ... This article is about the person. ... Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky (Russian: ; Polish: ) (February 16 [O.S. February 4] 1893 â€“ June 12, 1937), was a Soviet military commander, chief of the Red Army (1925–1928), and one of the most prominent victims of Stalins Great Purge of the late 1930s. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... This article is about the military term. ... This article is about the history of the tank. ...


Germany, Italy and the Soviet Union all experimented heavily with tank warfare during their clandestine and “volunteer” involvement in the Spanish Civil War, which saw some of the earliest examples of successful mechanized combined arms—such as when Republican troops, equipped with Soviet-supplied medium tanks and supported by aircraft, eventually routed Italian troops fighting for the Nationalists in the seven-day Battle of Guadalajara in 1937.[12] Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... Combatants Second Spanish Republic Italian CTV Nationalist Spain Commanders Enrique Jurado José Miaja Cipriano Mera Mario Roatta Strength 20,000 infantry 45 guns 70 light tanks 80 aircraft 45,000 infantry 270 guns 140 light tanks 62 aircraft Casualties 6,000 dead or wounded 2,500 dead 4,000 wounded...


Blitzkrieg and combined arms

German Tiger I heavy tank of WWII captured in Tunis, 1943
German Tiger I heavy tank of WWII captured in Tunis, 1943
British Matilda II infantry tank advancing through Egypt as part of Operation Compass, 1941
British Matilda II infantry tank advancing through Egypt as part of Operation Compass, 1941
Soviet T-34 medium tanks advancing near Leningrad, 1942
Soviet T-34 medium tanks advancing near Leningrad, 1942
Main article: Tanks in World War II

World War II was the first conflict where armoured vehicles were critical to success on the battlefield and during this period the tank developed rapidly as a weapon system. During the Invasion of Poland the Panzer II and the captured Czechoslovakian Panzer 38(t) light tanks predominated. The Somua S35 and Char B1 in the French Army and the Panzer III and Panzer IV medium tanks appeared in numbers during the Battle of France, while the North African Campaign brought the British Crusader and Matilda into combat with the panzers. In Operation Barbarossa the Wehrmacht encountered the Soviet T-34 and this prompted development so that during the Invasion of Normandy from June 1944 the Germans were fielding the Panther and Tiger tanks against the Allied Sherman. By 1945 and the final stages of the war the Tiger II, Pershing and Iosif Stalin tanks dominated the battlefields where they saw action. Download high resolution version (900x592, 210 KB)First Tiger Tank captured by Allied Forces in WWII near Tunis in North Africa Source: US military File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (900x592, 210 KB)First Tiger Tank captured by Allied Forces in WWII near Tunis in North Africa Source: US military File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Tiger I ( ) is the common name of a German heavy tank of World War II. The initial official German designation was Panzerkampfwagen VI Ausführung H (abbreviated PzKpfw VI Ausf. ... Image File history File links Matilda_Compass. ... Image File history File links Matilda_Compass. ... The Tank, Infantry, Mk II, Matilda II (A12) (sometimes referred to as Senior Matilda) was a British tank of World War II. In a somewhat unorthodox move, it shared the same name as the Tank, Infantry, Mk I (A11). ... Combatants Western Desert Force United Kingdom Indian Empire Australia Italian Tenth Army Commanders Richard OConnor Rodolfo Graziani Pietro Maletti † Annibale Bergonzoli Strength 31,000 soldiers(december 1940 250,000)[1] 120 artillery pieces 275 tanks 60 Armoured cars 150,000 soldiers 1,600 guns 600 tanks Casualties 500 dead... Image File history File links T34_2. ... Image File history File links T34_2. ... The T-34 is a Soviet medium tank first produced in 1940. ... Leningrad (Russian: Ленинград) may mean: St. ... This article deals with the history of the tank in World War II. // At the start of the war, the Soviet T-34 was easily the most capable tank in the world. ... The bayonet, still used in war as both knife and spearpoint. ... For the Soviet Unions military action against Poland under the same alliance, see Soviet invasion of Poland (1939). ... The Panzer II was a German tank used in World War II. Designed as a stopgap while other tanks were developed, it played an important role in the early years of World War II, during the Polish and French campaigns. ... The Panzerkampfwagen 38(t) was a Czechoslovakian tank used by Germany during World War II. (The Czechoslovak military designation was LT vz. ... The Char B1 was a French heavy tank manufactured before the Second World War. ... Panzer III is the common name of a medium tank that was developed in the 1930s by Nazi Germany and used extensively in World War II. The official German designation was Panzerkampfwagen III (abbreviated PzKpfw III). ... Panzer IV is the common name of a medium tank that was developed in the late 1930s by Nazi Germany and used extensively in World War II. The official German designation was Panzerkampfwagen IV (abbreviated PzKpfw IV) and the tank also had the ordnance inventory designation SdKfz 161. ... Belligerents France United Kingdom Canada Czechoslovakia Poland Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) Leopold III H.G. Winkelman WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Sikorski Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H... During World War II, the North African Campaign, also known as the Desert War, took place in the North African desert from September 13, 1940 to May 13, 1943. ... One of the primary cruiser tanks of the United Kingdom during World War II, the Cruiser Tank VI Crusader was perhaps the most important British tank of the North African Campaign. ... The Tank, Infantry, Mk II, Matilda II (A12) (sometimes referred to as Senior Matilda) was a British tank of World War II. In a somewhat unorthodox move, it shared the same name as the Tank, Infantry, Mk I (A11). ... Panzer IV Ausf. ... Belligerents Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Franz Halder Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Ernst Busch Erich Hoepner Alfred Keller Georg von Küchler Günther von Kluge Heinz Guderian Hermann Hoth Albrecht Kesselring Adolf Strauss Carl-Heinrich von... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... The T-34 is a Soviet medium tank first produced in 1940. ... This article is about the first few weeks of the Invasion of Normandy (D-Day). ... The Panther ( ) was a tank fielded by Nazi Germany in World War II that served from mid-1943 to the end of the European war in 1945. ... First Tiger I tank captured near Tunis The Panzerkampfwagen VI Ausf. ... The M4 Sherman was the primary tank produced by the United States for its own use and the use of its Allies during World War II. Production of the M4 Medium tank exceeded 50,000 units, and its chassis served as the basis for thousands of other armored vehicles such... Tiger II is the common name of a a German heavy tank of the Second World War. ... The Heavy Tank M26 Pershing was an American tank used during World War II and the Korean War. ... The Iosif Stalin tank (or IS tank, named after the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin), was a heavy tank developed by the Soviet Union during World War II. The tanks in the series are also sometimes called JS or ИС tanks. ...


During WWII the tactics and strategy of deploying tank forces underwent a revolution. Heinz Guderian, father of the German panzer forces, said "Where tanks are, the front is", and this concept became a reality in WWII.[13] Following the Invasion of Poland where tanks performed in a traditional support role for the infantry, the German doctrine of blitzkrieg or 'lightning war' was unleashed in the Battle of France. Early war German tanks sacrificed firepower and protection for mobility and reliability. Blitzkrieg made use of innovative combined arms tactics and radios in all of the tanks to provide command and control which made them more effective tank for tank than their Allied opponents, despite the Allied machines being more than a match for the panzers one-on-one. The French Army, with tanks equal or superior to the German tanks in both quality and quantity employed a defensive strategy and outdated cavalry tactics.[11] The French also had poor command and control systems, lacking radios in many of their tanks and headquarters.[14] In accordance with the tactics of blitzkrieg, German tanks bypassed enemy strongpoints and could radio for close air support to destroy them, or leave them to the infantry on foot. A related development, mechanized infantry, allowed some of the troops to keep up with the tanks and create highly mobile combined arms forces.[11] For other uses, see Revolution (disambiguation). ... This article is about the World War II general Heinz Guderian. ... Panzer IV Ausf. ... German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ... This article is about the military term. ... Belligerents France United Kingdom Canada Czechoslovakia Poland Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) Leopold III H.G. Winkelman Władysław Sikorski Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H... This article is about the armoured fighting vehicle. ... This article is about the armoured fighting vehicle. ... This article is about the armoured fighting vehicle. ... Combined arms is an approach to warfare which seeks to integrate different arms of a military to achieve mutually complementary effects. ... RadiOS, the Radiant Operating System, is a project to create a QNX Neutrino like operating system for the x86 architecture. ... For much of history humans have used some form of cavalry for war. ... The phrase command and control is used in various fields: In telecommunications Command and control (C 2) is the exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commander over assigned and attached forces in the accomplishment of the mission. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An Apache attack helicopter provides close air support to United States Army soldiers patrolling the Tigris River southeast of Baghdad, Iraq during the Iraq War. ... Mechanized infantry are infantry equipped with armored personnel carriers (APCs), or infantry fighting vehicles (IFVs) for transport and combat (see also mechanized force). ...


Operation Barbarossa started with the Soviets having a superior tank design, the T-34,[15] but a lack of preparations for the Axis surprise attack, mechanical problems, poor training of the crews and incompetent leadership caused the Soviet machines to be surrounded and destroyed in large numbers. However, the geographic scale of the conflict, the dogged resistance of the Soviet combat troops, Soviet manpower and production capability and the Russian Winter prevented a repeat of the Blitzkrieg of 1940.[16] Despite early successes against the Soviets, the Germans were forced to up-gun their Panzer IVs, and design and build larger and more expensive Panther and Tiger tanks. In doing so the Wehrmacht denied the infantry and other support arms the production priorities that they needed to remain equal partners with the increasingly sophisticated tanks, in turn violating the principle of combined arms that they had pioneered.[5] In the meantime, the Soviets ramped up T-34 production for a huge quantitative advantage.[17] Belligerents Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Franz Halder Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Ernst Busch Erich Hoepner Alfred Keller Georg von Küchler Günther von Kluge Heinz Guderian Hermann Hoth Albrecht Kesselring Adolf Strauss Carl-Heinrich von... The T-34 is a Soviet medium tank first produced in 1940. ... The Panther ( ) was a tank fielded by Nazi Germany in World War II that served from mid-1943 to the end of the European war in 1945. ... First Tiger I tank captured near Tunis The Panzerkampfwagen VI Ausf. ...


When entering WWII American mass production capacity enabled her to rapidly construct thousands of relatively cheap Sherman tanks. A compromise all round, the Sherman was reliable and formed a large part of the Anglo-American ground forces, but they were no match for the German Panther and Tiger tanks.[18] Numerical and logistical superiority allowed the Allied tanks to overrun the German forces during the Battle of Normandy. The Sherman Firefly was introduced to improve the Sherman's firepower, but concerns about protection remained. Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardised products on production lines. ... The M4 Sherman was the primary tank produced by the United States for its own use and the use of its Allies during World War II. Production of the M4 Medium tank exceeded 50,000 units, and its chassis served as the basis for thousands of other armored vehicles such... This article discusses the use of the word Number in Mathematics. ... Military logistics is the art and science of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces. ... This article is about the assault phase of Operation Overlord. ... The Sherman Firefly (M4A4 VC Firefly) was a British variation of the M4 Sherman tank, fitted with the more powerful 17 pounder main gun. ...


Tank chassis were modified to produce flame tanks, mobile rocket artillery and combat engineering vehicles for tasks including mine-clearing and bridging. Specialised self-propelled guns were also developed: tank destroyers and assault guns were cheap, stripped down tanks carrying heavy guns, often in a fixed hull mounting. The firepower and low cost of these vehicles made them attractive but as manufacturing techniques improved and larger turret rings made larger tank guns feasible, the gun turret was recognised as the most effective mounting for the main gun to allow movement in a different direction from firing, enhancing tactical flexibility.[11] Look up Chassis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Marine M67 in Vietnam, 1968. ... M270 MLRS. Rocket artillery is artillery equipped with rocket launchers instead of conventional guns or mortars. ... Combat engineers place satchel charges and detonating cord, preparatory to blowing up a railway bridge during the Korean War, 30 July 1950 Combat engineering is the practice of using the knowledge, tools and techniques of engineering in combat. ... Hydrema mine clearing vehicle MineWolf tiller-based demining machine deployed in Sudan Digger Mini Flail for Mine Clearance Demining is the process of removing landmines or naval mines from an area. ... In electronics, especially audio and sound recording, an impedance bridging or voltage bridging connection is one which maximizes voltage transfer to the load. ... A self-propelled anti-tank gun, or tank destroyer, is a type of armoured fighting vehicle. ... German StuG III with high-velocity 75 mm gun, 1943 An assault gun is a gun or howitzer mounted on a motor vehicle or armored chassis, designed for use in the direct fire role in support of infantry when attacking other infantry or fortified positions. ... Turret (highlighted) attached to a tower on a baronial building in Scotland In architecture, a turret is a small tower that projects from the wall of a building, such as a medieval castle or baronial house. ...


The Cold War arms race

During the Cold War, tension between the Warsaw Pact countries and NATO countries created an arms race that ensured that tank development proceeded largely as it had during WWII. The essence of tank designs during the Cold War had been hammered out in the closing stages of World War II. Large turrets, capable suspension systems, greatly improved engines, sloped armour and large-calibre (100mm and larger) guns were standard. Tank design during the Cold War built on this foundation and included improvements to fire control, gyroscopic gun stabilisation, communications (primarily radio) and crew comfort and saw the introduction of laser rangefinders and infrared night vision equipment. Armour technology progressed in an ongoing race against improvements in anti-tank weapons, especially antitank guided missiles like the TOW. This article is about the history of Tanks in the Cold War Georgian T-72, covered in reactive armour. ... Tanks can be classified in a variety of ways: usually either by intended role, or by weight. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... The term arms race in its original usage, describes a competition between two or more parties for military supremacy. ... A fire-control system is a computer, often mechanical, which is designed to assist a weapon system in hitting its target. ... A gyroscope is a device which demonstrates the principle of conservation of angular momentum, in physics. ... For other uses, see Laser (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... Composite armour is a type of vehicle armour consisting of layers of different material such as metals, plastics, ceramics or air. ... Anti-tank, or simply AT, refers to any method of combating military armored fighting vehicles, notably tanks. ... This article or section should be merged with Missile guidance A guided missile is a military rocket that can be directed in flight to change its flight path. ... A tow is an untwisted bundle of continuous filaments. ...


Medium tanks of WWII evolved into the main battle tank (MBT) of the Cold War and took over the majority of tank roles on the battlefield. This gradual transition occurred in the 1950s and 60s due to anti-tank guided missiles, sabot ammunition and high explosive anti-tank warheads. WWII had shown that the speed of a light tank was no substitute for armour and firepower and heavy tanks were as vulnerable as medium tanks to newer weapon technology, rendering them obsolete. The US M1A1 Abrams tank is a typical modern main battle tank. ... Anti-tank, or simply AT, refers to any method of combating military armored fighting vehicles, notably tanks. ... This article or section should be merged with Missile guidance A guided missile is a military rocket that can be directed in flight to change its flight path. ... A Phalanx Mk149 APDS discarding its sabot and petals Armor-piercing, discarding sabot (APDS) is a type of kinetic energy projectile fired from a gun to attack heavy armor. ... A HEAT round. ... Obsolescence is when a person or object is no longer wanted even though it is still in good working order. ...


In a trend started in WWII, economies of scale led to serial production of progressively upgraded models of all major tanks during the Cold War. For the same reason many upgraded post-WWII tanks and their derivatives (for example, the T-55 and T-72) remain in active service around the world, and even an obsolete tank may be the most formidable weapon on battlefields in many parts of the world.[19] Among the tanks of the 1950s were the British Centurion and Soviet T-54/55 in service from 1946, and the US M48 from 1951.[20] These three vehicles formed the bulk of the armoured forces of NATO and the Warsaw Pact throughout the Cold War. Lessons learned from tanks such as the Leopard 1, M60 Patton, Chieftain, and T-72 led to the contemporary Leopard 2, M1 Abrams, Challenger 2, T-90 and Merkava IV. The increase in output from Q to Q2 causes a decrease in the average cost of each unit from C to C1. ... The T-54 and T-55 tank series was the Soviet Unions front-line main battle tank from 1947 until 1962, and remains in service throughout the world to this day, especially by former client states of the Soviet Union. ... The T-72 is a Soviet-designed main battle tank that entered production in 1971. ... The Centurion was the primary British Main Battle Tank of the immediate post-war era, and considered by many to be one of the best British tank designs of all time. ... The M48 Patton was one of the U.S armys principal main battle tanks of the Cold War, with models in service from the early 1950s to the 1990s. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The Leopard (or Leopard 1) is a German designed and produced main battle tank that first entered service in 1965 and was used as the main battle tank for Germany, several other European countries, Australia, Canada, Brazil and Chile. ... For other uses, see M60. ... The FV 4201 Chieftain was the Main battle tank of the United Kingdom during the 1960s and 1970s. ... The T-72 is a Soviet-designed main battle tank that entered production in 1971. ... The Leopard 2 is a German main battle tank built by the German company Krauss-Maffei-Wegmann, developed in the early 1970s and first entering service in 1979, replacing the earlier Leopard 1 as the foremost MBT in the Bundeswehr. ... The M1 Abrams is a military tank produced in the United States. ... The British FV4034 Challenger 2 is an advanced new generation main battle tank (MBT) currently in service with the armies of the United Kingdom and Oman. ... This article is about the Russian tank. ... // The Merkava (Hebrew:  , Chariot) is the main battle tank of the Israel Defense Forces. ...


Tanks and anti-tank weapons of the Cold War era saw action in a number of proxy wars like the Korean War, Vietnam War, Soviet war in Afghanistan and Arab-Isreali conflicts culminating in the Yom Kippur War. The T-55, for example, has seen action in no fewer than 32 conflicts. In these wars the USA or NATO countries and the Soviet Union or China consistently backed opposing forces. Proxy wars were studied by Western and Soviet military analysts and provided a grim contribution to the Cold War tank development process. A proxy war is a war where two powers use third parties as a supplement or a substitute for fighting each other directly. ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Belligerents DRA USSR Mujahideen of Afghanistan Commanders Soviet 40th Army: Sergei Sokolov Valentin Varennikov Boris Gromov DRA: Babrak Karmal Mohammad Najibullah Abdul Rashid Dostum Abdul Haq Jalaluddin Haqqani Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Ismail Khan Ahmad Shah Massoud Strength Soviet forces: 80,000-104,000 Afghan forces: 329,000 (in 1989)[1] 45... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim... The T-54 and T-55 tank series was the Soviet Unions front-line main battle tank from 1947 until 1962, and remains in service throughout the world to this day, especially by former client states of the Soviet Union. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... This article is about the military alliance. ... Military intelligence (abbreviated MI, int. ...

A timeline of major technological advances in tank and infantry anti-tank equipment 1945-2008. The top region shows Western tanks and at the bottom are USSR and Russian tank developments. Selected conflicts are shown along the centre-line
A timeline of major technological advances in tank and infantry anti-tank equipment 1945-2008. The top region shows Western tanks and at the bottom are USSR and Russian tank developments. Selected conflicts are shown along the centre-line

21st century

As of 2005, there were 1,100 M1 Abrams used by the United States army in the course of the Iraq War, and they have proven to have an unexpectedly high level of vulnerability to roadside bombs.[21] A relatively new type of remotely-detonated mine, the explosively formed penetrator has been used with some success against American armoured vehicles (particularly the Bradley fighting vehicle). However, with upgrades to their armour in the rear, M1s have proven invaluable in fighting insurgents in urban combat (a role that tactics otherwise proscribe), particularly at the Battle of Fallujah, where the Marines brought in two extra brigades.[22] Britain deployed its Challenger 2 tanks to support its operations in southern Iraq. The M1 Abrams main battle tank is the principal combat tank of the United States Army and the United States Marine Corps, with three main versions being deployed starting in 1980: the M1, M1A1, and M1A2. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... IED is also a common abbreviation for the Indo-European Etymological Dictionary by Julius Pokorny. ... An explosively formed penetrator (EFP), also known as an explosively formed projectile, a self-forging warhead, or a self-forging fragment, is a special type of shaped charge designed to penetrate armour effectively at stand-off distances. ... General Characteristics (M2 Bradley) Length: 21 ft 2 in (6. ... Fallujah (Arabic: فلوجة; sometimes transliterated as Falluja and less commonly Fallouja, Falloujah, Faloojah, Faloojeh) is a city of about 350,000 inhabitants in the Iraqi province of Al Anbar, located roughly 69km (43 miles) west of Baghdad on the Euphrates. ... The Challenger 2 is the most recent main battle tank in service with the United Kingdom and Oman. ...


Tank design

Russian T-90 during an exercise south of Moscow

The three traditional factors determining a tank's effectiveness in battle are its firepower, protection, and mobility. In practical terms, the cost to manufacture and maintain a given tank design is also important in that it determines how many tanks a nation can afford to field. This article is about the Russian tank. ...


Firepower is the ability of a tank to identify, engage, and destroy a target. Protection is the tank's ability to resist being detected, engaged, and disabled or destroyed by enemy fire. Mobility includes tactical (short range) movement over the battlefield including over rough terrain and obstacles, as well as strategic (long range) mobility, the ability of the tank to be transported by road, rail, sea, or air to the battlefield.


Tank design is a compromise; it is not possible to maximize firepower, protection and mobility simultaneously. For example, increasing protection by adding armour will result in an increase in weight and therefore decrease mobility; increasing firepower by installing a larger gun will force the designer to sacrifice speed or armour to compensate for the added weight and cost.


Since WWII tank development has shifted focus from experimenting with large scale mechanical changes to the tank design to focusing on technological advances in the tank's subsystems to improve its performance. However, a number of novel designs have appeared throughout this period, with mixed success, including the Soviet IT-1 missile tank, the Swedish "super self-propelled gun", the S-tank, the Israeli Merkava, with a unique protective layout and an infantry compartment, and the incorporation of autoloaders to reduce the crew complement in a number of tanks. The IT-1 was a Soviet cold war missile tank based around the hull of the T-62. ... The Stridsvagn 103 (Strv 103), or S-Tank, is a Swedish tank. ... // The Merkava (Hebrew:  , Chariot) is the main battle tank of the Israel Defense Forces. ... An Autoloader is a data storage device consisting of at least one tape drive (the drive), a method of loading tapes into the drive (the robot), and a storage area for tapes (the magazine). ...

Further information: Tank classification

Tanks can be classified in a variety of ways: usually either by intended role, or by weight. ...

Firepower

Main article: Tank gun

The main weapon of all modern tanks is a single, large-calibre (105 to 125 mm) gun mounted in a fully traversing turret. The typical tank gun is a smoothbore weapon capable of firing armour-piercing kinetic energy penetrators (KEP), also known as armour-piercing discarding sabot (APDS), and high explosive anti-tank (HEAT) shells and/or anti-tank guided missiles (ATGM) to destroy armoured targets, as well as high explosive (HE) shells for engaging soft targets or fortifications. Urban combat experience in Iraq has demonstrated the need for a revival of Canister shot for the tank and a 120 mm calibre round has recently been developed for the M1 Abrams which fires 1,100 tungsten pellets.[22] A M1 Abrams firing. ... A M1 Abrams firing. ... The word caliber (American English) or calibre (British English) comes from the Italian calibro, itself from the Arabic quâlib, meaning mould. ... In fortification, a traverse is a mass of earth or other material employed to protect troops against enfilade. ... Turret (highlighted) attached to a tower on a baronial building in Scotland In architecture, a turret is a small tower that projects from the wall of a building, such as a medieval castle or baronial house. ... Smoothbore refers to a firearm which does not have a rifled barrel. ... French anti-tank round with its sabot APFSDS at point of separation of sabot. ... A Phalanx Mk149 APDS discarding its sabot and petals Armor-piercing, discarding sabot (APDS) is a type of kinetic energy projectile fired from a gun to attack heavy armor. ... A HEAT round. ... Shells of WWI. From left to right: 90 mm fragmentation shell - 120 mm pig iron incendiary shell 77/14 model - 75 mm high explosive shell model 16 - 75 mm fragmentation shell A shell is a payload-carrying projectile, which, as opposed to a bullet, contains an explosive or other filling... For other uses, see Air-to-ground missile. ... Shells of WWI. From left to right: 90 mm fragmentation shell - 120 mm pig iron incendiary shell 77/14 model - 75 mm high explosive shell model 16 - 75 mm fragmentation shell A shell is a payload-carrying projectile, which, as opposed to a bullet, contains an explosive or other filling... Shells of WWI. From left to right: 90 mm fragmentation shell - 120 mm pig iron incendiary shell 77/14 model - 75 mm high explosive shell model 16 - 75 mm fragmentation shell A shell is a payload-carrying projectile, which, as opposed to a bullet, contains an explosive or other filling... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... Canister shot was a kind of anti-personnel ammunition used in cannons. ...


A gyroscope is used to stabilise the main gun, allowing it to be effectively aimed and fired at the "short halt" or on the move. Modern tank guns are also commonly fitted with insulating thermal jackets to reduce gun-barrel warping caused by uneven thermal expansion, bore evacuators to minimise fumes entering the crew compartment and sometimes muzzle brakes to minimise the effect of recoil on accuracy and rate of fire. A gyroscope For other uses, see Gyroscope (disambiguation). ... Look up insulation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In physics, thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in volume in response to a change in temperature. ... A bore evacuator. ... The muzzle brake of the 105 mm gun on an AMX 10 RC fighting vehicle. ... An early naval cannon design, allowing the gun to roll backwards a small distance when firing The recoil when firing a gun is the backward momentum of a gun, which is equal to the forward momentum of the bullet or shell, due to conservation of momentum. ... (for paintball markers also)Rate of fire is the frequency at which a specific weapon can fire or launch its projectiles. ...


Modern target detection relies on telescopic periscopes and sophisticated light intensification and thermal imaging equipment to improve fighting capability at night, in poor weather and in smoke. The accuracy of modern tank guns is pushed to the mechanical limit by computerized fire-control systems. A fire-control system uses a laser range-finder to determine the range to the target, a thermocouple, anemometer and wind vane to correct for weather effects and a muzzle referencing system to correct for gun-barrel temperature, warping and wear. Two sightings of a target with the range-finder enable calculation of the target movement vector. This information is combined with the known movement of the tank and the principles of ballistics to calculate the elevation and aim point that maximises the probability of hitting the target. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Principle of the periscope. ... A U.S. Army soldier uses a helmet mounted vision device during operations in Baghdad, Iraq. ... Thermography can refer to a printing process and a imaging process. ... In the fields of science, engineering, industry and statistics, accuracy is the degree of conformity of a measured or calculated quantity to its actual (true) value. ... A fire-control system is a computer, often mechanical, which is designed to assist a weapon system in hitting its target. ... A laser range-finder is a device which uses a laser beam in order to determine the distance to a reflective object. ... In electronics, thermocouples are a widely used type of temperature sensor and can also be used as a means to convert thermal potential difference into electric potential difference. ... A hemispherical cup anemometer of the type invented in 2000 by John Thomas Romney Robinson An anemometer is a device for measuring the velocity or the pressure of the wind, and is one instrument used in a weather station. ... A weather vane, also called a wind vane, is a movable device attached to an elevated object such as a roof for showing the direction of the wind. ... This article is about vectors that have a particular relation to the spatial coordinates. ... External ballistics is the part of the science of ballistics that deals with the behaviour of a non-powered projectile in flight. ... In ballistics, the elevation is the angle between the horizontal plane and the direction of the barrel of a gun, mortar or heavy artillery. ... The predicted impact point (PIP) is the location at which a ballistic projectile (e. ... Probability is the likelihood or chance that something is the case or will happen. ...


Usually, tanks carry small-calibre (7.62 to 20 mm) armament for short-range defence where fire from the main weapon would be ineffective, for example when engaging infantry, light vehicles or aircraft. A typical complement of secondary weapons is a general-purpose machine gun mounted coaxially with the main gun, and a heavier antiaircraft machine gun on the turret roof. A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... This article refers to the Military HMMWV, not the civilian Hummer sold by General Motors General Characteristics (Humvee) Manufacturer: AM General Length: 4. ... An Apache attack helicopter provides close air support to United States Army soldiers patrolling the Tigris River southeast of Baghdad, Iraq during the Iraq War. ... Coaxially mounted weapons refer to those weapon systems that are mounted coaxially, side-by-side, with the main weapon system. ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft, or air defense, is any method of combating military aircraft from the ground. ...


Protection

See also: Anti-tank warfare
German Panther illustrating early use of camouflage
German Panther illustrating early use of camouflage

A tank's protection is the combination of its ability to avoid detection, to avoid being hit by enemy fire, its armour to resist the effects of enemy fire, and to sustain damage and complete its mission, or at least protect its crew. In common with most unit types, tanks are subject to additional hazards in wooded and urban combat environments which largely negate the advantages of the tank's long-range firepower and mobility, limit the crew's detection capabilities and can restrict turret traverse. Despite these disadvantages, tanks retain high survivability against previous-generation rocket-propelled grenades in all combat environments by virtue of their armour. By contrast, tank survivability against newer-generation tandem-warhead anti-tank missiles is a concern for military planners.[23] Anti-tank refers to any method of combating military armored fighting vehicles, notably tanks. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Panther ( ) was a tank fielded by Nazi Germany in World War II that served from mid-1943 to the end of the European war in 1945. ... Limber Pine woodland, Toiyabe Range, central Nevada Biologically, a woodland is differentiated from a forest. ... Look up urban in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In fortification, a traverse is a mass of earth or other material employed to protect troops against enfilade. ... In engineering, survivability is the quantified ability of a system, subsystem, equipment, process, or procedure to continue to function during and after a natural or man-made disturbance; nuclear electromagnetic pulse from the detonation of a nuclear weapon. ... A rocket propelled grenade (RPG) is a man-portable, shoulder-launched weapon capable of firing an explosive device longer distances than an otherwise unassisted soldier could throw. ... A tandem-charge weapon is an explosive device or projectile that has two or more stages of detonation. ...


Avoiding detection

A tank avoids detection using the doctrine of CCD: camouflage (looks the same as the surroundings), concealment (cannot be seen) and deception (looks like something else). An example of common camouflage The Bronze Horseman camouflaged from the German aircraft during the Siege of Leningrad (August 8, 1941) Camouflage became an essential part of modern military tactics after the increase in accuracy and rate of fire of weapons at the end of the 19th century. ... Look up hiding in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


Working against efforts to avoid detection is the fact that a tank is a large metallic object with a distinctive, angular silhouette that emits copious heat and noise. Consequently, it's difficult to effectively camouflage a hull-up tank in the absence of some form of cover or concealment (e.g., woods). The tank becomes easier to detect when moving (typically, whenever it is in use) due to the large, distinctive auditory, vibration and thermal signature of its power plant. Tank tracks and dust clouds also betray past or present tank movement. Switched-off tanks are vulnerable to infra-red detection due to differences between the thermal conductivity and therefore heat dissipation of the metallic tank and its surroundings. At close range the tank can be detected even when powered down and fully concealed due to the column of warmer air above the tank and the smell of diesel. For other uses, see Silhouette (disambiguation). ... Thermography can refer to a printing process and a imaging process. ... A tank in hull-down, turret-down, and hidden positions behind a crest of ground. ... Look up cover in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up vibration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image of a small dog taken in mid-infrared (thermal) light (false color) Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than visible light, but shorter than microwave radiation. ... Thermography can refer to a printing process and a imaging process. ... K value redirects here. ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... A hot road mirage, the most common example of an inferior mirage Apparent distortions above the horizon are due to a superior mirage A mirage is a naturally-occurring optical phenomenon, in which light rays are bent to produce a displaced image of distant objects or the sky. ...


Thermal blankets slow the rate of heat emission and camouflage nets use a mix of materials with differing thermal properties to operate in the infra-red as well as the visible spectrum. Camouflage attempts to break up the distinctive appearance and silhouette of a tank. Adopting a turret-down or hull-down position reduces the visible silhouette of a tank as well as providing the added protection of a position in defilade. Visible light redirects here. ... This article is about protective camouflage used to disguise people, animals, or military targets. ... A tank in hull-down, turret-down, and hidden positions behind a crest of ground. ... French frigate Poursuivante firing raking fire in enfilade on a British ship of line French frigate Aréthuse and English frigate Amélia exchanging defilade fire on the shores of Guinea, the 7th of February 1813 Enfilade and defilade are military tactical concepts used to describe a fighting units...


Armour

Recent modifications to the M1A2 Abrams to improve survivability in an urban environment
Recent modifications to the M1A2 Abrams to improve survivability in an urban environment
When protection fails: M1A1 Abrams lost during combat against the Tawakalna Republican Guard Division, February 26 1991
When protection fails: M1A1 Abrams lost during combat against the Tawakalna Republican Guard Division, February 26 1991
Main article: Vehicle armour

To effectively protect the tank and its crew, tank armour must counter a wide variety of antitank threats. Protection against kinetic energy penetrators and high explosive anti-tank (HEAT) shells fired by other tanks is of primary importance, but tank armour also aims to protect against infantry antitank missiles, antitank mines, bombs, direct artillery hits, and (less often) nuclear, biological and chemical threats, any of which could disable or destroy a tank or its crew. Download high resolution version (2160x1400, 483 KB)M1A2 TUSK image released into the public domain by the US goverment. ... Download high resolution version (2160x1400, 483 KB)M1A2 TUSK image released into the public domain by the US goverment. ... The M1 Abrams main battle tank is the principal combat tank of the United States Army, with three main versions being deployed starting in 1980: the M1, M1A1, and M1A2. ... In engineering, survivability is the quantified ability of a system, subsystem, equipment, process, or procedure to continue to function during and after a natural or man-made disturbance; nuclear electromagnetic pulse from the detonation of a nuclear weapon. ... Image File history File links AbramsLost-1991. ... Image File history File links AbramsLost-1991. ... Republican Guard is the organization of a republic which serves to protect the President and the government. ... Military vehicles are commonly armoured to withstand the impact of shrapnel, bullets or shells, protecting the soldiers inside from enemy fire. ... Anti-tank, or simply AT, refers to any method of combating military armored fighting vehicles, notably tanks. ... French anti-tank round with its sabot APFSDS at point of separation of sabot. ... A HEAT round. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... “Minefield” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Bomb (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... For the Xzibit album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ...


Steel armour plate was the earliest type of armour. The Germans pioneered the use of face hardened steel during WWII and the Soviets also achieved improved protection with sloped armour technology. WWII developments also spelled the eventual doom of homogeneous steel armour with the development of shaped-charge warheads, exemplified by the Panzerfaust and bazooka infantry weapons which were lethally effective, despite some early success with spaced armour. RHA stands for Rolled Homogeneous Armour. ... Carbon steel,is very fun 2 play with also called plain carbon steel, is a metal alloy, a combination of two elements, iron and carbon, where other elements are present in quantities too small to affect the properties. ... Sloped armour was developed as a defensive measure by the French SOMUA (Société dOutillage Mécanique et dUsinage dArtillerie) right before the outbreak of World War II. It was a technological response to the trend of fitting increasingly bigger guns on battle tanks. ... Sectioned HEAT round with the inner shaped charge visible 1:Aerodynamic cover 2: Empty room 3: Conical liner 4: Detonator 5: Explosive 6: Piezo-electric sensor A shaped charge is an explosive charge shaped to focus the effect of the explosives energy. ... For other uses, see Panzerfaust (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bazooka (disambiguation). ... A picture of a destroyed M113 armoured personnel carrier showing a section of the armour. ...


British tank researchers took the next step with the development of Chobham armour, or more generally composite armour, incorporating ceramics and plastics in a resin matrix between steel plates, which provided good protection against HEAT weapons. Magnetic mines led to the development of anti-magnetic paste and paint, squash head warheads led to anti-spall armour linings, and KEPs led to the inclusion of exotic materials like depleted uranium in the composite matrix. Reactive armour consists of small explosive-filled bricks that detonate when damaged by HEAT fire, bending or disrupting the incoming molten metallic jet. Tandem warheads defeat reactive armour by causing the armour to detonate prematurely. Grenade launchers which can rapidly deploy a smoke screen and the modern Shtora soft-kill countermeasure system provide additional protection by interfering with enemy targeting and fire-control systems. Chobham armour is a composite armour developed in the 1960s at the British tank research centre on Chobham Common. ... Composite armour is a type of vehicle armour consisting of layers of different material such as metals, plastics, ceramics or air. ... This article is about ceramic materials. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A HEAT round. ... Levitating pyrolytic carbon Diamagnetism is a form of magnetism that is only exhibited by a substance in the presence of an externally applied magnetic field. ... High explosive squash head (HESH) is a type of explosive ammunition designed to defeat tank armour. ... Very high speed photography of a small projectile impacting a thin aluminium plate at 7000 m/s. ... French anti-tank round with its sabot APFSDS at point of separation of sabot. ... Depleted uranium storage yard. ... M60A1 Patton tank with Israeli Blazer ERA. T-72 battle tank layered with reactive armour bricks Reactive armour is a type of vehicle armour that reacts in some way to the impact of a weapon to reduce the damage done to the vehicle being protected. ... A tandem-charge weapon is an explosive device or projectile that has two or more stages of detonation. ... A grenade launcher is weapon that fires or launches a grenade to longer distances than a soldier could throw by hand. ... A U.S. Army Humvee laying a smoke screen A smoke-screen is a release of smoke in order to mask the movement or location of military units such as infantry, tanks or ships. ... Shtora is a Russian electro-optical countermeasures suite, designed to disrupt the laser target designation and rangefinders of incoming ATGMs. ... A countermeasure is a system (usually for a military application) designed to prevent weapons from acquiring and/or destroying a target. ...


The latest generation of protective measures for tanks are active protection systems, particularly hard-kill countermeasures. The Israeli TROPHY and Iron Fist, the American Quick Kill, the Soviet Drozd, and Russian Arena systems show the potential to dramatically improve protection for tanks against missiles, RPGs and potentially KEP attacks, but concerns regarding a danger zone for nearby dismounted troops remain. An active protection system, or APS, protects a tank or other armoured fighting vehicle from incoming fire before it hits the vehicles armour. ... A countermeasure is a system (usually for a military application) designed to prevent weapons from acquiring and/or destroying a target. ... TROPHY (IDF designation מעיל רוח, lit. ... Iron Fist (Daniel Danny Thomas Rand-Kai) is a fictional character, a superhero martial artist in the Marvel Comics universe. ... Drozd is best known as an active countermeasure system developed by Russia. ... 1. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... An RPG-7 captured by the US Army RPG, or Rocket propelled grenade is a loose term describing hand-held, shoulder-launched anti-tank weapons capable of firing an unguided rocket equipped with an explosive warhead. ... French anti-tank round with its sabot APFSDS at point of separation of sabot. ... For other uses, see Friendly Fire (disambiguation). ...


Mobility

T-72 Ajeya of the Indian Army with reactive armour
T-72 Ajeya of the Indian Army with reactive armour
A mobility test of the Arjun MBT
A mobility test of the Arjun MBT

The mobility of a tank is described by its battlefield or tactical mobility and its strategic mobility. Tactical mobility can be broken down firstly into agility, describing the tank's acceleration, braking, speed and rate of turn on various terrain, and secondly obstacle clearance: the tank's ability to travel over vertical obstacles like low walls or trenches or through water. Strategic mobility is the relative ease with which a military asset can be transported between theatres of operation and falls within the scope of military logistics. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 138 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Indian Army Military of India ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 138 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Indian Army Military of India ... The T-72 is a Soviet-designed main battle tank that entered production in 1971. ... This article is about the post-independence Indian Army. ... M60A1 Patton tank with Israeli Blazer ERA. T-72 battle tank layered with reactive armour bricks Reactive armour is a type of vehicle armour that reacts in some way to the impact of a weapon to reduce the damage done to the vehicle being protected. ... Arjun is a Main Battle Tank developed by DRDO (Defence Research and Development) for the Indian Army. ... Look up Battlefield in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tactic could refer to: Tactic (municipality) Tactic (method) Military tactics Tactics (manga) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... A strategy is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal. ... Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity and/or direction, and at any point on a velocity-time graph, it is given by the slope of the tangent to the curve at that point. ... For the type of ferns known as brakes, see brake (fern). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A gas main being laid in a trench. ... Military logistics is the art and science of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces. ...


Tank agility is a function of the weight of the tank due to its inertia while manoeuvring and its ground pressure, the power output of the installed power plant and the tank transmission and track design. In addition, rough terrain effectively limits the tank's speed through the stress it puts on the suspension and the crew. A breakthrough in this area was achieved during WWII when improved suspension systems were developed that allowed better cross-country performance and limited firing on the move. Systems like the earlier Christie or later torsion-bar suspension developed by Ferdinand Porsche dramatically improved the tank's cross-country performance and overall mobility.[24] This article is about inertia as it applies to local motion. ... Ground pressure is the pressure exerted on the ground by the tires or tracks of a motorized vehicle, and is one measure of its potential mobility,[1] especially over soft ground. ... For other uses, see Engine (disambiguation). ... “Gearbox” redirects here. ... The front suspension components of a Ford Model T. Suspension is the term given to the system of springs, shock absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle to its wheels. ... A British Comet with Christie suspension The Christie suspension is a suspension system developed by Walter Christie for his tank designs. ... A torsion spring is a ribbon, bar, or coil that reacts against twisting motion. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


A main battle tank is highly mobile and able to travel over most types of terrain due to its continuous tracks and advanced suspension. The tracks disperse the significant weight of the vehicle over a large area, resulting in a ground pressure comparable to that of a walking man.[25] A tank can travel at approximately 40 kilometres per hour (25 mph) across flat terrain and up to 70 kilometres per hour (43 mph) on roads, but due to the mechanical strain this places on the vehicle and the logistical strain on fuel delivery and tank maintenance, these must be considered "burst" speeds that invite mechanical failure in the relatively weak tank tracks. Consequently, wheeled tank transporters and rail infrastructure is used wherever possible for long-distance tank transport. The limitations of long-range tank mobility can be viewed in sharp contrast to that of wheeled armoured fighting vehicles. The majority of blitzkrieg operations were conducted at the pedestrian pace of 5 kilometres per hour (3.1 mph), that only achieved on the roads of France.[26] Ground pressure is the pressure exerted on the ground by the tires or tracks of a motorized vehicle, and is one measure of its potential mobility,[1] especially over soft ground. ... For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ... Maintenance see repair and maintenance Maintenance is a legal term of art that is used to describe child support and alimony (also called spousal support). ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is a military vehicle, equipped with protection against hostile attacks and often mounted weapons. ... This article is about the military term. ...


Water operations

Gepanzerte Pioniermaschine fitted with the same snorkel as used on the Leopard 2 tank
Gepanzerte Pioniermaschine fitted with the same snorkel as used on the Leopard 2 tank

In the absence of combat engineers, most tanks are limited to fording rivers. The typical fording depth for MBTs is approximately 1 metre (3.3 ft), being limited by the height of the engine air intake and driver's position. Modern Soviet tanks and the German Leopard I and Leopard II tanks can ford to a depth of 3-4 meters when properly prepared and equipped with a snorkel to supply air for the crew and engine. Tank crews usually have a negative reaction towards deep fording but it adds considerable scope for surprise and tactical flexibility in water crossing operations by opening new and unexpected avenues of attack. The Leopard 2 is a German main battle tank built by the German company Krauss-Maffei-Wegmann, developed in the early 1970s and first entering service in 1979, replacing the earlier Leopard 1 as the foremost MBT in the Bundeswehr. ... ... A ford, with pedestrian footbridge, on a minor road near Weimar bei Kassel in Germany The ford at Brockenhurst, leading into the village centre, following heavy rain. ... This article is about the Russian tank. ... The Leopard is the primary post-WWII German tank design, a design that has been in use as the primary main battle tank for most European countries in various versions since the early 1960s. ... The Leopard is the primary post-WWII German tank design, a design that has been in use as the primary main battle tank for most European countries in various versions since the early 1960s. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This page contains a list of military tactics: // Identification of objectives Concentration of effort Exploiting prevailing weather Exploiting night Maintenance of reserve forces Economy of force Force protection Force dispersal Military Camouflage Deception Perfidy False flag Electronic countermeasures Electronic counter-counter-measures Radio silence Fortification Fieldworks (entrenchments) Over Head Protection...


Amphibious tanks are specially designed or adapted for water operations, but they are rare in modern armies, being replaced by purpose-built amphibious assault vehicles or armoured personnel carriers in amphibious assaults. Advances such as the EFA mobile bridge and MT-55 scissors bridge have also reduced the impediment to tank advance that rivers posed in WWII.[27] An amphibious vehicle is a vehicle or craft, that is a means of transport, viable on land as well as on water - just like an amphibian. ... The Amphibious Assault Vehicle (AAV)—official designation AAV-7A1 (formerly known as LVT-7) is the current amphibious troop transport of the United States Marine Corps and is also operated by other forces. ... East German BRDMs on parade during celebrations of the 40th anniversary of East Germany in 1989 Armoured personnel carriers (APCs) are light armoured fighting vehicles for the transport of infantry. ... It has been suggested that Landing operation be merged into this article or section. ... The EFA, folded into its truck. ... The MT-55 (Russian: Танковый мостоукладчик, or tankoviy mostoukladchik) is an armoured vehicle-launched bridge (AVLB) tank manufactured by the Soviet Union,[1] based on T-55 medium tank chassis, with the turret detached and replaced by a special bridge launching equipment. ...


Tank power plants

The tank's power plant supplies kinetic energy to move the tank, and electric power via a generator to components such as the turret rotation motors and the tank's electronic systems. The tank power plant has evolved from predominantly petrol and adapted large-displacement aeronautical or automotive engines during WWI and WWII, through diesel engines to advanced multi-fuel diesel engines, and powerful (per unit weight) but fuel-hungry gas turbines in the T-80 and M1 Abrams. The cars of a roller coaster reach their maximum kinetic energy when at the bottom of their path. ... This box:      Electric current is the flow (movement) of electric charge. ... This article is about machines that produce electricity. ... Turret (highlighted) attached to a tower on a baronial building in Scotland In architecture, a turret is a small tower that projects from the wall of a building, such as a medieval castle or baronial house. ... For other kinds of motors, see motor. ... Look up Electronic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Aeronautics is the mathematics and mechanics of flying objects, in particular airplanes. ... Car redirects here. ... An internal combustion engine is an engine that is powered by the expansion of hot combustion products of fuel directly acting within an engine. ... Diesel engines in a museum Diesel generator on an oil tanker A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle. ... Diesel engines in a museum Diesel generator on an oil tanker A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle. ... This machine has a single-stage centrifugal compressor and turbine, a recuperator, and foil bearings. ... The T-80 is a Soviet/Russian/Ukrainian main battle tank. ... The M1 Abrams is a military tank produced in the United States. ...


Tank power output in context:

Vehicle Power output Power / Weight
Toyota Camry 2.4L 158 horsepower (118 kW) 106 hp/tonne
Lamborghini Murciélago 6.5L 632 horsepower (471 kW) 383 hp/tonne
Leopard 2 & M1 Abrams 1,500 horsepower (1,100 kW) 24.2 & 24.5 hp/tonne
SNCF Class T 2000 2,581 horsepower (1,925 kW) 11.5 hp/tonne

The Toyota Camry is a mid-size car assembled by Toyota in Tsutsumi, (Japan); Georgetown, Kentucky; Altona, Victoria, Australia and most recently Guangzhou, China. ... Lamborghini 6. ... The Leopard 2 is a German main battle tank built by the German company Krauss-Maffei-Wegmann, developed in the early 1970s and first entering service in 1979, replacing the earlier Leopard 1 as the foremost MBT in the Bundeswehr. ... The M1 Abrams is a military tank produced in the United States. ... Preserved RTG power car, no. ...

Command, control and communications

German Army Leopard 2A6M that incorporates systems designed to be used in conjunction with a networked battlefield
German Army Leopard 2A6M that incorporates systems designed to be used in conjunction with a networked battlefield

Commanding and coordinating tanks in the field has always been subject to particular problems, particularly in the area of communications, but in modern armies these problems have been partially alleviated by networked, integrated systems that enable communications and contribute to enhanced situational awareness. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 1. ... The German Army (German: [1], [IPA: heɐ]  ) is the land component of the Bundeswehr (Federal Defence Forces) of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... The Leopard 2 is a German main battle tank built by the German company Krauss-Maffei-Wegmann, developed in the early 1970s and first entering service in 1979, replacing the earlier Leopard 1 as the foremost MBT in the Bundeswehr. ... Network-centric warfare (NCW), now commonly called Network-centric operations (NCO), is a new military doctrine or theory of war pioneered by the United States Department of Defense. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with ISTAR. (Discuss) . It features superscript or subscript characters that are substituted or omitted because of technical limitations. ... A computer network is an interconnection of a group of computers. ... System integration is the bringing together of the component subsystems into one system and ensuring that the subsystems function together as a system. ... For other uses, see System (disambiguation). ... Situation awareness or situational awareness [1] (SA) is the mental representation and understanding of objects, events, people, system states, interactions, environmental conditions, and other situation-specific factors affecting human performance in complex and dynamic tasks. ...


Early communications

Armoured bulkheads, engine noise, intervening terrain, dust and smoke, and the need to operate "buttoned up" are severe detriments to communication and lead to a sense of isolation for small tank units, individual vehicles, and tank crewmen. In WWI, situation reports were sent back to headquarters by releasing carrier pigeons through vision slits and communications between vehicles was accomplished using hand signals, handheld semaphore flags (which were still in use in the Red Army in World War Two) or close range verbal communication.[28] Bulkhead may refer to the following: Bulkhead (partition), a wall within the hull of a ship, vehicle or container Bulkhead (barrier) Bulkhead line See also: Flatcar Bulkhead Category: ... The armed forces of a state are its government-sponsored defense and fighting forces and organizations used to further the objectives of the state. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ...


Modern communications and the networked battlefield

On the modern battlefield an intercom mounted in the crew helmet provides internal communications and a link to the radio network, and on some tanks an external intercom on the rear of the tank provides communication with co-operating infantry. Radio networks employ radio voice procedure to minimise confusion and "chatter". Intercom system in the Pittock Mansion An intercom is an electronic communications system within a building or group of buildings. ... A person wearing a helmet. ... A telecommunications network is a network of telecommunications links arranged so that messages may be passed from one part of the network to another over multiple links. ... Voice procedure includes various techniques used to clarify, simplify and standardize spoken communications over two-way radios, in use by the military, in civil aviation, police and fire dispatching systems, citizens band radio (CB), etc. ...


A recent development in AFV equipment and doctrine is Network-centric warfare (US) or Network Enabled Capability (UK). This consists of the increased integration of information from the fire control system, laser range-finder, Global Positioning System and terrain information via hardened milspec electronics and a battlefield network to display all known information on enemy targets and friendly units on a monitor in the tank. The sensor data can be sourced from nearby tanks, planes, UAVs or (in the future) infantry. This improves the tank commander's situational awareness and ability to navigate the battlefield and select and engage targets. In addition to easing the reporting burden by automatically logging all orders and actions, orders are sent via the network with text and graphical overlays. An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is a military vehicle, protected by armour and armed with weapons. ... Network-centric warfare (NCW), now commonly called Network-centric operations (NCO), is a new military doctrine or theory of war pioneered by the United States Department of Defense. ... Network Enabled Capability, or NEC, is the name given to the United Kingdom Ministry of Defence intent to achieve enhanced military effect through the better use of information systems towards the goal of right information, right place, right time - and not too much. NEC is envisaged as the coherent integration... A fire-control system is a computer, often mechanical, which is designed to assist a weapon system in hitting its target. ... A laser range-finder is a device which uses a laser beam in order to determine the distance to a reflective object. ... GPS redirects here. ... The term electromagnetic pulse (EMP) has the following meanings: electromagnetic radiation from an explosion (especially a nuclear explosion) or an intensely fluctuating magnetic field caused by Compton-recoil electrons and photoelectrons from photons scattered in the materials of the electronic or explosive device or in a surrounding medium. ... ... Surface mount electronic components Electronics is the study of the flow of charge through various materials and devices such as semiconductors, resistors, inductors, capacitors, nano-structures and vacuum tubes. ... A computer network is a system for communication among two or more computers. ... Nineteen inch (48 cm) CRT computer monitor A computer display, monitor or screen is a computer peripheral device capable of showing still or moving images generated by a computer and processed by a graphics card. ... Unmanned Aerial Vehicle over Iraq. ... The Armys Future Force Warrior system is one step closer to being fielded as the Ground Soldier System following a successful demonstration in August 2006 of its electronic networking capability. ... Situation awareness or situational awareness [1] (SA) is the mental representation and understanding of objects, events, people, system states, interactions, environmental conditions, and other situation-specific factors affecting human performance in complex and dynamic tasks. ... There are several traditions of navigation. ... As a noun, a graphic usually refers to a computer image or picture, or an infographic, such as a chart. ...

See also: Military communications, Command, control, and communications, and C4ISTAR

Military communications are links between battlefield units, including connections to a higher command or home country. ... The military science term command, control, and communications or C3 designates a telecommunications network used by the command hierarchy for the command and control of a military force. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with ISTAR. (Discuss) . It features superscript or subscript characters that are substituted or omitted because of technical limitations. ...

Research and development

Artist's conception of the XM1202 Mounted Combat System
Artist's conception of the XM1202 Mounted Combat System

In terms of firepower, the focus of current R&D is on increased detection capability such as thermal imagers, automated fire control systems and increased muzzle energy from the gun to improve range, accuracy and armour penetration.[29] The most mature future gun technology is the electrothermal-chemical gun.[30] The XM291 electrothermal-chemical tank-gun has gone through successful multiple firing sequences on a modified M8 armored gun system chassis.[31] Tank research and development continues in many industrial countries despite the end of the Cold war. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article is about the infrared imaging technique. ... Muzzle energy is the measurement of the kinetic energy of a bullet as it is expelled from the barrel of a firearm. ... Electro-thermal chemical (ETC) technology is an attempt to increase accuracy and muzzle energy of future tank, artillery, and close-in weapon system[1] guns by improving the predictability and rate of expansion of propellants inside the barrel. ... M8 refers to: Messier 8, the Lagoon Nebula, a diffuse nebula and a messier object in the Sagittarius constellation. ...


To improve tank protection, one field of research involves making the tank invisible to radar by adapting stealth technologies originally designed for aircraft. A variety of camera and display technologies attempt to improve tank camouflage or even render it invisible. Research is also ongoing in electromagnetic armour systems to disperse or deflect incoming shaped charge jets.[32][33] F-117 stealth attack plane Stealth technology is a sub-discipline of electronic countermeasures which covers a range of techniques used with aircraft, ships and missiles, in order to make them less visible (ideally invisible) to radar, infrared and other detection methods. ... This article is about protective camouflage used to disguise people, animals, or military targets. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field, encompassing all of space, composed of the electric field and the magnetic field. ...


Mobility may be enhanced in future tanks by the use of diesel-electric or turbine-electric series hybrid drives improving fuel efficiency while reducing the size and weight of the power plant.[34] Furthermore, advances in gas turbine technology, including the use of advanced recuperators,[35] have allowed for reduction in engine volume and mass to less than 1 m2 and 1 metric ton, respectively, while maintaining fuel efficiency similar to that of a diesel engine.[36] A number of vehicles use a diesel-electric powerplant for providing locomotion. ... Petroleum electric hybrid vehicles make use of both an on-board rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) and a fueled power source for vehicle propulsion. ...


In line with the new doctrine of Network-centric warfare, the modern battle tank shows increasing sophistication in its electronics and communication systems. Network-centric warfare (NCW), now commonly called Network-centric operations (NCO), is a new military doctrine or theory of war pioneered by the United States Department of Defense. ...


Etymology

The word tank was first applied to the British "landships" in 1915, before they entered service, to keep their nature secret. There are at least three possible explanations of the precise origin of the term:

  1. One is it first arose in British factories making the hulls of the first battle tanks: workmen and possible spies were to be given the impression they were constructing mobile water containers or tanks for the British Army, hence keeping the production of a fighting vehicle secret.[8]
  2. Another is the term was first used in a secret report on the new motorized weapon presented to Winston Churchill, then First Lord of the Admiralty, by British Army Lt.-Col. Ernest Swinton. From this report, three possible terms emerged: cistern, motor-war car, and tank. Apparently tank was chosen due to its linguistic simplicity.[37]
  3. Perhaps the most compelling story comes from Churchill's authoritative biography. To disguise the device, drawings were marked "water carriers for Russia." When it was pointed out this might be shortened to "WCs for Russia," the drawings were changed to "water tanks for Russia." Eventually the weapon was just called a tank.[38]

The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Churchill redirects here. ... The First Lord of the Admiralty was a British government position in charge of the Admiralty. ... Ernest Dunlop Swinton KBE, CB, DSO, RE(1868 -1951 ) was a military writer and British Army officer. ... Flush toilet A flush toilet or water closet is a toilet that disposes of the waste products by using water to sweep them away down a drainpipe. ...

See also

It has been suggested that Mechanized warfare be merged into this article or section. ... A tank in hull-down, turret-down, and hidden positions behind a crest of ground. ... Soviet tank desant drill, on a BT-7 Model 1935 Tank desant (Russian: ) is a military combined arms tactic, where infantry soldiers ride into and attack on tanks, then dismount to fight on foot in the final phase of the assault. ... The EBG combat engineering vehicle, based on the AMX 30 tank, is used by the engineers of the French Army for a variety of missions. ... Badge of the 79th Armoured Division Amphibious DD tanks await blowing of breaches in the sea wall on Utah Beach. ... An M2 Bradley Infantry fighting vehicle. ... Polish TK-3. ... Tanks can be classified in a variety of ways: usually either by intended role, or by weight. ... The Canadian Army Trophy (CAT) competition was established to foster excellence and competition among the armor forces of the NATO countries in Western Europe. ... This is a List of armoured fighting vehicles worldwide. ... This is a list of main battle tanks in active military service with countries of the world. ...

Notes

  1. ^ von Senger und Etterlin (1960), The World's Armoured Fighting Vehicles, p.9.
  2. ^ Deighton (1979), Blitzkrieg, From the rise of Hitler to the fall of Dunkirk, p.132
  3. ^ Cooper and Lucas (1979), Panzer: The Armoured Force of the Third Reich, p.7
  4. ^ Eschel (2007), Assessing the performance of Merkava Tanks
  5. ^ a b House (1984), Toward Combined Arms Warfare:A Survey of 20th-Century Tactics, Doctrine, and Organization
  6. ^ Tomes (2004) in Relearning Counterinsurgency Warfare

    Pitting a traditional combined armed force trained and equipped to defeat similar military organizations against insurgents "reminds one of a pile driver attempting to crush a fly, indefatigably persisting in repeating its efforts."

  7. ^ DiNardo (1986), The First Modern Tank: Gunther Burstyn and His Motorgeschutz
  8. ^ a b c Willmott (2003), First World War
  9. ^ Regan (1993), The Guinness Book of More Military Blunders, p.12
  10. ^ Willmott (2003), First World War, p.222
  11. ^ a b c d Deighton (1979), Blitzkrieg, From the rise of Hitler to the fall of Dunkirk. See, for example, pp.195-198:

    The DLMs were assigned to reconnaissance and 'scouting', providing what outdated textbooks called a 'forward protective screen'. It was another way of saying, 'Spread thinly in front of the invading spearheads.' Deployed like this, their destruction was inevitable."

    Note that the DLM (division légère mécanique) was the world's first armoured division. Also with reference to the French Army, p.199:

    The army Commander in Chief had not bothered to equip his own HQ with radio.

  12. ^ Time (1937), Chewed up
  13. ^ Cooper and Lucas (1979), Panzer: The Armoured Force of the Third Reich, pp. 9
  14. ^ Forty (2004) p. 251.
  15. ^ Zaloga et al. (1997)
  16. ^ Deighton (1979), Blitzkrieg, From the rise of Hitler to the fall of Dunkirk, pp. 307
  17. ^ Zaloga (1984), p. 175.
  18. ^ Cawthorne (2003), Steel Fist: Tank Warfare 1939 - 45, pp. 211
  19. ^ Steven Zaloga and Hugh Johnson (2004), T-54 and T-55 Main Battle Tanks 1944–2004, Osprey, 39-41, ISBN 1-84176-792-1, p 43
  20. ^ von Senger und Etterlin (1960), The World's Armoured Fighting Vehicles, p. 61, 118 & 183
  21. ^ USA Today (2005), Tanks take a beating in Iraq
  22. ^ a b USA Today (2005), Tanks adapted for urban fights they once avoided
  23. ^ BBC News (2006) Tough lessons for Israeli armour
  24. ^ Deighton (1979), Blitzkrieg, From the rise of Hitler to the fall of Dunkirk, pp. 154
  25. ^ Thompson and Sorvig (2000), Sustainable Landscape Construction: A Guide to Green Building Outdoors, p.51
  26. ^ Deighton (1979), Blitzkrieg, From the rise of Hitler to the fall of Dunkirk, p.180
  27. ^ Deighton (1979), Blitzkrieg, From the rise of Hitler to the fall of Dunkirk, pp.234-252
  28. ^ Wright 2002, Tank: The Progress of a Monstrous War Machine, p. 48,

    To the extent that they communicated at all, the tank crews did so by squeezing carrier pigeons out through a hole in a gun sponson, by brandishing a shovel through the manhole, or by frantically waving coloured discs in the air.

  29. ^ Pengelley, Rupert, A new era in tank main armament, pp. 1521 - 1531
  30. ^ Hilmes, Rolf (January 30, 1999), "Aspects of future MBT conception". Military Technology 23 (6): 7. Moench Verlagsgesellschaft Mbh.
  31. ^ Goodell, Brad (January 1, 2007), "Electrothermal Chemical (ETC) Armament Integration into a Combat Vehicle". IEEE Transaction on Magnetics, Volume 23, Number 1, pp. 456-459.
  32. ^ Wickert, Matthias, Electric Armor Against Shaped Charges, pp. 426 - 429
  33. ^ Xiaopeng, Li, et. al., Multiprojectile Active Electromagnetic Armor, pp. 460 - 462
  34. ^ Electric/Hybrid Electric Drive Vehicles for Military Applications, pp. 132 - 144
  35. ^ McDonald, Colin F., Gas Turbine Recuperator Renaissance, pp. 1 - 30
  36. ^ Koschier, Angelo V. and Mauch, Hagen R., Advantages of the LV100 as a Power Producer in a Hybrid Propulsion System for Future Fighting Vehicles, p. 697
  37. ^ Barris (2007), Victory at Vimy: Canada Comes of Age April 9-12 1917, p.116
  38. ^ Gilbert (1991), Churchill: A Life, p.298.

References

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TIME redirects here. ...

External links

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  • The Burstyn tank Landships has additional information and a model of Günther Burstyn's Motorengeschütz.
  • OnWar's Tanks of WWII Comprehensive specifications and diagrams of WWII tanks.
  • Achtung Panzer History of tanks and people of the Panzertruppe.
  • Limits of a tanks movement contains private photos showing US tanks with humorous mobility problems in Iraq.
  • Danish armour displays all modern weapons in the Danish army.
  • Gizmag's The Armored Tank turns 90 Images of tanks in action.
  • Future Firepower - Weapon technology Future Firepower contains text, image and video coverage of current generation MBTs and the TROPHY active defense system. Be aware that the videos on this site, while excellent, are advertorial in nature.
  • GlobalSecurity Mounted Combat System (MCS) and Multi-Role Armament and Ammunition System (MRAAS) provides information on the next-generation US MBT and it's armament respectively.

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Tank - GuildWiki, a Guild Wars wiki. (890 words)
Tanks are well-protected frontline party members whose role is to draw the enemy's attention (aggro) and attacks towards themselves as well as absorbing damage.
The antonym of a tank is a "squishy."
Keep tanks alive at all costs: A tank that has suffered multiple deaths and is running aroud with, say, 35% DP is of little use to the party in terms of tanking.
Tank - MSN Encarta (1095 words)
Light tanks are used for reconnaissance; heavier tanks are used primarily to penetrate or flank enemy defenses.
By the middle of the war, tanks were a central part of most infantry units, and played a prominent role in battles in the deserts of northern Africa, in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), and in Europe.
Tanks attempting to fight alone were vulnerable to antitank guns and to a range of newly developed infantry antitank weapons.
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