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Encyclopedia > Tangshan earthquake

The Tangshan earthquake (唐山大地震) of July 28, 1976 is one of the largest earthquakes in loss of life to hit the modern world. The epicentre of the earthquake was near the industrial city of Tangshan in Hebei, China, which housed around one million inhabitants. The earthquake left 242,419 people dead, according to official figures, though some sources offer much higher estimates. A further 164,581 people were recorded as being severely injured. July 28 is the 209th day (210th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 156 days remaining. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Global earthquake epicenters, 1963–1998 An earthquake is a sudden and sometimes catastrophic movement of a part of the Earths surface. ... The epicenter or epicentre (ancient Greek: επίκεντρον) is the point on the Earths surface that is directly above or below the center of a localized explosive event or point of seismic energy release. ... Tangshan (Chinese: 唐山市; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in Hebei province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Hebei (Chinese: 河北; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hopeh) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


The earthquake hit at 3:42 in the morning, lasting for around 15 seconds. Many sources list it as 8.2 on the Richter scale, but Chinese Government's official sources state 7.8 or 7.6. It was followed by a major 7.1 magnitude aftershock some 15 hours later, increasing the death toll. The Richter magnitude test scale (or more correctly local magnitude ML scale) assigns a single number to quantify the size of an earthquake. ... Aftershocks are earthquakes in the same region of the mainshock (generally within a few rupture length) but of smaller magnitude and which occur with in a pattern that follows Omoris law. ...

Many buildings were flattened into rubble when the earthquake hit.
Many buildings were flattened into rubble when the earthquake hit.

Contents

Source: http://www. ...


Early warnings

Many people in Tangshan reported seeing strange lights – so-called "earthquake lights" – the night before the earthquake. Well water in a village outside of Tangshan reportedly rose and fell three times the day before the earthquake. Gas began to spout out of a well in another village on July 12 and then increased on July 25 and July 26. Other wells throughout the area showed signs of cracking. Earthquake lights are lights in the sky that are associated with a severe earthquake. ... July 12 is the 193rd day (194th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 172 days remaining. ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... July 26 is the 207th day (208th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 158 days remaining. ...


There is also evidence that animals in the area sensed the earthquake before it struck. A thousand chickens reportedly refused to eat and acted wildly. There were also reports that dogs would not stop barking and goldfish jumped out of their bowls.


Although one might generally think that there was some sporadic success at giving early warning, it would be best to read the section on earthquake prediction, for further information. Seismic hazard map of the San Francisco Bay Area, showing the probability of a major earthquake occurring by 2032 An earthquake prediction is a prediction that an earthquake of a specific magnitude will occur at a specific location and time. ...


Qinglong District Damage Prevention

One county in the Tangshan area was warned about the earthquake up to two years in advance [1]. This allowed officials to educate the people in the area about how to deal with major earthquakes. After monitoring stations detected the water was getting muddy the whole county started holding classes outside and preparing for a great quake.


As a result of their warning and public integration no one was killed in the county by the earthquake (except for one man who died of a heart attack). This is an example of the integration of scientific information and public administration. A myocardial infarction occurs when an atherosclerotic plaque slowly builds up in the inner lining of a coronary artery and then suddenly ruptures, totally occluding the artery and preventing blood flow downstream. ...


Damage

The large loss of life caused by the earthquake can be attributed to the time it struck and how suddenly it struck. The earthquake lacked foreshocks that usually come with earthquakes of this magnitude. It also struck at just before 4 AM leaving many people unprepared as they lay asleep. A foreshock is a small earthquake occurring before a main earthquake. ...


Tangshan was thought to be in a region with a relatively low risk of earthquakes. Very few buildings had been built to withstand an earthquake, and the city lies on unstable alluvial soil. Alluvium is soil land deposited by a river or other running water. ...


The earthquake devastated the city over an area roughly 4 miles by 5 miles. Many of the people who survived the initial earthquake were trapped under collapsed buildings and killed by a 7.1 magnitude aftershock 15 hours after the initial tremor; several aftershocks in the 5.0–5.5 range followed later. 78% of the industrial buildings, 93% of the residential buildings, 80% of the water pumping stations, and 14% of the sewage pipes in Tangshan were destroyed or severely damaged. A mile is any of several units of distance, or, in physics terminology, of length. ... Aftershocks are earthquakes in the same region of the mainshock (generally within a few rupture length) but of smaller magnitude and which occur with in a pattern that follows Omoris law. ...


The seismic waves spread far, with damage in cities like Qinghuangdao and Tianjin, and a few buildings as far away as Beijing, 140 km from the epicenter, were damaged. Even cities as far as Xi'an felt the tremors of the earthquake. Categories: China geography stubs | Cities in China ... Tianjin (Chinese: 天津; pinyin: ; Postal System Pinyin: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of the Peoples Republic of China. ... â–¶(?) (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Pei-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Peking) is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... A kilometre (American spelling: kilometer), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1000 metres (from the Greek words χίλια (khilia) = thousand and μέτρο (metro) = count/measure). ... City nickname: Changan Location Location of Xian Government City Shaanxi Mayor Sun Qingyun Physical characteristics Area      Land      Water 9,983 km²      9,983 km²      0. ...


Death toll

Deadliest earthquakes
Rank Earthquake Country Year Fatalities
1 Shaanxi China 1556 830,000
2 Indian Ocean nr. Indonesia 2004 275,000
3 Tangshan China 1976 242,000
4 "Aleppo" Syria 1138 230,000
5 "Gansu" China 1920 c. 200,000
Main article: List of earthquakes

The Tangshan earthquake killed 242,419 people according to official figures, though some sources estimate a death toll up to three times higher. This would make it the deadliest earthquake in modern times, and the second or third deadliest in recorded history. Due to uncertainties over the number of dead in each case it is not clear whether the tsunami caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake caused a greater loss of life than the Tangshan earthquake: the confirmed death toll from the tsunami ranges from 228,000 to 288,000. Other earthquakes that have caused an extreme loss of life since 1900 include: Map of China showing Shaanxi province (red) and the other provinces affected by the earthquake (orange) The Shaanxi earthquake or Hua County Earthquake is the deadliest earthquake on record, killing approximately 830,000 people. ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... For other uses, see number 1138. ... 1920 (MCMXX) is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... The following is a list of major earthquakes. ... The tsunami that struck Malé in the Maldives on December 26, 2004. ... The December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami hits Thailand The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, known by the scientific community as the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, was an undersea earthquake that occurred at 00:58:53 UTC (07:58:53 local time) on December 26, 2004. ... 1900 (MCM) is a common year starting on Monday. ...

  • the earthquake of 1927 in Xining, Qinghai, China which killed 200,000;
  • the Great Kantō earthquake which killed 143,000 in Tokyo in 1923; and
  • the Gansu, China earthquake killed 200,000 in 1920.

The deadliest known earthquake in history occurred in 1556 in Shaanxi, China. The 1556 Shaanxi earthquake is estimated to have killed 830,000 people in China, although reliable figures from this time period are hard to verify. [2] 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Xining (Simplified Chinese : 西宁, Traditional Chinese : 西寧, Tibetan : Ziling) is the capital of Qinghai Province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Qinghai (Chinese: 青海; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-hai; Postal System Pinyin: Tsinghai) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, named after the enormous Qinghai Lake (Koko Nor). ... Great Kanto Earthquake The Great Kanto Earthquake (関東大震災 Kantō daishinsai) struck the Kanto plain on the Japanese main island of Honshu at 11:58 on the morning of September 1, 1923. ... Long a symbol of Tokyo, the Nijubashi Bridge at the Kokyo Imperial Palace. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, or modified as Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... 1920 (MCMXX) is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... Shaanxi (Simplified Chinese: 陕西; Traditional Chinese: 陝西; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shensi, pronounced like Shahn-shee) is a north-central province of the Peoples Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess Plateau on the middle reaches of the Yellow River as... Map of China showing Shaanxi province (red) and the other provinces affected by the earthquake (orange) The Shaanxi earthquake or Hua County Earthquake is the deadliest earthquake on record, killing approximately 830,000 people. ...


Aftermath

The People's Republic of China government refused to accept international aid, and its own efforts were criticized as inadequate. It was also criticized for having ignored scientists' warnings of the need to prepare for an earthquake. The earthquake came as an event in the continuous "Curse of 1976" in China: it was preceded by the deaths of Zhou Enlai and Zhu De in earlier months and followed two months later by the death of Mao Zedong and the Gang of Four trying to grab power. Zhou Enlai (Simplified Chinese: 周恩来; Traditional Chinese: 周恩來; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chou En-lai) (March 5, 1898 – January 8, 1976), a prominent Chinese Communist leader, was Premier of the Peoples Republic of China from 1949 until his death. ... Zhu De Zhū Dé (朱德, Wade-Giles: Chu Teh, zi: Yùjiē 玉阶) (December 1, 1886 - July 6, 1976) was a Chinese Communist military leader and statesman. ... ▶(?) (December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976; Mao Tse-tung in Wade-Giles) was the chairman of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China from 1943 and the chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China from 1945 until his death. ... The Gang of Four on trial The Gang of Four (Simplified Chinese: 四人帮; Traditional Chinese: 四人幫; pinyin: ) was a group of Communist Party leaders in the Peoples Republic of China who were arrested and removed from their positions in 1976, following the death of Mao Zedong, and were blamed for the...


The political repercussions of the disaster and its aftermath contributed to the end of the Cultural Revolution in China [3]. The Gang of Four accused Deng Xiaoping of sabotaging relief efforts as part of its "Criticize Rightist Deviationism" campaign. Mao's chosen successor Hua Guofeng took the opportunity to show concern, thereby solidifying his status as China's paramount leader. He, with Chen Yonggui, made a personal visit to Tangshan on August 4 to survey the damage. This visit earned him considerable prestige and two months later, he staged what amounted to a coup by arresting the Gang of Four. A poster during the Cultural Revolution. ... Deng Xiaoping Deng Xiaoping (?) (Simplified Chinese: 邓小平; Traditional Chinese: 鄧小平; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904—February 19, 1997) was a revolutionary elder in the Communist Party of China (CPC) who served as the de facto ruler of the Peoples Republic of China from the late 1970s... Hua Guofeng (Simplified Chinese: 华国锋; Traditional Chinese: 華國鋒; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hua Kuo-feng) (born February 16, 1921) was Mao Zedongs designated successor as leader of the Communist Party of China and the Peoples Republic of China. ... August 4 is the 216th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (217th in leap years), with 149 days remaining. ...


Rebuilding started immediately in Tangshan, and the city was eventually completely rebuilt. It now houses more than a million people and is known as "Brave City of China."


See also

The following is a list of major earthquakes. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
China marks 30th anniversary of Tangshan earthquake (484 words)
Tangshan, Hebei -- More than 1,000 people took part in commemoration activities Friday morning in Tangshan, northern Hebei Province, to mark the 30th anniversary of the terrible earthquake which killed more than 240,000 people there.
Zhang He, secretary of the CPC Tangshan City Committee, said that citizens have gradually stepped out of the shadow of the quake and a new Tangshan with a robust economy, a stable society and happy citizens has been born from the ruins and debris.
An earthquake measuring 7.8 on the Richter scale razed Tangshan, 200 kilometers east of Beijing, early in the morning of July 28, 1976, leaving 242,769 people dead and 164,851 critically injured.
Earthquake - Academic Kids (1463 words)
Earthquakes, especially those that occur beneath oceans or seas, can give rise to tsunamis, either as a direct result of the deformation of the sea bed due to the earthquake, or as a result of submarine landslips or "slides" indirectly triggered by it.
Earthquake effects are described in terms of intensity, a scale which attempts to quantify the severity of shaking at a given location.
Earthquakes such as these, that are caused by human activity, are referred to by the term induced seismicity.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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