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Encyclopedia > Tang Dynasty

Tang

618 – 907
Location of Tang Dynasty
China under the Tang Dynasty (teal) circa 700 AD
Capital Chang'an
(618–904)

Luoyang
(904–907)
Language(s) Chinese
Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion
Government Monarchy
Emperor
 - 618–626 Emperor Gaozu, 1st
 - 626–649 Emperor Taizong, 2nd
 - 649–683 Emperor Gaozong, 3rd
 - 684–684 Emperor Zhongzong, 4th
 - 684–690 Emperor Ruizong, 5th
 - 690–705 Empress Wu, founded Zhou dynasty
History
 - Li Yuan taking over the throne of the Sui Dynasty June 18, 618
 - disestablished by Wu Zetian October 16, 690
 - Re-established March 3, 705
 - Zhu Quanzhong usurps authority; the end of Tang rule June 4, 907
The Tang Dynasty was interrupted briefly by the Second Zhou Dynasty (16 October 690 – 3 March 705) when Empress Wu Zetian seized the throne.
This article contains Chinese text.
Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.
History of China
ANCIENT
3 Sovereigns and 5 Emperors
Xia Dynasty 2100–1600 BC
Shang Dynasty 1600–1046 BC
Zhou Dynasty 1122–256 BC
  Western Zhou
  Eastern Zhou
    Spring and Autumn Period
    Warring States Period
IMPERIAL
Qin Dynasty 221 BC–206 BC
Han Dynasty 206 BC–220 AD
  Western Han
  Xin Dynasty
  Eastern Han
Three Kingdoms 220–280
  Wei, Shu & Wu
Jin Dynasty 265–420
  Western Jin
  Eastern Jin 16 Kingdoms
304–439
Southern & Northern Dynasties 420–589
Sui Dynasty 581–618
Tang Dynasty 618–907
  ( Second Zhou 690–705 )
5 Dynasties &
10 Kingdoms

907–960
Liao Dynasty
907–1125
Song Dynasty
960–1279
  Northern Song W. Xia Dyn.
  Southern Song Jin Dyn.
Yuan Dynasty 1271–1368
Ming Dynasty 1368–1644
Qing Dynasty 1644–1911
MODERN
Republic of China 1912–1949
People's Republic
of China
1949–present

   1949-1976
   1976-1989
   1989-2002
   2002-present Tang Dynasty (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a Chinese heavy metal band that is often credited as the first heavy metal band in China. ... The Sui Dynasty of China amongst the Asian, African, and European spheres of the world, 600 AD. The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-618 AD[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: 五代十國 Simplified Chinese: 五代十国 Hanyu pinyin: WÇ”dàishíguó) (907-960) was a period of political upheaval in China, between the Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... For other uses, see Changan (disambiguation). ... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Buddhism, a Dharmic faith, is usually considered one of the worlds major religions, with between 230 to 500 million followers. ... Taoism (pronounced or ; also spelled Daoism) refers to a variety of related philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... Clothed statues of Matsu/Mazu (Chinese goddess of the Sea) Chinese folk religion comprises the religion practiced in much of China for thousands of years which included ancestor veneration and drew heavily upon concepts and beings within Chinese mythology. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Emperor GāozÇ” of Táng China (566 - June 25, 635), born Lǐ Yuān, was the founder of the Tang Dynasty of China, and the first emperor of this dynasty from 618 to 626. ... Emperor Taizong of Tang China (Chinese: , January 23, 599–July 10, 649), born LÄ­ ShìMín (Chinese: ), was the second emperor of the Tang Dynasty of China from 626 to 649. ... Emperor Gaozong (628 - 683) was the third emperor of Tang Dynasty in China and he ruled from 649 to 683. ... Zhongzong (656-710) was fourth and seventh Emperor of the Tang Dynasty of China, ruling briefly in 684 and again from 705 to 710. ... Emperor Ruizong 唐睿宗, born Li Dan 李旦(662-716), was the fifth and ninth emperor of Tang Dynasty. ... Wu Zetian (武則天) (625 - December 16, 705), personal name Wu Zhao (武曌), was the only female emperor in the history of China, founding her own dynasty, the Zhou (周), and ruling under the name Emperor Shengshen (聖神皇帝) from 690 to 705. ... Categories: China-related stubs | Tang Dynasty emperors ... The Sui Dynasty of China amongst the Asian, African, and European spheres of the world, 600 AD. The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-618 AD[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events End of the Sui Dynasty and beginning of the Tang Dynasty in China. ... Wu Zetian (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (625 – December 16, 705), personal name Wu Zhao (武曌), was the only woman in the history of China to assume the title of Emperor. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Beginning of Wu Zetians Zhou Dynasty in China. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Alternate meaning: Area code 705 Events End of the short-lived Zhou Dynasty in China Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik succeeded by al-Walid I ibn Abd al-Malik. ... Zhu Quanzhong 朱全忠, originally named Zhu Wen 朱温 (852–912), was a jiedushi (節度使, military governor) at the end of the Tang dynasty. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Oleg leads Kievan Rus in a campaign against Constantinople Yelü Abaoji establishes Liao (Khitan) dynasty Births Deaths Categories: 907 ... Wu Zetian (武則天) (625 - December 16, 705), personal name Wu Zhao (武曌), was the only female emperor in the history of China, founding her own dynasty, the Zhou (周), and ruling under the name Emperor Shengshen (聖神皇帝) from 690 to 705. ... Wu Zetian (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (625 – December 16, 705), personal name Wu Zhao (武曌), was the only woman in the history of China to assume the title of Emperor. ... Image File history File links Zhongwen. ... The UTF-8-encoded Japanese Wikipedia article for mojibake, as displayed in ISO-8859-1 encoding. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A Chinese character or Han character (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, rarely Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... Image File history File links History_of_China. ... The History of China is told in traditional historical records that refer as far back as the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... The Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: San-huang wu-ti) were mythological rulers of China during the period from c. ... For the Sixteen Kingdoms Period state, see Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms). ... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ... This article is about the ancient Chinese dynasty. ... Alternative meaning: Zhou Dynasty (690 CE - 705 CE) The Zhou Dynasty (周朝; Wade-Giles: Chou Dynasty) (late 10th century BC to late 9th century BC - 256 BC) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ... Alternative meaning: Zhou Dynasty (690 CE - 705 CE) The Zhou Dynasty (周朝; Wade-Giles: Chou Dynasty) (late 10th century BC to late 9th century BC - 256 BC) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ... The Spring and Autumn Period (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was a period in Chinese history, which roughly corresponds to the first half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty (from the second half of the 8th century BC to the first half of the 5th century). ... Warring States redirects here. ... Qin Dynasty in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded by the... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (206 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–220 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... The Xin Dynasty (Chinese: 新朝; Hanyu Pinyin: xÄ«n cháo; meaning New Dynasty; 8-23) was a dynasty (even though, contrary to the usual meaning of a dynasty, it had but one emperor) in Chinese history. ... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... The Three Kingdoms period (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a period in the history of China, part of an era of disunity called the Six Dynasties. ... The territories of Cao Wei (in yellow), AD 262 Capital Luoyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 220 - 226 Cao Pi  - 226 - 239 Cao Rui  - 239 - 254 Cao Fang  - 254 - 260 Cao Mao  - 260 - 265 Cao Huan Historical era Three Kingdoms  - Cao Pi taking over the throne of the Later... The Kingdom of Shu (蜀 shǔ) (221 – 263) was one of the Three Kingdoms competing for control of China after the fall of the Han Dynasty. ... The territories of Eastern Wu (in green), AD 262 Capital Jianye Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 222 - 252 Sun Quan  - 252 - 258 Sun Liang  - 258 - 264 Sun Xiu  - 264 - 280 Sun Hao Historical era Three Kingdoms  - Establishment 222  - Sun Quan declares himself emperor 229  - Conquest of Wu by Jin... The Jìn Dynasty (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; 265–420), one of the Six Dynasties, followed the Three Kingdoms period and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin jìn, 265-420) followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin jìn, 265-420) followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... The Sixteen Kingdoms, or less commonly the Sixteen States, were a collection of numerous short-lived sovereignities in the China proper and neighboring areas from AD 304 to 439 after the retreat of the Jin Dynasty (265-420) to South China and before the establishment of the Northern Dynasties. ... This article is about China. ... The Sui Dynasty of China amongst the Asian, African, and European spheres of the world, 600 AD. The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-618 AD[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... Wu Zetian (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (625 – December 16, 705), personal name Wu Zhao (武曌), was the only woman in the history of China to assume the title of Emperor. ... Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: 五代十國 Simplified Chinese: 五代十国 Hanyu pinyin: WÇ”dàishíguó) (907-960) was a period of political upheaval in China, between the Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty. ... The Liao Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Liáo Cháo), 907-1125, also known as the Khitan Empire, was an empire in northern China that ruled over the regions of Manchuria, Mongolia, and parts of northern China proper. ... For other uses, see Liu Song Dynasty. ... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... Location of Western Xia in 1142 Capital Xingqing Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1038-1048 Emperor Jingzong  - 1226-1227 Emperor Modi History  - Established 1038  - Surrendered to the Mongol Empire 1227 Population  - peak est. ... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... The JÄ«n Dynasty (Jurchen: Anchu; Chinese: 金朝; Pinyin: ; 1115-1234), also known as the Jurchen dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan (完顏 Wányán) clan of the Jurchen, the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty some 500 years later. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... ‹ The template below (History of China - BC) is being considered for deletion. ... The history of the Peoples Republic of China details the history of mainland China since October 1, 1949, when, after a near complete victory by the Communist Party of China (CPC) in the Chinese Civil War, Mao Zedong proclaimed the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) from atop Tiananmen... Main articles: History of China and History of the Peoples Republic of China The history of the Peoples Republic of China is often divided distinctly by historians into the Mao era and the post-Mao era. The Mao era lasted from the founding of the Peoples Republic... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // After the June 4th Incident, a large number of overseas Chinese students were granted political refuge almost unconditionally by foreign governments. ... // In November 2002 Jiang Zemin stepped down from the powerful Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China to make way for a younger fourth generation of leadership led by Hu Jintao. ...

Republic of China
(on Taiwan)
1945-present
National motto: None Official language Mandarin Chinese Capital and largest city Taipei President Chen Shui-bian Premier Frank Hsieh Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 138th 35,980 km² 2. ...

Dynasties in Chinese History
Economic History of China
Historiography of China
History of Chinese Art
History of Education in China
History of Science and Technology in China
Legal History of China
Linguistic History of China
Military History of China
Naval History of China
Timeline of Chinese History
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The Tang Dynasty (Chinese: 唐朝; pinyin: Táng Cháo; Middle Chinese: dhɑng[1]) (June 18, 618June 4, 907) was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. It was founded by the Li (李) family, who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire. The dynasty was interrupted briefly by the Second Zhou Dynasty (October 16, 690March 3, 705) when Empress Wu Zetian seized the throne, becoming the first and only Chinese empress regnant, ruling in her own right. The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese history. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Chinese historiography refers to the study of methods and assumptions made in studying Chinese history. ... Chinese art is art that, whether ancient or modern, originated in or is practiced in China or by Chinese artists or performers. ... The Chinese education was accompanied with the birth of Chinese civilization. ... The history of science and technology in China is both long and rich with science and technological contribution. ... The origin of the current law of the Peoples Republic of China can be traced back to the period of the early 1930s, during the establishment of the Chinese Soviet Republic. ... Chinese or the Sinitic language(s) (汉语/漢語, Pinyin: HànyÇ”; 华语/華語, HuáyÇ”; or 中文, Zhōngwén) can be considered a language or language family. ... The military history of China extends from about 1500 BCE to the present day. ... There was archieve dating back very early about the ancient navy of China. ... The following is a timeline of the history of China. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Middle Chinese (traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: zhōnggÇ” HànyÇ”), or Ancient Chinese as used by linguist Bernhard Karlgren, refers to the Chinese language spoken during Southern and Northern Dynasties and the Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties (6th century - 10th century). ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events End of the Sui Dynasty and beginning of the Tang Dynasty in China. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Oleg leads Kievan Rus in a campaign against Constantinople Yelü Abaoji establishes Liao (Khitan) dynasty Births Deaths Categories: 907 ... The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese history. ... The Sui Dynasty of China amongst the Asian, African, and European spheres of the world, 600 AD. The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-618 AD[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: 五代十國 Simplified Chinese: 五代十国 Hanyu pinyin: WÇ”dàishíguó) (907-960) was a period of political upheaval in China, between the Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Beginning of Wu Zetians Zhou Dynasty in China. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Alternate meaning: Area code 705 Events End of the short-lived Zhou Dynasty in China Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik succeeded by al-Walid I ibn Abd al-Malik. ... Wu Zetian (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (625 – December 16, 705), personal name Wu Zhao (武曌), was the only woman in the history of China to assume the title of Emperor. ... Cleopatra is one of the most well-known queens regnant A queen regnant (plural queens regnant) is a woman monarch possessing and exercising all of the monarchal powers of a king, in contrast with a queen consort, who is the wife of a reigning king, and in and of her...


The Tang Dynasty, with its capital at Chang'an (present-day Xi'an), the most populous city in the world at the time, is regarded by historians as a high point in Chinese civilization — equal to or surpassing that of the earlier Han Dynasty — as well as a golden age of cosmopolitan culture. Its territory, acquired through the military campaigns of its early rulers, was greater than that of the Han period, and rivaled that of the later Yuan Dynasty and Qing Dynasty. The enormous Grand Canal of China, built during the previous Sui Dynasty, facilitated the rise of new urban settlements along its route as well as increased trade between mainland Chinese markets. The canal is to this day the longest in the world. In two censuses of the 7th and 8th centuries, the Tang records stated that the population (by number of registered households) was about 50 million people.[2][3][4]a[›] However, even when the central government was breaking down and unable to exact an accurate census of the population in the 9th century, it is estimated that the population in that century had grown to the size of about 80 million people.[5][6] With its large population base, the Tang was able to raise professional and conscripted armies of hundreds of thousands of troops to contend with powers such as Tibet in dominating Inner Asia and the lucrative trade routes along the Silk Road. Various kingdoms and states paid tribute to the Tang court, while the Tang also conquered or subdued several regions which it indirectly controlled through a protectorate system. Besides political hegemony, the Tang also exerted a powerful cultural influence over neighboring states such as those in Korea and Japan. For other uses, see Changan (disambiguation). ... Xian redirects here. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (206 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–220 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Grand Canal of China The Grand Canal of China (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the longest ancient canal or artificial river in the world. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... The term China proper is usually used to refer to the historical heartlands of China, and to make a contrast between these heartlands and frontier regions of Outer China (Inner Asia). ... For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ... The following is a list of tributaries of Imperial China. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ...


In Chinese history, the Tang Dynasty was largely a period of progress and stability, except during the An Shi Rebellion and the decline of central authority in the latter half of the dynasty. Like the previous Sui Dynasty, the Tang Dynasty maintained a civil service system by drafting officials through standardized examinations and recommendations to office. This civil order was undermined by the rise of regional military governors known as jiedushi during the 9th century. Chinese culture flourished and further matured during the Tang era; it is considered the greatest age for Chinese poetry.[7] Two of China's most famous historical poets, Du Fu and Li Bai, belonged to this age, as well as the poets Meng Haoran, Du Mu, and Bai Juyi. Many famous visual artists lived during this era, such as the renowned painters Han Gan, Zhang Xuan, and Zhou Fang. There was a rich variety of historical literature compiled by scholars, as well as encyclopedias and books on geography. There were many notable innovations during the Tang, including the development of woodblock printing, the escapement mechanism in horology, the government compilations of materia medicas, improvements in cartography and the application of hydraulics to power air conditioning fans. The religious and philosophical ideology of Buddhism became a major aspect of Chinese culture, with native Chinese sects becoming the most prominent. However, Buddhism would eventually be persecuted by the state and would decline in influence. Although the dynasty and central government were in decline by the 9th century, art and culture continued to flourish. The weakened central government largely withdrew from managing the economy, but the country's mercantile affairs stayed intact and commercial trade continued to thrive regardless. The History of China is told in traditional historical records that refer as far back as the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... The An Shi Rebellion (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) took place in China during the Tang Dynasty, from December 16, 755 to February 17, 763. ... The Roman civil service in action. ... Scholar-bureaucrats or scholar-officials were civil servants appointed by the emperor of China to perform day-to-day governance during the Qing Dynasty. ... The imperial examinations (Chinese: 科舉; Pinyin: ) in dynastic China determined positions in the civil service based on merit and education, which promoted upward mobility among the population for centuries. ... The Jiedushi (T: 節度使 S: 节度使) were regional military governors in China during the Tang Dynasty and the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. ... For contemporary culture after 1949, see Culture of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong Hand-painted Chinese New Years duilian (對聯 couplet), a by-product of Chinese poetry, pasted on the sides of doors leading to peoples homes, at Lijiang City, Yunnan Poetry is the most highly regarded literary genre in ancient China. ... Du Fu (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Tu Fu, 712–770) was a prominent Chinese poet of the Tang Dynasty. ... Li Po redirects here. ... Meng Haoran (孟浩然) (pinyin: Mèng Hàorán; Wade-Giles: Meng Hao-jan) (689 or 691 - 740) was a Chinese poet during the Tang dynasty. ... Du Mu (杜牧, pinyin: Dù Mù, 803 - 852) was a leading realistic Chinese poet of the late Tang dynasty. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Bai. ... Han Gan (simp. ... Zhang Xuan (Chinese: 張萱; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chang Hsüan) was a Chinese painter who lived in the 8th century, during the Tang Dynasty. ... Zhou Fang (c740-c800, Chinese characters 周昉, Wade-Giles Chou Fang) was one of two influential painters during the mid-Tang dynasty. ... Chinese historiography refers to the study of methods and assumptions made in studying Chinese history. ... Yuan Dynasty woodblock edition of a Chinese play For the use of the technique in art, see Woodcut on the technique, and Old master print for the history in Europe and woodblock printing in Japan. ... A simple escapement. ... Horology is the study of the science and art of timekeeping devices. ... Materia medica is a Latin term for any material or substance used in the composition of curative agents in medicine. ... Cartography or mapmaking (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) is the study and practice of making maps or globes. ... Note: in the broadest sense, air conditioning can refer to any form of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning. ... For other uses, see Fan. ... Buddhism, a Dharmic faith, is usually considered one of the worlds major religions, with between 230 to 500 million followers. ... Seated Buddha, from the Chinese Tang Dynasty, Hebei province, ca. ... Central government or the national government (or, in federal states, the federal government) is the government at the level of the nation-state. ...

Contents

History

Establishment

Main article: Transition from Sui to Tang

The Li family belonged to the northwest military aristocracy prevalent during the reign of the Sui emperors.[8][9] The mothers of both Emperor Yang of Sui (r. 604–617) and the founding emperor of Tang were sisters, making these two emperors of different dynasties first cousins.[2] Li Yuan (later to become Emperor Gaozu of Tang, r. 618–626) was the Duke of Tang and former governor of Taiyuan when other government officials were fighting off bandit leaders in the collapse of the Sui Empire, caused in part by a failed Korean campaign.[8][10] With prestige and military experience, he later rose in rebellion along with his son Li Shimin (later Emperor Taizong, r. 626–649) and his equally militant daughter Princess Pingyang (d. 623) who raised her own troops and commanded them.[11] In 617, Li Yuan occupied Chang'an and acted as regent over a puppet child emperor of the Sui, relegating Emperor Yang to the position of Taishang Huang, or retired emperor.[11] With the news of Emperor Yang's murder by his general Yuwen Huaji (d. 619), on June 18, 618, Li Yuan declared himself the emperor of a new dynasty, the Tang.[11][12] The transition from Sui to Tang (Traditional Chinese: 隋末唐初) refers to a period in which the Chinese dynasty Sui Dynasty disintegrated into a number of short-lived states, some ruled by former Sui officials and generals and some by agrarian rebel leaders, and then those states were consolidated into Tang Dynasty... Look up Li in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Sui Dynasty of China amongst the Asian, African, and European spheres of the world, 600 AD. The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-618 AD[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... Emperor Yang of Sui China (569 - March 11, 618), or Yangdi was the son and heir of Emperor Wen of Sui, and then the second emperor of Chinas Sui Dynasty. ... Twice removed redirects here. ... Emperor GāozÇ” of Táng China (566 - June 25, 635), born Lǐ Yuān, was the founder of the Tang Dynasty of China, and the first emperor of this dynasty from 618 to 626. ... Taiyuan (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Tai-yüan lit. ... Combatants Goguryeo (Korea) Sui Dynasty (China) Commanders King Yeongyang Eulji Mundeok Gang I sik Go Geon Mu Sui Yangdi Yuwen Shu Yu Zhongwen Lai Huer Zhou Luohou Strength approximately 200,000 1,138,000 foot soldiers and total of more than 3,000,000 in invasion of 612 The... Emperor Taizong of Tang China (Chinese: , January 23, 599–July 10, 649), born LÄ­ ShìMín (Chinese: ), was the second emperor of the Tang Dynasty of China from 626 to 649. ... Princess Píngyáng (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ) was the daughter of Li Yuan of the Tang Dynasty. ... For other uses, see Changan (disambiguation). ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... Emperor Gong of the Sui Dynasty (617-618), or Gongdi was the last emperor of Chinas Sui dynasty. ... Taishang Huang (Chinese: 太上皇, tàishàng huáng) was a Chinese title, sometimes translated in English as Grand Emperor or Emperor Emeritus, used all across Eastern Asia for a retired emperor. ... Yuwen Huaji (宇文化及) (d. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events End of the Sui Dynasty and beginning of the Tang Dynasty in China. ...


Li Yuan ruled until 626 before being forcefully deposed by his son Li Shimin, Prince of Qin. Li Shimin had commanded troops since the age of 18, had prowess with a bow, sword, lance, and was known for his effective cavalry charges.[2][13] Fighting a numerically superior army, he defeated Dou Jiande (573–621) at Luoyang in the Battle of Hulao on May 28, 621.[14][15] In a violent elimination of royal family due to fear of assassination, Li Shimin ambushed and killed two of his brothers, Li Yuanji (b. 603) and Crown Prince Li Jiancheng (b. 589) in the Incident at Xuanwu Gate on July 2, 626.[16] Shortly after, his father abdicated in favor of him and he ascended the throne as Emperor Taizong. Although killing two brothers and deposing his father contradicted the Confucian value of filial piety,[16] Taizong showed to be a capable leader who listened to the advice of the wisest members of his council.[2] In 628, Emperor Taizong held a Buddhist memorial service for the casualties of war, and in 629 had Buddhist monasteries erected at the sites of major battles so that monks could pray for the fallen on both sides of the fight.[17] This was during the campaign against Eastern Tujue, a Göktürk khanate that was destroyed after the capture of Jiali Khan Ashini Duobi by the famed Tang military officer Li Jing (571–649), who later became a Chancellor of the Tang Dynasty. With this victory, the Turks accepted Taizong as their Khagan, or Great Khan, in addition to his rule as the Son of Heaven.[18][19] This article is about the projectile weapon bow. ... The term lance has become a catchall for a variety of different pole weapons based on the spear. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... Dou Jiande (竇建德) (573-621) was a leader of the agrarian rebels who rose against the rule of Emperor Yang of Sui near the end of the Chinese dynasty Sui Dynasty. ... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... The Battle of Hulao (May 28, 621), located just east of Luoyang, was a decisive victory for Li Shimin, through which he was able to subdue two warlords, Dou Jiande and Wang Shichong. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events By Place Byzantine Empire Byzantine Emperor Heraclius invades Persia Europe Suinthila succeeds Sisebut as king of the Visigoths. ... Li Yuanji (李元吉) (603-July 2, 626[1]), formally Prince La of Chao (巢剌王), more commonly known by the title of Prince of Qi (齊王), nickname Sanhu (三胡), was an imperial prince of the Chinese Tang Dynasty. ... A Crown Prince or Crown Princess is the heir or heiress apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy. ... Li Jiancheng (李建成) (589-July 2, 626[1]), formally Crown Prince Yin (隱太子, literally, the hidden crown prince), nickname Pishamen (毗沙門), was a crown prince of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty. ... The Incident at Xuanwu Gate (玄武門之變) refers to an incident on July 2, 626[1] when Li Shimin the Prince of Qin, a son of Emperor Gaozu of Tang (the founding emperor of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty), in an intense rivalry with his older brother Li Jiancheng the Crown Prince... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events July 2 - In the early morning, Li Shimin, the future Emperor Tang Taizong of China, eliminated two of his brothers, Li Yuanji and the crown prince Li Jiancheng in a coup détat at the Xuanwu Gate in Changan. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... Filial piety is extended into the afterlife. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia and China. ... Jiali Khan (Bagatur-Shad, Il-khan, Chieli, Kara-Khieli, Hieli, Jiele, Duobi, 咄苾, Illig-Qaghan) was the eleventh qaghan of the Göktürk empire. ... Li Jing (李靖, pinyin: Lǐ Jìng, real name: 药师, pinyin: Yào ShÄ«, C.E. 571-649,) was a real-life Tang Dynasty general who has been assimilated into Chinese mythology. ... The chancellor of the Tang Dynasty (唐朝宰相) was an office that was semi-formally designated for a number of high level officials at one time during the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty. ... Khagan or Great Khan (Old Turkic ; Mongolian: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ; alternatively spelled Chagan, Khaghan, Kagan, KaÄŸan, Qagan, Qaghan), is a title of imperial rank in the Turkic and Mongolian languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a Khaganate (empire, greater than an ordinary Khan, but often... For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ...


Administration and politics

Initial reforms

Portrait painting of Emperor Yang of Sui, commissioned in 643 by Taizong, painted by Yan Liben (600–673).
Portrait painting of Emperor Yang of Sui, commissioned in 643 by Taizong, painted by Yan Liben (600–673).

Taizong set out to solve internal problems within the government which had constantly plagued past dynasties. Building upon the Sui legal code, he issued a new legal code that subsequent Chinese dynasties would model theirs upon, as well as neighboring polities in Vietnam, Korea, and Japan.[2] The earliest law code to survive though was the one established in the year 653, which was divided into 500 articles specifying different crimes and penalties ranging from ten blows with a light stick, one hundred blows with a heavy rod, exile, penal servitude, or execution.[20] The legal code clearly distinguished different levels of severity in meted punishments when different members of the social and political hierarchy committed the same crime.[21] For example, the severity of punishment was different when a servant or nephew killed a master or an uncle than when a master or uncle killed a servant or nephew.[21] The Tang Code was largely retained by later codes such as the early Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) code of 1397,[22] yet there were several revisions in later times, such as improved property rights for women during the Song Dynasty (960–1279).[23][24] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (561 × 845 pixel, file size: 84 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Permission See below. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (561 × 845 pixel, file size: 84 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Permission See below. ... Portrait painting is a genre in painting, where the intent is to depict the visual appearance of the subject, mostly a person, whereas the portrait is expected to show the essence of the subject. ... Emperor Yang of Sui China (569 - March 11, 618), or Yangdi was the son and heir of Emperor Wen of Sui, and then the second emperor of Chinas Sui Dynasty. ... Emperor Taizong of Tang China (Chinese: , January 23, 599–July 10, 649), born LÄ­ ShìMín (Chinese: ), was the second emperor of the Tang Dynasty of China from 626 to 649. ... Yan Liben ( 600 - 673) was a Chinese painter and government official of the early Tang Dynasty. ... A legal code is a moral code enforced by the law of a state. ... The Tang Code (唐律) was the criminal or penal code established during the Tang Dynasty in China. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Funerary vase and cover, green-glazed stoneware in the Longquan celadon style; from Zhejiang province, Northern Song dynasty, 10th or 11th century AD. The Song Dynasty (960–1279) of China was an era of Chinese history renowned for its sophistication, complex infrastructure, and a wide array of cultural achievements. ... For other uses, see Liu Song Dynasty. ...


The Tang had three departments (省, shěng), which were obliged to draft, review, and implement policies respectively. There were also six ministries (部, ) under the administrations that implemented policy, each of which was assigned different tasks. These divisional state bureaus included the personnel administration, finance, rites, military, justice, and public works — an administrative model which would last until the fall of the Qing Dynasty (1644–1912).[25] Although the founders of the Tang related to the glory of the earlier Han Dynasty (202 BC–220 AD), the basis for much of their administrative organization was very similar to the previous Southern and Northern Dynasties.[2] The Northern Zhou (557–581) divisional militia (fubing) was continued by the Tang government, along with farmer-soldiers serving in rotation from the capital or frontier in order to receive appropriated farmland. The equal-field system of the Northern Wei Dynasty (386–534) was also kept, although there were a few modifications.[2] Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (206 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–220 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication... This article is about China. ... The Northern Zhou Dynasty followed the Western Wei, and ruled northern China from 557 to 581. ... The Fubing system (府兵制) was a military service system existing in China between 6th century and 8th century. ... The Equal-field system (Chinese: 均田制度; pinyin: ) land system was a historical system of land ownership and distribution in China used from the Six Dynasties to Mid-Tang dynasty. ... The Northern Wei Dynasty (北魏 386-534) is most noted for the unification of northern China in 440, it was also heavily involved in funding the arts and many antiques and art works from this period have survived. ...

A Tang Dynasty earthenware vase with three-color (sancai) glaze and a bird head spout.
A Tang Dynasty earthenware vase with three-color (sancai) glaze and a bird head spout.

Although the central and local governments kept an enormous number of records about land property in order to assess taxes, it became common practice in the Tang for literate and affluent people to create their own private documents and signed contracts.[26] These had their own signature and that of a witness and scribe in order to prove in court (if necessary) that their claim to property was legitimate.[26] The prototype of this actually existed since the ancient Han Dynasty, while contractual language became even more common and embedded into Chinese literary culture in later dynasties.[26] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (585x949, 167 KB)Tang dynasty jar. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (585x949, 167 KB)Tang dynasty jar. ... Earthenware is a common ceramic material, which is used extensively for pottery tableware and decorative objects. ... Sancai horse, Tang Dynasty, 7-8th century. ... A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. ...


The center of the political power of the Tang was the capital city of Chang'an (modern Xi'an), where the emperor maintained his large palace quarters, and entertained political emissaries with music, sports, acrobatic stunts, poetry, paintings, and dramatic theater performances. The capital was also filled with incredible amounts of riches and resources to spare. When the Chinese prefectural government officials traveled to the capital in the year 643 to give the annual report of the affairs in their districts, Emperor Taizong discovered that many had no proper quarters to rest in, and were renting rooms with merchants.[27] Therefore, Emperor Taizong ordered the government agencies in charge of municipal construction to build every visiting official his own private mansion in the capital.[27] For other uses, see Changan (disambiguation). ... Xian redirects here. ... High wire act Acrobatics (from Greek Akros, high and bat, walking) is one of the performing arts, and is also practiced as a sport. ... The Pear Garden (梨园), the first known opera troupe in China. ... The term prefecture (from the Latin Praefectura) indicates the office, seat, territorial circonscription of a Prefect. ... The term township is used to denote a lower level territorial subdivision. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Imperial examinations

Following the Sui Dynasty's example, the Tang abandoned the nine-rank system in favor of a large civil service system.[28] Students of Confucian studies were potential candidates for the imperial examinations, the graduates of which could be appointed as state bureaucrats in the local, provincial, and central government. There were two types of exams that were given, mingjing ('illuminating the classics examination') and jinshi ('presented scholar examination').[29] The mingjing was based upon the Confucian classics, and tested the student's knowledge of a broad variety of texts.[29] The jinshi tested a student's literary abilities in writing essay-style responses to questions on matters of governance and politics, as well as their skills in composing poetry.[30] Candidates were also judged on their skills of deportment, appearance, speech, and level of skill in calligraphy, all of which were subjective criteria that allowed the already wealthy members of society to be chosen over ones of more modest means who were unable to be educated in rhetoric or fanciful writing skills.[31] Indeed there was a disproportionate number of civil officials coming from aristocratic as opposed to non-aristocratic families.[31] The exams were open to all male subjects whose fathers were not of the artisan or merchant classes,[32] although having wealth or noble status was not a prerequisite in receiving a recommendation.[31] In order to promote widespread Confucian education, the Tang government established state-run schools and issued standard versions of the Five Classics with selected commentaries.[21] The Nine rank system (ch. ... The Roman civil service in action. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... The Imperial examinations (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) in Imperial China determined who among the population would be permitted to enter the states bureaucracy. ... Chinese classic texts or Chinese canonical texts are the classical literature in Chinese culture that are considered to be the best or the most valuable. ... For other uses, see Essay (disambiguation). ... Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong Hand-painted Chinese New Years duilian (對聯 couplet), a by-product of Chinese poetry, pasted on the sides of doors leading to peoples homes, at Lijiang City, Yunnan Poetry is the most highly regarded literary genre in ancient China. ... Contemporary Western Calligraphy. ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... A painting of a gentry scholar with two courtesans, by Tang Yin, c. ... The Five Classics (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a corpus of five ancient Chinese books used by Confucianism as the basis of studies. ...

Tang era gilt-silver ear cup with flower motif
Tang era gilt-silver ear cup with flower motif

This competitive procedure was designed to draw the best talent into government. But perhaps an even greater consideration for the Tang rulers, aware that imperial dependence on powerful aristocratic families and warlords would have destabilizing consequences, was to create a body of career officials having no autonomous territorial or functional power base. The Tang law code ensured equal division of inherited property amongst legitimate heirs, allowing a bit of social mobility and preventing the families of powerful court officials in becoming landed nobility through primogeniture.[33] As it turned out, these scholar-officials acquired status in their local communities and in family ties, while they also shared values that connected them to the imperial court. From Tang times until the end of the Qing Dynasty in 1912, scholar-officials functioned often as intermediaries between the grassroots level and the government. Yet the potential of a widespread examination system was not fully realized until the Song Dynasty, where the merit-driven scholar official largely shed his aristocratic habits and defined his social status through the examination system.[34][35][36] As historian Patricia Ebrey states of the Song period scholar-officials: Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... A gilded Tibetan Vajrasattva Gilding is the art of applying metal leaf (most commonly gold or silver leaf) to a surface. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... A warlord is a person with power who has de facto military control of a subnational area due to armed forces loyal to the warlord and not to a central authority. ... In politics, the term base refers to a group of voters who will almost always support a single partys candidates for United States, this is typically because high-level candidates must hold the same stances on key issues as a partys base in order to gain the party... Social mobility is the degree to which, in a given society, an individuals social status can change throughout the course of their life (known as intragenerational mobility), or the degree to which that individuals offspring and subsequent generations move up and down the class system (intergenerational mobility). ... Landed nobility is a category of nobility in various countries over the history, for which landownership was part of their noble privileges. ... Primogeniture is the common law right of the first born son to inherit the entire estate, to the exclusion of younger siblings. ... Scholar-bureaucrats or scholar-officials were civil servants appointed by the emperor of China to perform day-to-day governance during the Qing Dynasty. ... A grassroots movement (often referenced in the context of a political movement) is one driven by the constituents of a community. ...

The examination system, used only on a small scale in Sui and Tang times, played a central role in the fashioning of this new elite. The early Song emperors, concerned above all to avoid domination of the government by military men, greatly expanded the civil service examination system and the government school system.[37]

Nevertheless, the Sui and Tang dynasties institutionalized and set the foundations for the civil service system and this new elite class of exam-drafted scholar-officials.


Religion and politics

From the onset, religion played a role in Tang politics. In his bid for power, Li Yuan had attracted a following by claiming descent from the Daoist sage Laozi (fl. 6th century BC).[38] People bidding for office would have monks from Buddhist temples pray for them in public in return for cash donations or gifts if the person was to be selected. Before the persecution of Buddhism in the 9th century, Buddhism and Daoism were accepted side by side, and Emperor Xuanzong of Tang (r. 712–756) invited monks and clerics of both religions to his court.[39] At the same time Xuanzong exalted the ancient Laozi by granting him grand titles, wrote commentary on the Daoist Laozi, set up a school to prepare candidates for examinations on Daoist scriptures, and called upon the Indian monk Vajrabodhi (671–741) to perform Tantric rites to avert a drought in the year 726.[39] In 742 Emperor Xuanzong personally held the incense burner during the ceremony of the Ceylonese monk Amoghavajra (705–774) reciting "mystical incantations to secure the victory of Tang forces."[39] In addition, if religion played a role in politics, then politics played a role in religion as well. In the year 714, Emperor Xuanzong forbade shops and vendors in the city of Chang'an to sell copied Buddhist sutras, instead giving the Buddhist clergy of the monasteries the sole right to distribute sutras to the laity.[40] In the previous year of 713, Emperor Xuanzong had liquidated the highly lucrative Inexhaustible Treasury, which was run by a prominent Buddhist monastery in Chang'an. This monastery collected vast amounts of money, silk, and treasures through multitudes of synonymous people's repentances, leaving the donations on the monastery's premise.[41] Although the monastery was generous in donations, Emperor Xuanzong issued a decree abolishing their treasury on grounds that their banking practices were fraudulent, collected their riches, and distributed the wealth to various other Buddhist monasteries, Daoist abbeys, and to repair statues, halls, and bridges in the city.[41] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Emperor Tang Xuanzong (唐玄宗) (September 8, 685 - May 3, 762), born Li Longji (李隆基), was the sixth emperor of the Tang dynasty of China, reigning from 712 to 756. ... Taoism (pronounced or ; also spelled Daoism) refers to a variety of related philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... Laozi (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Lao Tzu; also Lao Tse, Laotze, Lao Zi, and in other ways) was an ancient Chinese philosopher. ... Emperor Tang Xuanzong (唐玄宗) (September 8, 685 - May 3, 762), born Li Longji (李隆基), was the sixth emperor of the Tang dynasty of China, reigning from 712 to 756. ... Vajrabodhi (671-741) was an Indian buddhist monk and Zhen Yan teacher in Tang China. ... Vajrayāna Buddhism (Also known as Tantric Buddhism, Tantrayana, Mantrayana, Mantranaya, Esoteric Buddhism, Diamond Vehicle, or 金剛乘 Jingangcheng in Chinese; however, these terms are not always regarded as equivalent: one scholar[1] speaks of the tantra divisions of some editions of the Kangyur as including Sravakayana, Mahayana and Vajrayana texts) is... To download the Sinhala fonts used in this article, please see the Sinhala Font Guide. ... Amoghavajra (705-774) (in Chinese 不空 Pukong/Pu-kung) was a prolific translator who became one of the most politically powerful Buddhist monks in Chinese history, acknowledged as one of the eight patriarchs of the doctrine in Shingon lineages. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... In religious organizations, the laity comprises all lay persons collectively. ... For other uses, see Changan (disambiguation). ... The history of banking in China includes the business of dealing with money and credit transactions, in China. ...


Taxes and the census

A Man Herding Horses, by Han Gan (706–783), a court artist under Xuanzong.
A Man Herding Horses, by Han Gan (706–783), a court artist under Xuanzong.

The Tang Dynasty government attempted to create an accurate census of the size of their empire's population, mostly for effective taxation and matters of military conscription for each region. The early Tang government established both the grain tax and cloth tax at a relatively low rate for each household under the empire. This was meant to encourage households to enroll for taxation and not avoid the authorities, thus providing the government with the most accurate estimate possible.[2] In the census of 609, the population was tallied by efforts of the government at a size of 9 million households, or about 50 million people.[2] Again, the Tang census of the year 742 approximated the size China's population to about 50 million people.[4] Patricia Ebrey writes that even if a rather significant number of people had avoided the registration process of the tax census, the population size during the Tang had not grown significantly since the earlier Han Dynasty (the census of the year 2 recording a population of 59 million people in China).[2] S.A.M. Adshead disagrees, estimating that there was about 75 million people by 750.[42] In the Tang census of the year 754, there were 1,859 cities, 321 prefectures, and 1,538 counties throughout the empire.[43] Although there were many large and prominent cities during the Tang, the rural and agrarian areas comprised the majority of China's population at some 80 to 90 percent.[44] There was also a dramatic migratory shift of the population from northern to southern China, as the North held 75% of the overall population at the dynasty's inception, but by its end was reduced to 50%.[45] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Han Gan (simp. ... Prefecture, in the context of China, is used to refer to several unrelated political divisions in both ancient and modern China. ... In the context of Political divisions of China, county is the standard English translation of 县 (xiàn). ... Alternative meaning: In geology, North China (continent) and South China (continent) were two ancient landmasses that correspond to modern northern and southern China. ...


Chinese population size would not dramatically increase until the Song Dynasty period, where the population doubled to 100 million people due to extensive rice cultivation in central and southern China, coupled with rural farmers holding more abundant yields of food that they could easily provide the growing market.[46]


Military and foreign policy

The military history of China extends from about 1500 BCE to the present day. ... There was archieve dating back very early about the ancient navy of China. ... Jimi System (羁縻) is the ancient Chinse Tributary State System used between Tang to Ming dynasty, to stands for Han and Yi is one big family “华夷一家”. There are three different Jimi system: Internal minority group regions, the emperor grant local governor the title of position, it run like Autonomous Region, be...

Protectorates and tributaries

A bas-relief of a soldier and horse with elaborate saddle and stirrups, from the tomb of Emperor Taizong, c. 650.
A bas-relief of a soldier and horse with elaborate saddle and stirrups, from the tomb of Emperor Taizong, c. 650.

The 7th century and first half of the 8th century is generally considered the zenith era of the Tang Dynasty. Emperor Tang Xuanzong brought the Middle Kingdom to its golden age while the Silk Road thrived, with sway over Indochina in the south, and to the west Tang China was master of the Pamirs (modern-day Tajikistan) and protector of Kashmir bordering Persia.[47] Some of the kingdoms paying tribute to the Tang Dynasty included Kashmir, Nepal, Khotan, Kucha, Kashgar, Japan, Korea, southern Vietnam, and kingdoms located in Amu Darya and Syr Darya valley.[48][49] Turkic nomads addressed the Emperor of Tang China as Tian Kehan.[19] After the widespread Göktürk revolt of Shabolüe Khan (d. 658) was put down at Issyk Kul in 657 by Su Dingfang (591–667), Emperor Gaozong established several protectorates governed by a Protectorate General or Grand Protectorate General, which extended the Chinese sphere of influence as far as Herat in Western Afghanistan.[50] Protectorate Generals were given a great deal of autonomy to handle local crises without waiting for central admission. After Xuanzong's reign, military governors (jiedushi) were given enormous power, including the ability to maintain their own armies, collect taxes, and pass their titles on hereditarily. It was commonly recognized as the beginning of the fall of Tang's central government.[51][52] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 682 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (709 × 623 pixel, file size: 619 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Permission Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 682 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (709 × 623 pixel, file size: 619 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Permission Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... In the art of sculpture, a relief is an artwork where a modelled form projects out of a flat background. ... A saddle is a seat for a rider fastened to an animals back. ... Haniwa horse statuette, complete with saddle and stirrups, 6th century, Kofun period, Japan. ... All under heaven (Chinese: 天下; pinyin: tiān xi ) is a concept in Chinese history. ... For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ... Indochina 1886 Indochina, or the Indochinese Peninsula, is a region in Southeast Asia. ... A photograph of Ismail Samani Peak (then known as Peak Communism) taken in 1989. ... This article is about the geographical region of greater Kashmir. ... Mosque in Khotan. ... Kucha/Kuchar (Chinese Simplified: 库车; Traditional: 庫車; pinyin KùchÄ“; also romanized as Chiu-tzu, Kiu-che, Kuei-tzu. ... Cascar redirects here. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... South East Asia circa 1100 C.E. Champa territory in green. ... The Amu Darya (Darya means river) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large delta. ... Syr Darya (also known as Syrdarya or Sirdaryo) is a river in Central Asia. ... Tian Kehan (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Tien Kehan) also translated as Heavenly Khagan, Celestial Khagan or Tengri Khagan, was a title addressed to Emperor Taizong of Tang by various Turkic nomads. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Issyk Kul (also Ysyk Köl) is an endorheic lake in the northern Tien Shan mountains in northwestern Kyrgyzstan. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... For the astrodynamics term, see sphere of influence (astrodynamics). ... Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ...


Soldiers and conscription

By the year 737, Emperor Xuanzong discarded the policy of conscripting soldiers that were replaced every three years, replacing them with long-service soldiers who were more battle-hardened and efficient.[53] It was more economically feasible as well, since training new recruits and sending them out to the frontier every three years drained the treasury.[53] Plus, by the late 7th century, the fubing troops began abandoning military service and the homes allotted to them in the equal-field system, because the supposed standard 100 mu of land for each family was in fact decreasing in size in places where population expanded and the rich and wealthy bought up most of the land.[54] Hard-pressed peasants and vagrants were then induced into military service with benefits of exemption from both taxation and corvée labor service, as well as provisions for farmland and dwellings for dependents who accompanied soldiers on the frontier.[55] By the year 742 the total number of enlisted troops in the Tang armies had risen to about 500,000 men.[53] The Chinese units (Chinese: 市制; Pinyin: ; literally market system) are the customary and traditional units of measure used in China. ...


Turk and Western Regions

Main articles: Protectorate General to Pacify the West and Protectorate General to Pacify the North
A Tang period gilt-silver jar with a pattern of dancing horses, shaped in the style of northern nomad's leather bag. The horse is seen dancing with a cup of wine in its mouth, just how the horses of Emperor Xuanzong were trained to do.
A Tang period gilt-silver jar with a pattern of dancing horses, shaped in the style of northern nomad's leather bag.[56] The horse is seen dancing with a cup of wine in its mouth, just how the horses of Emperor Xuanzong were trained to do.[56]

The Sui and Tang had one of the most successful military campaigns against the steppe nomads during its history. In terms of foreign policy to the north and west, the Chinese now had to deal with Turkic nomads, who were becoming the most dominant ethnic group in Central Asia.[57][58] To handle and avoid any threats posed by the Turks, the Sui government repaired fortifications and received their trade and tribute missions.[30] They sent royal princesses off to marry Turkic clan leaders, a total four of them in 597, 599, 614, and 617. The Sui stirred trouble and conflict amongst ethnic groups against the Turks.[59][60] As early as the Sui Dynasty the Turks had become a major militarized force employed by the Chinese. When the Khitans began raiding northeast China in 605, a Chinese general led 20,000 Turks against them, distributing Khitan livestock and women to the Turks as a reward.[3] The Tang, unlike the Sui, did not send royal princesses to their leaders; instead they were married to Turk mercenaries or generals in Chinese service, and such marriages only occurred in two rare occasions between 635 and 636.[60] Throughout the Tang Dynasty until the end of 755, there were approximately ten Turkic generals serving under the Tang.[61][62] While most of the Tang army was made of fubing Chinese conscripts, the majority of the army led by Turkic generals was of non-Chinese origin, campaigning largely in the western frontier where the presence of fubing troops was low.[63] The Protectorate General to Pacify the West or Grand Protectorate General to Pacify the West (Chinese: , 640–790) was a Chinese military government established by Tang Dynasty in 640 to manage and to control the regions of Tian Shan and Pamir Mountains. ... The Protectorate General to Pacify the North or Grand Protectorate General to Pacify the North (647–784) was a Chinese military government established by Tang Dynasty in 647 to manage and to control the former territory of Xueyantuo, which extended from Lake Baikal to the north, the Gobi Desert to... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 800 pixel, file size: 51 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 800 pixel, file size: 51 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... A gilded Tibetan Vajrasattva Gilding is the art of applying metal leaf (most commonly gold or silver leaf) to a surface. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... There are a number of theories regarding the domestication of the horse. ... For the 2006 historical epic set in Kazakhstan, see Nomad (2006 film). ... For other uses, see Leather (disambiguation). ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to... Khitan may refer to: Khitan people Khitan language Khitan script Category: ...


Civil war in China was almost totally diminished by 626, along with the defeat in 628 of the Ordos Chinese warlord Liang Shidu; after these internal conflicts, the Tang began an offensive against the Turks.[64] In the year 630, Tang armies captured areas of the Ordos Desert, modern-day Inner Mongolia province, and southern Mongolia from the Turks.[65][3] After this military victory, Emperor Taizong won the title of Great Khan amongst the various Turks in the region who pledged their allegiance to him and the Chinese empire (with several thousand Turks traveling into China to live at Chang'an). On June 11, 631, Emperor Taizong also sent envoys to the Xueyantuo bearing gold and silk in order to persuade the release of enslaved Chinese prisoners who were captured during the transition from Sui to Tang from the northern frontier; this embassy succeeded in freeing 80,000 Chinese men and women who were then returned to China.[66][67] While the Turks were settled in the Ordos region (former territory of the Xiongnu), the Tang government took on the military policy of dominating the central steppe. Like the earlier Han Dynasty, the Tang Dynasty (along with Turkic allies) conquered and subdued Central Asia during the 640s and 650s.[30] During Emperor Taizong's reign alone, large campaigns were launched against not only the Göktürks, but also separate campaigns against the Tuyuhun, the Tufan, the Xiyu states, and the Xueyantuo. Ordos Desert 1912 The Ordos Desert (Chinese: 鄂尔多斯沙漠; Pinyin: ÈěrduōsÄ« Shāmò) is a desert and steppe region lying on a plateau in the south of the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Liang Shidu (梁師都) (d. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Battle of Wogastisburg between Slavs led by Samo and Dagobert I, king of the Franks Births Deaths Categories: 631 ... Xueyantuo (薛延陀) were an ancient Tiele people and khanate in central/northern Asia who were at one point vassals of Tujue, who later aligned with Chinas Tang Dynasty against Eastern Tujue. ... The transition from Sui to Tang (Traditional Chinese: 隋末唐初) refers to a period in which the Chinese dynasty Sui Dynasty disintegrated into a number of short-lived states, some ruled by former Sui officials and generals and some by agrarian rebel leaders, and then those states were consolidated into Tang Dynasty... A Xiongnu belt buckle. ... This article is about the ecological zone type. ... The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia and China. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ...

A tomb guard (wushi yong), terracotta sculpture, Tang Dynasty, early 8th century.
A tomb guard (wushi yong), terracotta sculpture, Tang Dynasty, early 8th century.

The Tang Empire fought with the Tibetan Empire for control of areas in Inner and Central Asia, which was at times settled with marriage alliances such as the marrying of Princess Wencheng (d. 680) to Songtsän Gampo (d. 649).[68][69] There was a long string of conflicts with Tibet over territories in the Tarim Basin between 670–692 and in 763 the Tibetans even captured the capital of China, Chang'an, for fifteen days amidst the An Shi Rebellion.[70][71] In fact, it was during this rebellion that the Tang withdrew its western garrisons stationed in what is now Gansu and Qinghai, which the Tibetans then occupied along with the territory of what is now Xinjiang.[72] Hostilities between the Tang and Tibet continued until they signed a formal peace treaty in 821.[73] The terms of this treaty, including the fixed borders between the two countries, are recorded in a bilingual inscription on a stone pillar outside the Jokhang temple in Lhasa.[74] Terra cotta is a hard semifired waterproof ceramic clay used in pottery and building construction. ... Tibetan plateau Tibet is situated between the two ancient civilizations of China and India, but the tangled mountain ranges of the Tibetan Plateau and the towering Himalayas serve to distance it from both. ... The Heqin (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; literally peace marriage) is a term used in ancient China for a marriage alliance. ... The Chinese Princess Wencheng (Tibetan: Mung-chang Kungco, (Traditional Chinese: 文成公主, pinyin: Wénchéng GōngzhÇ”) (d. ... A statue of King Songtsän Gampo in his meditation cave at Yerpa Songtsen Gampo, Song-btsan-sgam-po or Songtsän Gampo, or Tsrong-tsong Gompo (སྲོང་བཙན་སྒམ་པོ་ Wylie: Srong-btsan Sgam-po) (died 650 CE) was the first emperor of a unified Tibet. ... Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ... For other uses, see Changan (disambiguation). ... The An Shi Rebellion (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) took place in China during the Tang Dynasty, from December 16, 755 to February 17, 763. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Qinghai (Chinese: 青海; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-hai; Postal System Pinyin: Tsinghai; Tibetan: མཚོ་སྔོན་ mtsho-sngon; Mongolian: Köke Naγur; Manchu: Huhu Noor) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, named after the enormous Qinghai Lake. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... The Jokhang Temple, home of the most venerated statue in Tibet a golden roof cylinder The Jokhang, also called the Jokhang Temple or the Jokhang Monastery, is a famous Buddhist temple in Lhasa, Tibet. ... For other uses, see Lhasa (disambiguation). ...


During the Islamic conquest of Persia (633–656), the son of the last ruler of the Sassanid Empire, Prince Pirooz, fled to Tang China.[75][48] According to the Book of Tang, Pirooz was made the head of a Governorate of Persia in what is now Zaranj, Afghanistan. During this conquest of Persia, the Islamic Caliph Uthman Ibn Affan (r. 644–656) sent an embassy to the Tang court at Chang'an.[62] By the 740s, the Arabs of Khurasan—by then under Abbasid control—had established a presence in the Ferghana basin and in Sogdiana. At the Battle of Talas in 751, Qarluq mercenaries under the Chinese defected, which forced Tang commander Gao Xianzhi (d. 756) to retreat. Although the battle itself was not of the greatest significance militarily, this was a pivotal moment in history; it marks the spread of Chinese papermaking into regions west of China,[76][77] ultimately reaching Europe by the 12th century. Although they had fought at Talas, on June 11, 758, an Abbasid embassy arrived at Chang'an simultaneously with the Uyghur Turks in order to pay tribute.[78] Belligerents Sassanid Persian Empire, Arab Christians Arab Muslims (Rashidun Caliphate) Commanders Yazdgerd III Rostam Farrokhzād Mahbuzan Huzail ibn Imran Hormuz Qubaz Anushjan Andarzaghar Bahman Karinz ibn Karianz Wahman Mardanshah Pirouzan Khalid ibn al-Walid Abu Ubaid Sad ibn Abi Waqqas al-Numan ibn al-Muqarrin al-Muzani... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... Pirooz (Persian: پیروز the Victor; Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was son of Yazdgerd III the last Sassanid king of Persia. ... [Jiu] Tang Shu, [Old] Book of Tang (also, [Chiu] Tang shu), is the first classic work about the Tang Dynasty. ... The city Zaranji is the capital of the Afghan province of Nimruz located in the southwest of the country close to the Iranian border. ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... Khorasan (also spelled Khurasan and Khorassan; خراسان in Persian) is an area, located in eastern and northeastern Iran. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... Fergana is a city in the Fergana Valley, capital of the Fargona Viloyati of Uzbekistan. ... Sogdiana, ca. ... Combatants Abbasid Caliphate Tang Dynasty Commanders Ziyad ibn Salih (Persian)[3][4] Gao Xianzhi (Goguryeo)[3] Li Siye (Chinese)[3] Duan Xiushi (Chinese)[3] Strength The number of troops from Arab protectorates was not recorded by either side. ... The Qarluq (Karluk) were originally a nomadic turkic tribe based on the transoxania steppes (roughly east and south of the Aral Sea) in Central Asia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Diamond Sutra of the Chinese Tang Dynasty, the oldest dated printed book in the world, found at Dunhuang, from 868 AD. Papermaking is the process of making paper, a material which is ubiquitous today for writing and packaging. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events End of the reign of Empress Koken of Japan; she is succeeded by Emperor Junnin. ...


Korea and Japan

A clay haniwa model of a ship, from Japan's Kofun period (250–538).
A clay haniwa model of a ship, from Japan's Kofun period (250–538).

In terms of foreign policy to the east, the Chinese had more unsuccessful military campaigns as compared with elsewhere. Like the emperors of the Sui Dynasty before him, Taizong established a military campaign in 644 against the Korean kingdom of Goguryeo in the Goguryeo-Tang Wars. Since the ancient Han and Jin dynasties once had a commandery in ancient northern Korea, the Tang Chinese desired to conquer the region. Allying with the Korean Silla Kingdom, the Chinese fought against Baekje and their Yamato Japanese allies in the Battle of Baekgang in August of 663, a decisive Tang-Silla victory. The Tang Dynasty navy had several different ship types at its disposal to engage in naval warfare, these ships described by Li Quan in his Taipai Yinjing (Canon of the White and Gloomy Planet of War) of 759.[79] The Battle of Baekgang was actually a restoration movement by remnant forces of Baekje, since their kingdom was toppled in 660 by a joint Tang-Silla invasion, led by notable Korean general Kim Yushin (595–673) and Chinese general Su Dingfang. In another joint invasion with Silla, the Tang army severely weakened the Goguryeo Kingdom in the north by taking out its outer forts in the year 645. With joint attacks by Silla and Tang armies under commander Li Shiji (594–669), the Kingdom of Goguryeo was destroyed by 668.[47] Although they were formerly enemies, the Tang accepted officials and generals of Goguryeo into their administration and military, such as the brothers Yeon Namsaeng (634–679) and Yeon Namsan (639–701). From 668 to 676, the Tang Empire would control northern Korea. However, in 671 Silla began fighting the Tang forces there. At the same time the Tang faced threats on its western border when a large Chinese army was defeated by the Tibetans on the Dafei River in 670.[80] By 676, the Tang army was driven out of Korea by Unified Silla.[81] Following a revolt of the Eastern Turks in 679, the Tang abandoned its Korean campaigns.[80] The Protectorate-General to Pacify the East was a military government established at Pyongyang by Tang Dynasty China in 668. ... Kofun Haniwa soldier. ... The Kofun period ) is an era in the history of Japan from around 250 to 538. ... Combatants Goguryeo (Korea) Sui Dynasty (China) Commanders King Yeongyang Eulji Mundeok Gang I sik Go Geon Mu Sui Yangdi Yuwen Shu Yu Zhongwen Lai Huer Zhou Luohou Strength approximately 200,000 1,138,000 foot soldiers and total of more than 3,000,000 in invasion of 612 The... Chinese name Russian name Goguryeo or Koguryo was an ancient kingdom located in southern Manchuria, southern Russian Maritime province, and the northern and central parts of the Korean peninsula. ... Although Goguryeo had repulsed the Sui Dynasty, attacks by the Tang Dynasty from the west proved too formidable. ... The Four Commanderies of Han (漢四郡, 한사군) are Lelang, Lintun, Xuantu and Zhenfan commanderies in the western Korean peninsula or Liaodong set up by Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty in early 2nd century BC after his conquest of Wiman Joseon. ... For other uses, see Silla (disambiguation). ... Baekje (October 18 BCE–August 660 BCE), originally Sipje, was a kingdom in the southwest of the Korean Peninsula. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yamato period. ... Combatants Silla and Tang Dynasty China Baekje and Japan Commanders Unknown Boksin, Buyeo Pung, Abe no Hirafu Strength 130,000 warriors; at least 170 ships 29,000 warriors; at least 170 ships Casualties Unknown 400 ships; Unknown number of warriors lost The Battle of Baekgang, also known as Battle of... There was archieve dating back very early about the ancient navy of China. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Kim Yushin (595-673) was a general in 7th-century Silla. ... Li Shiji (李世勣) (594[1]-December 31, 669[2]), né Xu Shiji (徐世勣), later known in the reign of Emperor Gaozong of Tang as Li Ji (李勣), courtesy name Maogong (懋功), formally Duke Zhenwu of Ying (英貞武公), was one of the most celebrated generals early in the Chinese Tang Dynasty. ... Yeon Namsaeng 淵男生 연남생 (634-679) was the eldest son of the Goguryeo military leader and DaeMagniji Yeon Gaesomun (603?-665). ... Yeon Namsan 淵男産 연남산 (639-701) was the third son of the Goguryeo military leader and dictator Yeon Gaesomun (603?-665). ... Unified Silla (668CE–935CE) is the name often applied to the kingdom of Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, after 668, when it conquered Baekje to unify the southern portion of the Korean peninsula. ...


Although the Tang had fought the Japanese, they still held cordial relations with Japan. There were numerous Imperial embassies to China from Japan, diplomatic missions that were not halted until 894 by Emperor Uda (r. 887–897), upon persuasion by Sugawara no Michizane (845–903).[82] The Japanese Emperor Temmu (r. 672–686) even established his conscripted army on that of the Chinese model, his state ceremonies on the Chinese model, and constructed his palace at Fujiwara on the Chinese model of architecture.[83] Many Chinese Buddhist monks came to Japan to help further the spread of Buddhism as well. Two 7th century monks in particular, Zhi Yu and Zhi You, visited the court of Emperor Tenji (r. 661–672), whereupon they presented a gift of a South Pointing Chariot that they had crafted.[84] This 3rd century mechanically-driven directional-compass vehicle (employing a differential gear) was again reproduced in several models for Tenji in 666, as recorded in the Nihon Shoki of 720.[84] Japanese monks also visited China; such was the case with Ennin (794–864), who wrote of his travel experiences including travels along China's Grand Canal.[85][86] The Japanese monk Enchin (814–891) stayed in China from 839 to 847 and again from 853 to 858, landing near Fuzhou, Fujian and setting sail for Japan from Taizhou, Zhejiang during his second trip to China.[87][88] Imperial embassies to China were missions to China for importing the technologies and culture of China to Japan. ... Emperor Uda (宇多天皇 Uda Tennō) (May 5, 867- July 19, 931) was the 59th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Sugawara no Michizane by Kikuchi Yosai Kanke (also known as Sugawara no Michizane, from Ogura Hyakunin Isshu) Sugawara no Michizane (菅原道真 845 - March 26, 903), also known as Kan Shōjō (菅丞相), was a scholar, poet, and politician of the Heian Period of Japan. ... Emperor Temmu (天武天皇 Tenmu Tennō) (c. ... Fujiwara-kyō (藤原京, in Japanese also Fujiwara no miyako), was the Imperial capital of Japan for sixteen years between 694 and 710. ... The Liuhe Pagoda of Hangzhou, China, built in 1165 AD during the Song Dynasty. ... Emperor Tenji (From Ogura Hyakunin Isshu) Tomb of Emperor Tenji, Kyoto Emperor Tenji (天智天皇 Tenji Tennō) (626-672), also known as Prince Naka no ÅŒe (中大兄皇子, Naka no ÅŒe no ÅŒji) and Emperor Tenchi, was the 38th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... South Pointing Chariot (replica) The South Pointing Chariot (Zhi Nan Che 指南車) is widely regarded as the most complex geared mechanism of the ancient Chinese civilization, and was continually used throughout the medieval period as well. ... This article is about the navigational instrument. ... In an automobile and other four-wheeled vehicles, a differential is a device, usually consisting of gears, that allows each of the driving wheels to rotate at different speeds, while supplying equal torque to each of them. ... Nihonshoki (日本書紀) is the second oldest history book about the ancient history of Japan. ... Ennin (圓仁 or 円仁) (792 - 862 A.D.), who is better known in Japan by his posthumous name, Jikaku Daishi (慈覺大師), was a priest of the Tendai (天台) school. ... Grand Canal of China The Grand Canal of China (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the longest ancient canal or artificial river in the world. ... Enchin (円珍)(d. ...   (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chou; BUC: Hók-ciÅ­; EFEO: Fou-Tcheou; also seen as Foochow or Fuchow) is the capital and the largest prefecture-level city of Fujian (福建) province, Peoples Republic of China. ... For the prefecture-level city in Jiangsu province, see Taizhou, Jiangsu. ...


Trade and spread of culture

A 5-stringed pipa (wuxian) from the Tang Dynasty.
A 5-stringed pipa (wuxian) from the Tang Dynasty.

Through use of the land trade along the Silk Road and maritime trade by sail at sea, the Tang were able to gain many new technologies, cultural practices, rare luxury, and contemporary items. From the Middle East, India, Persia, and Central Asia the Tang were able to acquire new ideas in fashion, new types of ceramics, and improved silver-smithing.[89] The Chinese also gradually adopted the foreign concept of stools and chairs as seating, whereas the Chinese beforehand always sat on mats placed on the floor.[90] To the Middle East, the Islamic world coveted and purchased in bulk Chinese goods such as silks, lacquerwares, and porcelain wares.[91] Songs, dances, and musical instruments from foreign regions became popular in China during the Tang Dynasty.[92][93] These musical instruments included oboes, flutes, and small lacquered drums from Kucha in the Tarim Basin, and percussion instruments from India such as cymbals.[92] At the court there were nine musical ensembles (expanded from seven in the Sui Dynasty) representing music from throughout Asia.[94] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (481x1271, 67 KB) Summary Photo of a Tang Dynasty five-stringed pipa. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (481x1271, 67 KB) Summary Photo of a Tang Dynasty five-stringed pipa. ... A woman plays the pipa in the New York City Subways Times Square Station, 2004. ... For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... Chinese lacquerware box from the Qing Dynasty, Museum für angewandte Kunst, Frankfurt, Germany. ... “Fine China” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Oboe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Flute (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Drum (disambiguation). ... Kucha/Kuchar (Chinese Simplified: 库车; Traditional: 庫車; pinyin Kùchē; also romanized as Chiu-tzu, Kiu-che, Kuei-tzu. ... Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ... Percussion redirects here. ... For the Japanese rock band, see Cymbals (band). ...


There was great contact and interest in India as a hub for Buddhist knowledge, with famous travelers such as Xuanzang (d. 664) visiting the South Asian subcontinent. After a 17-year long trip, Xuanzang managed to bring back tons of valuable Sanskrit texts to be translated into Chinese. There was also a Turkic-Chinese dictionary available for serious scholars and students, while Turkic folksongs gave inspiration to some Chinese poetry.[95][96] In the interior of China, trade was facilitated by the Grand Canal and the Tang government's rationalization of the greater canal system that reduced costs of transporting grain and other commodities.[97] The state also managed roughly 32,100 km (20,000 miles) of postal service routes by horse or boat.[98] A portrait of Xuanzang Xuanzang (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsüan-tsang; CantoneseIPA: jyn4tsɔŋ1; CantoneseJyutping: jyun4zong1) was a famous Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler and translator that brought up the interaction between China and India in the early Tang period. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Grand Canal of China The Grand Canal of China (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the longest ancient canal or artificial river in the world. ... A postal authority organises collection and delivery of domestic mail (US), or post (UK), within its area of control, or in the case of foreign mail, delivery to or receipt of mail from other postal authorities. ...


The Silk Road

The Silk Road was the most important pre-modern Eurasian trade route. During this period of the Pax Sinica, the Silk Road reached its golden age, whereby Persian and Sogdian merchants benefited from the commerce between East and West. At the same time, the Chinese empire welcomed foreign cultures, making the Tang capital arguably the most cosmopolitan area in the world. For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ... A trade route is the sequence of pathways and stopping places used for the commercial transport of cargo. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... Sogdiana, ca. ...

A Tang Dynasty tri-color glazed figurine of a horse
A Tang Dynasty tri-color glazed figurine of a horse

Although the Silk Road from China to the West was initially formulated during the reign of Emperor Wu of Han (141–87 BC), it was reopened by the Tang in 639 when Hou Junji (d. 643) conquered the West, and remained open for almost four decades. It was closed after the Tibetans captured it in 678, but in 699, during Empress Wu's period, the Silk Road reopened when the Tang reconquered the Four Garrisons of Anxi originally installed in 640,[99] once again connecting China directly to the West for land-based trade.[100] The Tang captured the vital route through the Gilgit Valley from Tibet in 722, lost it to the Tibetans in 737, and regained it under the command of the Goguryeo-Korean General Gao Xianzhi.[101] After the An Shi Rebellion ended in 763, the Tang Empire had once again lost control over many of its outer western lands, as the Tibetan Empire largely cut off China's direct access to the Silk Road.[73] An internal rebellion in 848 ousted the Tibetan rulers, while Tang China regained its western territories from Tibet in 851, which contained crucial grazing areas and pastures for raising horses that the Tang Dynasty desperately needed.[73][102] Tang horse at the Shanghai Museum by Andrew Lih File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Tang horse at the Shanghai Museum by Andrew Lih File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Composite body, painted, and glazed bottle. ... Emperor Wu of Han (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), (156 BC[1]–March 29, 87 BC), personal name Liu Che (劉徹), was the seventh emperor of the Han Dynasty in China, ruling from 141 BC to 87 BC. Emperor Wu is best remembered for the vast territorial expansion that occurred under... Hou Junji (侯君集) (d. ... The Four Garrisons of Anxi were Chinese military garrisons installed by Tang Dynasty between 648 and 658 that stationed at the city and captial of the Indo-Europeans statelet Kucha, Khotan, Kashgar and Karashahr, the captial of Kucha was also the seat of Protectorate General to Pacify the West. ... For other uses, see Gilgit (disambiguation). ...


Despite the many western travelers coming into China to live and trade, many travelers, mainly religious monks, recorded the strict border laws that the Chinese enforced.[91] As the monk Xuanzang and many other monk travelers attested to, there were many Chinese government checkpoints along the Silk Road that examined travel permits into the Tang Empire.[91] Furthermore, banditry was a problem along the checkpoints and oasis towns, as Xuanzang also recorded that his group of travelers were assaulted by bandits on multiple occasions.[91] A border checkpoint is, as its name suggests, a place between borders where the identities of the ongoers or their cargo are evaluated. ... This article needs cleanup. ... For other senses of this word, see outlaw (disambiguation). ... For the English rock band, see Oasis (band). ...


Seaports and maritime trade

Figurine of a foreign merchant of the Tang Dynasty, 7th century.
Figurine of a foreign merchant of the Tang Dynasty, 7th century.

Chinese envoys had been sailing through the Indian Ocean to India since the 2nd century BC,[103][104] yet it was during the Tang Dynasty that a strong Chinese maritime presence could be found in the Persian Gulf and Red Sea, into Persia, Mesopotamia (sailing up the Euphrates River in modern-day Iraq), Arabia, Egypt, Aksum (Ethiopia), and Somalia in East Africa.[105] From the same Quraysh tribe of Muhammad, Sa'd ibn Abi-Waqqas sailed from Ethiopia to China during the reign of Emperor Gaozu. He later traveled back to China with a copy of the Quran, establishing China's first mosque, the Mosque of Remembrance, during the reign of Emperor Gaozong. To this day he is still buried in a Muslim cemetery at Guangzhou. Download high resolution version (348x731, 25 KB)A foreign merchant in northern China, Tang Dynasty, 7th century. ... Download high resolution version (348x731, 25 KB)A foreign merchant in northern China, Tang Dynasty, 7th century. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... The Euphrates (the traditional Greek name for the river, which is in Old Persian Ufrat, Aramaic Prâth/Frot, in Arabic الفرات, in Turkish Fırat and in ancient Assyrian language Pu-rat-tu) is the westernmost of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (Bethnahrin in Aramaic), the other being the... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... Axum, also Aksum, is a city in northern Ethiopia, located at the base of the Adoua mountains. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Quraish (sura) is also the name of a Surah in the Quran. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Sa`d ibn AbÄ« Waqqās (in Arabic: سعد بن أبي وقاص) was an early convert to Islam from the BanÅ« Zuhrah clan of the Quraysh tribe. ... Categories: China-related stubs | Tang Dynasty emperors ... The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... The History of Islam in China goes back to the earliest years of Islam. ... Emperor Gaozong (628 - 683) was the third emperor of Tang Dynasty in China and he ruled from 649 to 683. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... CITIC Plaza Guangzhou (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin:  ; jyutping : Gwong²zau¹) is the capital and a sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


During the Tang Dynasty, thousands of foreigners came and lived in Guangzhou for trade and commercial ties with China, including Persians, Arabs, Hindu Indians, Malays, Sinhalese, Khmers, Chams, Jews and Nestorian Christians of the Near East, and many others.[106][107] In 748, the Buddhist monk Jian Zhen described Guangzhou as a bustling mercantile center where many large and impressive foreign ships came to dock. He wrote that "many big ships came from Borneo, Persia, Qunglun (Indonesia/Java)...with...spices, pearls, and jade piled up mountain high",[108][109] as written in the Yue Jue Shu (Lost Records of the State of Yue). After Arab and Persian pirates burned and looted Guangzhou in 758,[73] the Tang government reacted by shutting the port down for roughly five decades, as foreign vessels docked at Hanoi instead.[110] However, when the port reopened it continued to thrive. In 851 the Arab merchant Suleiman al-Tajir observed the manufacturing of Chinese porcelain in Guangzhou and admired its transparent quality.[111] He also provided description on the mosque at Guangzhou, its granaries, its local government administration, some of its written records, the treatment of travellers, along with the use of ceramics, rice-wine, and tea.[112] However, in another bloody episode at Guangzhou in 879, the Chinese rebel Huang Chao sacked the city, and purportedly slaughtered thousands of native Chinese, along with foreign Jews, Christians, and Muslims in the process.[113][114][115] Chao's rebellion was eventually suppressed in 884. CITIC Plaza Guangzhou (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin:  ; jyutping : Gwong²zau¹) is the capital and a sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Languages Sinhala Religions Predominantly Theravada Buddhism. ... The Khmer people are the predominant ethnic group in Cambodia, accounting for approximately 90% of the 13. ... This article is about the Chav people of Asia. ... Nestorianism is the doctrine that Jesus exists as two persons, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, or Logos, rather than as a unified person. ... Inhabitants of the Near East, late nineteenth century. ... Φ Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. ... This article is about the Java island. ... Look up pirate and piracy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the puzzle, see Tower of Hanoi. ... “Fine China” redirects here. ... This article is about ceramic materials. ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... Huang Chao(Chinese:黃巢)(d. ...

A gilt Buddhist reliquary with decorations of armored guards, from Korean Silla, 7th century.
A gilt Buddhist reliquary with decorations of armored guards, from Korean Silla, 7th century.

Korean Silla, Manchurian Balhae and Japanese vessels were all involved in the Yellow Sea trade, in which Silla dominated the trade and Japanese vessels ventured into from Hizen.[116] After Silla and Japan reopened renewed hostilities in the late 7th century, most Japanese maritime merchants chose to set sail from Nagasaki towards the mouth of the Huai River, the Yangzi River, and even as far south as the Hangzhou Bay in order to avoid Korean ships in the Yellow Sea.[116][117] In order to sail back to Japan in 838, the Japanese embassy to China procured nine ships and sixty Korean sailors from the Korean wards of Chuzhou and Lianshui cities along the Huai River.[118] It is also known that Chinese trade ships traveling to Japan set sail from the various ports along the coasts Zhejiang and Fujian provinces.[119] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 796 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (800 × 603 pixels, file size: 99 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 796 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (800 × 603 pixels, file size: 99 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Alternate meaning: Bohai Sea Balhae (698 - 926) (Bohai in Chinese) was an ancient multiethnic kingdom established after the fall of Goguryeo. ... ... The article incorporates text from OpenHistory. ... Oranda-zaka (Dutch Slope) in Nagasaki Castle in Shimabara The island of Hirado boasts a fine castle Nagasaki Prefecture (長崎県; Nagasaki-ken) is located on Kyushu island, Japan. ... Huai He The Huai River (Chinese: 淮河; pinyin: ) is about mid-way between the Yellow River (Huang He) and the Yangtze River. ... The Hangzhou Bay is an inlet of the East China Sea, bordered by the province of Zhejiang and the municipality of Shanghai. ... Zhejiang (also spelled Chehkiang or Chekiang) is an eastern coastal province of the Peoples Republic of China. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal map spelling: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


The Tang government and Chinese merchants became interested in by-passing the Arab merchants who dominated the trade of the Indian Ocean, to gain access to thriving trade in the vast oceanic region. Beginning in 785, the Chinese began to call regularly at Sufala on the East African coast in order to cut out Arab middlemen,[120] with various contemporary Chinese sources giving detailed descriptions of trade in Africa. The official and geographer Jia Dan (730–805) wrote of two common sea trade routes in his day: one from the coast of the Bohai Sea towards Korea and another from Guangzhou through Malacca towards the Nicobar Islands, Sri Lanka and India, the eastern and northern shores of the Arabian Sea to the Euphrates River.[121] In 863 the Chinese author Duan Chengshi (d. 863) provided detailed description about the slave trade, ivory trade, and ambergris trade in a country called Bobali, which historians point to the possibility of being Berbera in Somalia.[122] In Fustat (old Cairo), Egypt, the fame of Chinese ceramics there led to an enormous demand for Chinese goods, hence Chinese often traveled there, also in later periods such as Fatimid Egypt.[123][124] From this time period, the Arab merchant Shulama once wrote of his admiration for Chinese seafaring junks, but noted that the draft was too deep for them to enter the Euphrates River, which forced them to land small boats for passengers and cargo.[125] Shulama also noted in his writing that Chinese ships were often very large, large enough to carry aboard 600 to 700 passengers each.[125][121] A map showing the location of the Bohai Sea. ... This article is about the state in Malaysia. ... Map of Nicobar Islands The Nicobar Islands are an island chain in the eastern Indian Ocean, and are part of the Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. ... The Euphrates (the traditional Greek name for the river, which is in Old Persian Ufrat, Aramaic Prâth/Frot, in Arabic الفرات, in Turkish Fırat and in ancient Assyrian language Pu-rat-tu) is the westernmost of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (Bethnahrin in Aramaic), the other being the... Duan Chengshi (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Tuan Chengshih, d. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ambergris Ambergris (Ambra grisea, Ambre gris, ambergrease, or grey amber) is a solid, waxy, flammable substance of a dull grey or blackish color, with the shades being variegated like marble. ... Berbera (Somali Berbera) (coordinates:) is a city in the newly established Saaxil region of Somalia, and is currently part of the internationally unrecognized Republic of Somaliland. ... A drawing of Fustat, from Rappoports History of Egypt Fustat (Arabic: ‎), also spelled Fostat, Al Fustat, Misr al-Fustat and Fustat-Misr, was the first capital of Egypt under Arab rule. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... A junk is a Chinese sailing vessel. ...


Empress Wu and Emperor Xuanzong

Usurpation of Wu Zetian

Ladies from a mural of Li Xianhui's tomb in the Qianling Mausoleum, where Wu Zetian was also buried in 706.
Ladies from a mural of Li Xianhui's tomb in the Qianling Mausoleum, where Wu Zetian was also buried in 706.

Although she entered Emperor Gaozong's court as the lowly consort Wu Zhao, Wu Zetian would rise to the highest seat of power in 690, establishing the short-lived latter Zhou Dynasty. Empress Wu's rise to power was achieved through cruel and calculating tactics. For example, she allegedly killed her own baby girl and blamed it on Gaozong's empress so that the empress would be demoted.[31] Emperor Gaozong suffered a stroke in 655, and Wu began to make many of his court decisions for him, discussing affairs of state with his councilors that would take orders from her while she sat behind a screen.[126] When Empress Wu's eldest son and crown prince began to assert his authority and announce his support for issues that were opposed to Empress Wu's ideas, he suddenly died in 675. Many suspected he was poisoned by Empress Wu. Although the next heir apparent kept a lower profile, in 680 he was accused by Wu of plotting a rebellion and was banished (and later forced to commit suicide).[127] After only six weeks on the throne in 683, Emperor Zhongzong was deposed by Empress Wu after his attempt to appoint his wife's father as chancellor.[127] Because she dominated the court of Emperor Ruizong (r. 684–690), a group of Tang princes and their allies staged a major rebellion against Empress Wu in 684; yet her armies suppressed their dissent within two months.[127] Becoming China's first female emperor in 690 upon her son's forced abdication, she ruled until shortly before her death in 705, deposed by her own retainers while her designated heir became Emperor Zhongzong again.[128] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 545 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1181 × 1298 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 545 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1181 × 1298 pixel, file size: 1. ... Wu Zetian (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (625 – December 16, 705), personal name Wu Zhao (武曌), was the only woman in the history of China to assume the title of Emperor. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... Zhongzong (656-710) was fourth and seventh Emperor of the Tang Dynasty of China, ruling briefly in 684 and again from 705 to 710. ... Emperor Ruizong 唐睿宗, born Li Dan 李旦(662-716), was the fifth and ninth emperor of Tang Dynasty. ...


In order to legitimize her rule in a religious sense, she circulated a document known as the Great Cloud Sutra, which predicted that a reincarnation of the Maitreya Buddha would be a female monarch who would dispel illness, worry, and disaster from the world.[129][130] She even introduced numerous revised written characters to the written language, which were reversed back to the originals only after her death.[131] Arguably the most important part of her legacy was diminishing the power of the northwest aristocracy, allowing people from other clans and regions of China to become more representative in Chinese politics and government.[132][133] This article is about the theological concept. ... This article is about the Buddhist bodhisattva Maitreya. ... Parts of a stele containing the Zetian characters, written by Empress Wu herself Chinese characters of Empress Wu, or the Zetian characters (則天文字), are Chinese characters introduced by Empress Wu Zetian, the only reigning female in the history of China, to demonstrate her power. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ...


Rise of Xuanzong

The Giant Wild Goose Pagoda, first built in 652, later rebuilt under Empress Wu in 704, Chang'an (modern-day Xi'an)
The Giant Wild Goose Pagoda, first built in 652, later rebuilt under Empress Wu in 704, Chang'an (modern-day Xi'an)

There were many prominent women at court during and after Wu's reign, including Shangguan Wan'er (664–710), a female poet, writer, and trusted official in charge of Wu's private office.[134] In 706 the wife of Emperor Zhongzong of Tang, Empress Wei (d. 710), convinced her husband to staff government offices with his sister and her daughters, and in 709 requested that he grant women the right to bequeath hereditary privileges to their sons (which before was a male right only).[135] Empress Wei eventually poisoned Zhongzong, whereupon she placed his fifteen year old son upon the throne in 710.[39] Two weeks later, Li Longji (the later Emperor Xuanzong) entered the palace with a few followers and slew Empress Wei and her faction.[39] He then installed his father Emperor Ruizong (r. 710–712) on the throne.[39] Just as Emperor Zhongzong was dominated by Empress Wei, so too was Ruizong dominated by Princess Taiping.[136] This was finally ended when Princess Taiping's coup failed in 712 (she later hanged herself in 713) and Emperor Ruizong abdicated to Emperor Xuanzong.[39][135] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1479x2000, 279 KB)Big Wild Goose Pagoda, Xian, China, September 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1479x2000, 279 KB)Big Wild Goose Pagoda, Xian, China, September 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Big Wild Goose Pagoda, Xian, China The Giant Wild Goose Pagoda or Big Wild Goose Pagoda (Chinese: 大雁塔; pinyin: ), is located in southern Xian, China. ... For other uses, see Changan (disambiguation). ... Xian redirects here. ... Shangguan Waner (Simplified Chinese: 上官婉儿) (664–710 A.D) was born in Shanzhou Shanxian County (Sanmenxia in Henan). ... Emperor Tang Xuanzong (唐玄宗) (September 8, 685 - May 3, 762), born Li Longji (李隆基), was the sixth emperor of the Tang dynasty of China, reigning from 712 to 756. ... Emperor Ruizong 唐睿宗, born Li Dan 李旦(662-716), was the fifth and ninth emperor of Tang Dynasty. ... Princess Taiping (太平公主) (655? - 713), was the princess of Tang dynasty of China. ...


During the 44 year reign of Emperor Xuanzong, the Tang Dynasty was brought to its height, a golden age, a period of low economic inflation, as well as a toning down of the excessively lavish lifestyle of the imperial court.[97][133] Seen as a progressive and benevolent ruler, Xuanzong even abolished the death penalty in the year 747, and all executions had to be approved beforehand by the emperor himself (which was relatively few, considering that there were only 24 executions in the year 730 alone).[137] Xuanzong bowed to the consensus of his ministers on policy decisions and made efforts to fairly staff government ministries with different political factions.[136] His staunch Confucian chancellor Zhang Jiuling (673–740) worked to reduce deflation and increase the money supply by upholding the use of private coinage, although his aristocratic and technocratic successor Li Linfu (d. 753) favored government monopoly over the issuance of coinage.[138] After 737 most of Xuanzong's confidence rested in his long-standing chancellor Li Linfu, who championed a more aggressive foreign policy employing non-Chinese generals that would cement the conditions for a massive rebellion against Xuanzong.[139] Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Zhang Jiuling (张九龄, styled Zishou 子寿) (678 - 740) was a prominent minister, noted poet and scholar of the Tang Dynasty. ... Deflation (economics) Deflation (data compression) Deflation is the removal of loose soil by eolian (wind) processes This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article pertains to technocracy as a bureaucratic structure. ... Li Linfu (李林甫) (d. ...


Decline

Rebellion and catastrophe

The Leshan Giant Buddha, 71 m (233 ft) in height; construction began in 713 and was completed ninety years later in 803.
The Leshan Giant Buddha, 71 m (233 ft) in height; construction began in 713 and was completed ninety years later in 803.
Tang provinces by 742. An Lushan harassed the Khitans in order to stir conflict, which provided him with more support from Chang'an, hence strengthening his position. He eventually rose in rebellion in 755.
Tang provinces by 742. An Lushan harassed the Khitans in order to stir conflict, which provided him with more support from Chang'an, hence strengthening his position. He eventually rose in rebellion in 755.

The Tang Empire was at its height of power up until the middle of the 8th century, when the An Shi Rebellion (December 16, 755February 17, 763) destroyed the prosperity of the empire. An Lushan was a half-Sogdian, half-Turk Tang commander since 744, had experience fighting the Khitans of Manchuria with a victory in 744,[51][140] yet most of his campaigns against the Khitans were unsuccessful.[141] He was given great responsibility in Hebei, which allowed him to rebel with an army of more than one hundred thousand troops.[51] After capturing Luoyang, he named himself emperor of a new, but short-lived, Yan Dynasty.[140] Despite early victories scored by Tang General Guo Ziyi (697–781), the newly recruited troops of the army at the capital were no match for An Lushan's die-hard frontier veterans, so the court fled Chang'an.[51] While the heir apparent raised troops in Shanxi and Xuanzong fled to Sichuan province, they called upon the help of the Uyghur Turks in 756.[142] The Uyghur khan Moyanchur was greatly excited at this prospect, and even married his own daughter to the Chinese diplomatic envoy once he arrived, yet the Uyghur khan would in turn receive a Chinese princess as his bride.[142] Although the Uyghurs helped recapture the Tang capital from the rebels, they continued to stay and refused to leave until the Tang paid them an enormous sum of tribute in silk.[51][142] Even Abbasid Arabs assisted the Tang in putting down An Lushan's rebellion.[143][142] The Tibetans took hold of the opportunity and raided many areas under Chinese control, and even after the Tibetan Empire had fallen apart in 842 (and the Uyghurs soon after) the Tang were in no position to reconquer Central Asia after 763.[51][144] So significant was this loss that half a century later jinshi examination candidates were required to write an essay on the causes of the Tang's decline.[145] Although An Lushan was killed by one of his eunuchs in 757,[142] this time of troubles and widespread insurrection continued until rebel Shi Siming was killed by his own son in 763.[142] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (768x1024, 210 KB) Buddha-Maitrya (Leshan, China) image by: James Spurrier: User StrangeInterlude at flickr. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (768x1024, 210 KB) Buddha-Maitrya (Leshan, China) image by: James Spurrier: User StrangeInterlude at flickr. ... The Leshan Giant Buddha (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the tallest stone Buddha statue in the world. ... This article talks about the history of the political divisions of China. ... The Khitan, in Chinese Qidan (契丹 Pinyin: Qìdān), were an ethnic group which dominated much of Manchuria and was classified in Chinese history as one of the Tungus ethnic groups (東胡族 dōng hú zú). ... For other uses, see Changan (disambiguation). ... The An Shi Rebellion (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) took place in China during the Tang Dynasty, from December 16, 755 to February 17, 763. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Abd-ar-rahman I lands in Spain, where the next year he will establish a new Umayyad dynasty. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Ciniod succeeds Bridei V as king of the Picts. ... An Lushan (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (ca. ... Sogdiana, ca. ... The Khitan (or Khitai, Chinese: ; pinyin: Qìdān) were an ethnic group which dominated much of Manchuria in the 11th century and has been classified by Chinese historians as one of the Eastern proto-Mongolic ethnic groups Donghu (東胡族 dōng hú zú). They established the Liao Dynasty in 907... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Hebei (Chinese: 河北; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hopeh) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Refers to either kingdom in the Sixteen Kingdoms of China: Former Yan Later Yan This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Guo Ziyi (Traditional Chinese: 郭子儀, Simplified Chinese: 郭子仪 , Hanyu Pinyin: Guō Zǐyí, Wade-Giles: Kuo Tzu-i) (697–781) was a general of Tang China who ended the Anshi Rebellion, and participated in the expeditions against the people of Huihe (Uighurs) and Tubo (Tibetans). ... Shanxi (Chinese: 山西; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shansi) is a province in the northern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article is about the Chinese province. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Uyghur language. ... Famous King of Uygur Empire(747-759 AD), with the title of Ay Tengride Qut Bolmish, Tutmish Bilge Qaghan, Categories: Possible copyright violations ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ...


One of the legacies that the Tang government left since 710 was the gradual rise of regional military governors, the jiedushi, who slowly came to challenge the power of the central government.[52] After the An Shi Rebellion, the autonomous power and authority accumulated by the jiedushi in Hebei went beyond the central government's control. After a series of rebellions between 781 and 784 in today's Hebei, Shandong, Hubei and Henan provinces, the government had to officially acknowledge the jiedushi's hereditary ruling without accreditation. The Tang government relied on these governors and their armies for protection and to suppress locals that would take up arms against the government. In return, the central government would acknowledge the rights of these governors to maintain their army, collect taxes and even to pass on their title to heirs.[51] As time passed on these military governors slowly phased out the prominence of civil officials drafted by exams, and became more autonomous from central authority.[51] The rule of these powerful military governors lasted until 960, when a new civil order under the Song Dynasty was established. Also, the abandonment of the equal-field system meant that people could buy and sell land freely. Many poor fell into debt because of this, forced to sell their land to the wealthy, which led to the exponential growth of large estates.[51] With the breakdown of the land allocation system after 755, the central Chinese state barely interfered in agricultural management and acted merely as tax collector for roughly a millennium, save a few instances such as the Song's failed land nationalization during the 13th century war with the Mongols.[146] The Jiedushi (T: 節度使 S: 节度使) were regional military governors in China during the Tang Dynasty and the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-tung) is a coastal province of eastern Peoples Republic of China. ... Hubei (Chinese: 湖北; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hu-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hupeh) is a central province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Henan (Chinese: 河南; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ...

Eighty Seven Celestials, draft painting of a fresco by Wu Daozi (c. 685–758).
Eighty Seven Celestials, draft painting of a fresco by Wu Daozi (c. 685–758).

With the central government collapsing in authority over the various regions of the empire, it was recorded in 845 that bandits and river pirates in parties of 100 or more began plundering settlements along the Yangtze River with little resistance.[147] In 858, enormous floods along the Grand Canal inundated vast tracts of land and terrain of the North China Plain, which drowned tens of thousands of people in the process.[147] The Chinese belief in the Mandate of Heaven granted to the ailing Tang was also challenged when natural calamities occurred, forcing many to believe the Heavens were displeased and that the Tang had lost their right to rule. Then in 873 a disastrous harvest shook the foundations of the empire, in some areas only half of all agricultural produce being gathered, and tens of thousands faced famine and starvation.[147] In the earlier period of the Tang, the central government was able to meet crisis in the harvest, as it was recorded from 714–719 that the Tang government took assertive action in responding to natural disasters by extending the price-regulation granary system throughout the country.[147] The central government was able then to build a large surplus stock of foods to meet danger of rising famine and increased agricultural productivity through effective land reclamation,[147][97] yet the Tang government in the 9th century was nearly helpless in dealing with any calamity. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2848x400, 1507 KB) Description: “Eighty seven celestials people”, a draft painting of fresco. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2848x400, 1507 KB) Description: “Eighty seven celestials people”, a draft painting of fresco. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Grand Canal of China The Grand Canal of China (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the longest ancient canal or artificial river in the world. ... The North China Plain (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also called the Central Plain(s) (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is based on the deposits of the Huang He (Yellow River) and is the largest alluvial plain of eastern Asia. ... Mandate of Heaven (天命 PÄ«nyÄ«n: Tiānmìng) was a traditional Chinese sovereignty concept of legitimacy used to support the rule of the kings of the Zhou Dynasty and later the Emperors of China. ... Granary at Thiruparaithurai, Kumbakonam (old temple town), built around 1600-1634 A granary is a storehouse for threshed grain or animal feed. ... Land reclamation is either of two distinct practices. ...


Rebuilding and recovery

Xumi Pagoda, built in 636
Xumi Pagoda, built in 636

Although these natural calamities and rebellions stained the reputation and hampered the effectiveness of the central government, the early 9th century is nonetheless viewed as a period of recovery for the Tang Dynasty.[148] The government's withdrawal from its role in managing the economy had the unintended effect of stimulating trade, as more markets with less bureaucratic restrictions were opened up.[149][150] By 780, the old grain tax and labor service of the 7th century was replaced by a semiannual tax paid in cash, signifying the shift to a money economy bolstered by the merchant class.[143] Cities in the Jiangnan region to the south, such as Yangzhou, Suzhou, and Hangzhou prospered the most economically during the late Tang period.[149] Although weakened after the An Shi Rebellion, in 799 the Tang government's salt monopoly accounted for over half of the government's revenues, while the salt commission became one of the most powerful state agencies, run by capable ministers chosen as specialists in finance.[51] S.A.M. Adshead writes that this salt tax represents "the first time that an indirect tax, rather than tribute, levies on land or people, or profit from state enterprises such as mines, had been the primary resource of a major state."[151] Even after the power of the central government was in decline since the mid 8th century, it was still able to function and give out imperial orders on a massive scale. The Tangshu (Book of Tang) compiled in the year 945 recorded that in 828 the Tang government issued a decree that standardized irrigational square-pallet chain pumps in the country: Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 293 KB)Photograph of the Xumi Pagoda, Zhengding, Hebei Province, China. ... Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 293 KB)Photograph of the Xumi Pagoda, Zhengding, Hebei Province, China. ... The Xumi Pagoda The Xumi Pagoda (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: XÅ«mí tÇŽ; Wade-Giles: Hsümi Ta) or Sumeru Pagoda, also known as Summer Pagoda is a Chinese pagoda of the Buddhist Kaiyuan Monastery west of Zhengding, Hebei province, China. ... Village in Jiangnan Jiangnan or Jiang Nan (Chinese: ; Pinyin: Jiāngnán; Wade-Giles: Chiang nan; sometimes spelled Kiang-nan) is a geographic area referring to lands immediately to the south of the lowest reaches of the Yangtze River, including the southern part of the Yangtze Delta. ... Yangzhou (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; former spellings: Yang-chou, Yangchow; literally Rising Prefecture) is a prefecture-level city in central Jiangsu province, Peoples Republic of China. ... This article is about the city in Jiangsu. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Hangchow) is a sub-provincial city located in the Yangtze River Delta in the Peoples Republic of China, and the capital of Zhejiang province. ... Salt Commission The Tang government suffered a significant loss of tax revenue after the An Lushan Rebellion. ... [Jiu] Tang Shu, [Old] Book of Tang (also, [Chiu] Tang shu), is the first classic work about the Tang Dynasty. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... The chain pump is a type of water pump where an endless chain has positioned on it a series of circular discs. ...

In the second year of the Taihe reign period [828 AD], in the second month...a standard model of the chain pump was issued from the palace, and the people of Jingzhao Fu (d footnote: the capital) were ordered by the emperor to make a considerable number of machines, for distribution to the people along the Zheng Bai Canal, for irrigation purposes.[152]

The last great ambitious ruler of the Tang Dynasty was Emperor Xianzong of Tang (r. 805–820), his reign period aided by the fiscal reforms of the 780s, including the government monopoly on the salt industry.[153] He also had an effective well trained imperial army stationed at the capital led by his court eunuchs; this was the Army of Divine Strategy, numbering 240,000 in strength as recorded in 798.[154] Between the years 806 and 819, Emperor Xianzong conducted seven major military campaigns to quell the rebellious provinces that had claimed autonomy from central authority, managing to subdue all but two of them.[155][88] Under his reign there was a brief end to the hereditary jiedushi, as Xianzong appointed his own military officers and staffed the regional bureaucracies once again with civil officials.[155][88] However, Xianzong's successors proved less capable and more interested in the leisure of hunting, feasting, and playing outdoor sports, allowing eunuchs to amass more power as drafted scholar-officials caused strife in the bureaucracy with factional parties.[155] The eunuchs' power became unchallenged after Emperor Wenzong of Tang's (r. 826–840) failed plot to have them overthrown; instead the allies of Emperor Wenzong were publicly executed in the West Market of Chang'an, by the eunuch's command.[149] Emperor Tang Xianzong (唐宪宗李纯 778–820), born Li Chun, was the 11th emperor of the Tang dynasty of China. ... Emperor Tang Wenzong (唐文宗李昂 809-840), born Li Ang, was the 14th emperor of the Tang dynasty of China. ... For other uses, see Changan (disambiguation). ...


Fall of the Tang Dynasty

Painting of the scholar Fu Sheng, by the Tang poet, musician, and painter Wang Wei (701–761)
Painting of the scholar Fu Sheng, by the Tang poet, musician, and painter Wang Wei (701–761)

In addition to natural calamities and jiedushi amassing autonomous control, the Huang Chao Rebellion (874–884) resulted in the sacking of both Chang'an and Luoyang, and took an entire decade to suppress.[156] Although the rebellion was defeated by the Tang, it never recovered from that crucial blow, weakening it for the future military powers to take over. There were also large groups of bandits, in the size of small armies, that ravaged the countryside in the last years of the Tang, who smuggled illicit salt, ambushed merchants and convoys, and even besieged several walled cities.[113] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 655 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2024 × 1854 pixel, file size: 322 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 655 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2024 × 1854 pixel, file size: 322 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... This article is about the 8th century Chinese poet; for other people whose names are rendered Wang Wei when romanized, see Wang Wei (disambiguation). ... Huang Chao(Chinese:黃巢)(d. ... For other uses, see Convoy (disambiguation). ...


A certain Zhu Wen (originally a salt smuggler) who had served under the rebel Huang had later surrendered to Tang forces, his military merit in betraying and defeating Huang's forces meaning rapid military promotions for him.[157] In 907, after almost 300 years in power, the dynasty was ended when this military governor, Zhu Wen (known soon after as Taizu of Later Liang), deposed the last emperor of Tang, Emperor Ai of Tang, and took the throne for himself. He established his Later Liang Dynasty, which thereby inaugurated the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. A year later, the deposed Emperor Ai was poisoned to death by Zhu Wen. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Emperor Tang Ai di (唐哀帝李祝 892-908), born Li Zhu, was the last emperor of the Tang dynasty of China. ... The Later Liang (Simplified Chinese character: 后凉, Traditional Chinese character: 後凉, Hanyu pinyin Hòu Liáng) (320-376) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Jin Dynasty (265-420) in China. ... Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: 五代十國 Simplified Chinese: 五代十国 Hanyu pinyin: WÇ”dàishíguó) (907-960) was a period of political upheaval in China, between the Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty. ...


Although cast in a negative light by many for usurping power from the Tang, Zhu Wen turned out to be a skilled administrator. Emperor Taizu of Later Liang was also responsible for the building of a large seawall, new walls and roads for the burgeoning city of Hangzhou, which would later become the capital of the Southern Song Dynasty.[157] A seawall is a form of hard coastal defence constructed on the inland part of a coast to reduce the effects of strong waves and are built in the water. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Hangchow) is a sub-provincial city located in the Yangtze River Delta in the Peoples Republic of China, and the capital of Zhejiang province. ... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ...


Society and culture

See also: Tang Dynasty art
A Tang-era painting of a Bodhisattva holding an incense burner, from Dunhuang.
A Tang-era painting of a Bodhisattva holding an incense burner, from Dunhuang.

Both the Sui and Tang Dynasties had turned away from the more feudal culture of the preceding Northern Dynasties, in favor of staunch civil Confucianism.[2] The governmental system was supported by a large class of Confucian intellectuals selected through either civil service examinations or recommendations. In the Tang period, Daoism and Buddhism reigned as core ideologies as well, and played a large role in people's daily lives. The Tang Chinese enjoyed feasting, drinking, holidays, sports, and all sorts of entertainment, while Chinese literature blossomed and was more widely accessible with new printing methods. Night Shining White, a handscroll attributed to Han Gan (active 742–756). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Scriptures Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History 4th Buddhist Council Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      A statue of a Bodhisattva, Akasagarbha. ... A censer is a vessel for burning incense. ... Location of Dunhuang Dunhuang (Chinese: , also written as 燉煌 till early Qing Dynasty; Pinyin: ) is a city in Jiuquan, Gansu province, China. ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... Buddhism, a Dharmic faith, is usually considered one of the worlds major religions, with between 230 to 500 million followers. ... Chinese literature spans back thousands of years, from the earliest recorded dynastic court archives to the matured fictional novel arising in the medieval period to entertain the masses of literate Chinese. ... For other uses, see Print. ...


Leisure in the Tang

Much more than earlier periods, the Tang era was an era renowned for its time reserved for leisure activity, especially for those in the upper classes.[158] Many outdoor sports and activities were enjoyed during the Tang, including archery,[159] hunting,[160] horse polo,[161] cuju football,[162] cockfighting,[163] and even tug of war.[164] Government officials were granted vacations during their tenure in office. Officials were granted 30 days off every three years to visit their parents if they lived 1000 miles/1609 km away, or 15 days off if the parents lived more than 167 miles/268 km away (travel time not included).[158] Officials were granted nine days of vacation time for weddings of a son or daughter, and either five, three, or one days/day off for the nuptials of close relatives (travel time not included).[158] Officials also received a total of three days off for their son's capping initiation rite into manhood, and one day off for the ceremony of initiation rite of a close relative's son.[158] Traditional Chinese holidays such as Chinese New Year, Lantern Festival, Cold Food Festival, and others were universal holidays. In the capital city of Chang'an there was always lively celebration, especially for the Lantern Festival since the city's nighttime curfew was lifted by the government for three days straight.[165] Between the years 628 and 758, the imperial throne bestowed a total of sixty-nine grand carnivals nationwide, granted by the emperor in the case of special circumstances like important military victories, abundant harvests after a long drought or famine, the granting of amnesties, the installment of a new crown prince, etc.[166] For special celebration in the Tang era, lavish and gargantuan-sized feasts were sometimes prepared, as the imperial court had staffed agencies to prepare the meals.[167] This included a prepared feast for 1,100 elders of Chang'an in 664, a feast for 3,500 officers of the Divine Strategy Army in 768, and a feast for 1,200 women of the palace and members of the imperial family in the year 826.[167] Drinking wine and alcoholic beverages was heavily ingrained into Chinese culture, as people drank for nearly every social event.[168] A court official in the 8th century allegedly had a serpentine-shaped structure called the 'Ale Grotto' built with 50,000 bricks on the groundfloor that each featured a drinking bowl for his friends to drink from.[169] Archery is the practice of using a bow to shoot arrows. ... This article is about the hunting of prey by human society. ... For other uses, see Polo (disambiguation). ... Cuju (Chinese: ) is an ancient sport similar to footbal (soccer), played in China as well as Korea and Japan. ... Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Cock Fight by Jean-Léon Gérôme (1847) A cockfight is a contest, held in a cockpit between two fighting cocks (roosters) trained to severely injure and/or kill one another. ... Tug of war Tug of war, also known as rope pulling, is a sport that directly pits two teams against each other in a test of strength. ... For other uses, see Vacation (disambiguation). ... Nubian wedding with some international modern touches, near Aswan, Egypt Preparing for the photographs, at a wedding in Thornbury Castle, England A traditional Japanese wedding ceremony A wedding is a civil or religious ceremony which celebrates the beginning of a marriage. ... The Traditional Chinese holidays have been part of Chinese tradition for thousands of years; they are an essential part of Chinese culture. ... For other traditions of celebrating lunar new year, see Lunar New Year. ... For the festival associated with mooncakes sometimes called Lantern Festival, see Mid-Autumn Festival. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... For other uses, see Changan (disambiguation). ... For the festival associated with mooncakes sometimes called Lantern Festival, see Mid-Autumn Festival. ... This article is about the restrictions and constraints of particular movements. ... For other uses, see Carnival (disambiguation). ... Look up Harvest in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... Look up Amnesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Crown Prince or Crown Princess is the heir or heiress apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... Booze redirects here. ...


Chang'an, the Tang capital

Main article: Chang'an
Chinese ladies playing cuju football, which was played in fields of city wards and in immediate areas outside of Chang'an.
Chinese ladies playing cuju football, which was played in fields of city wards and in immediate areas outside of Chang'an.

Although Chang'an was the site for the capital of the earlier Han and Jin dynasties, after subsequent destruction in warfare, it was the Sui Dynasty model that comprised the Tang era capital. The roughly-square dimensions of the city had six miles (10 km) of outer walls running east to west, and more than five miles (8 km) of outer walls running north to south.[17] From the large Mingde Gates located mid-center of the main southern wall, a wide city avenue stretched from there all the way north to the central administrative city, behind which was the Chentian Gate of the royal palace, or Imperial City. Intersecting this were fourteen main streets running east to west, while eleven main streets ran north to south. These main intersecting roads formed 108 rectangular wards with walls and four gates each, and each ward filled with multiple city blocks. The city was made famous for this checkerboard pattern of main roads with walled and gated districts, its layout even mentioned in one of Du Fu's poems.[170] During the Heian period, the city of Heian kyō (present-day Kyoto) of Japan like many cities was arranged in the checkerboard street grid pattern of the Tang capital and in accordance with traditional geomancy following the model of Chang'an.[30] Of these 108 wards in Chang'an, two of them (each the size of two regular city wards) were designated as government-supervised markets, and other space reserved for temples, gardens, ponds, etc.[17] Throughout the entire city, there were 111 Buddhist monasteries, 41 Daoist abbeys, 38 family shrines, 2 official temples, 7 churches of foreign religions, 10 city wards with provincial transmission offices, 12 major inns, and 6 graveyards.[171] Some city wards were literally filled with open public playing fields or the backyards of lavish mansions for playing horse polo and cuju football.[172] For other uses, see Changan (disambiguation). ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Cuju (Chinese: ) is an ancient sport similar to footbal (soccer), played in China as well as Korea and Japan. ... City Blocks are a part of the fictional universe recounted in the Judge Dredd series that appears in the UK comic book 2000 AD. // Overview Also known as starscrapers or stratoscrapers (compare skyscraper), they are the most common form of mass-housing in Mega-City One, averaging a population of... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Heian Period. ... Heian kyō(平安京)was the capital of Japan from 794 to 1180 & 1180 to 1868. ... For other uses, see Kyoto (disambiguation). ... Cuju (Chinese: ) is an ancient sport similar to footbal (soccer), played in China as well as Korea and Japan. ...

The bronze Jingyun Bell cast in the year 711, measuring 247 cm high and weighing 6,500 kg, now located in the Xi'an Bell Tower
The bronze Jingyun Bell cast in the year 711, measuring 247 cm high and weighing 6,500 kg, now located in the Xi'an Bell Tower

The Tang capital was the largest city in the world at its time, the population of the city wards and its outlying suburbs reaching 2 million inhabitants.[17] The Tang capital was very cosmopolitan, with ethnicities of Persia, Central Asia, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Tibet, India, and many other places living within. Naturally, with this plethora of different ethnicities living in Chang'an, there were also many different practiced religions, such as Buddhism, Nestorian Christianity, Manichaeism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, and Islam being practiced within. With widely open access to China that the Silk Road to the west facilitated, many foreign settlers were able to move east to China, while the city of Chang'an itself had about 25,000 foreigners living within.[91][173] Exotic green-eyed, blond-haired Tocharian ladies serving wine in agate and amber cups, singing, and dancing at taverns attracted customers.[174] If a foreigner in China pursued a Chinese woman for marriage, he was required to stay in China and was unable to take his bride back to his homeland, as stated in a law passed in 628 to protect women from temporary marriages with foreign envoys.[175] For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Buddhism, a Dharmic faith, is usually considered one of the worlds major religions, with between 230 to 500 million followers. ... Nestorianism is the doctrine that Jesus exists as two persons, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, or Logos, rather than as a unified person. ... Manichean priests, writing at their desk, with panel inscription in Sogdian. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ... The Tocharians or Tusharas as known in Indian literature were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... For other uses, see Agate (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Amber (disambiguation). ...


Chang'an was the center of the central government, the home of the imperial family, and was filled with splendor and wealth. However, incidentally it was not the economic hub during the Tang Dynasty. The city of Yangzhou along the Grand Canal and close to the Yangtze River was the greatest economic center during the Tang era.[106][176] Yangzhou was the headquarters for the Tang's government monopoly on salt, and the greatest industrial center of China; it acted as a midpoint in shipping of foreign goods that would be organized and distributed to the major cities of the north.[106][176] Much like the seaport of Guangzhou in the south, Yangzhou boasted thousands of foreign traders from all across Asia.[176][177] Yangzhou (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; former spellings: Yang-chou, Yangchow; literally Rising Prefecture) is a prefecture-level city in central Jiangsu province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Grand Canal of China The Grand Canal of China (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the longest ancient canal or artificial river in the world. ... The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or Drichu in Tibetan (Tibetan: འབ; Wylie: bri chu) is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world, after the Nile in Africa, and the Amazon in South America. ... scheiiiißßßßßee!!!!!!!!!!!!!regional, local; for levels below the national, it is a local monopoly. ... This article is about common table salt. ... CITIC Plaza Guangzhou (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin:  ; jyutping : Gwong²zau¹) is the capital and a sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ...

Spring Outing of the Tang Court, by Zhang Xuan (713–755)
Spring Outing of the Tang Court, by Zhang Xuan (713–755)

There was also the secondary capital city of Luoyang, which was the favored capital of the two by Empress Wu. In the year 691 she had more than 100,000 families (more than 500,000 people) from around the region of Chang'an move to populate Luoyang instead.[106] With a population of about a million, Luoyang became the second largest capital in the empire, and with its close proximity to the Luo River it benefited from southern agricultural fertility and trade traffic of the Grand Canal.[106] However, the Tang court eventually demoted its capital status and did not visit Luoyang after the year 743, when Chang'an's problem of acquiring adequate supplies and stores for the year was solved.[106] As early as 736, granaries were built at critical points along the route from Yangzhou to Chang'an, which eliminated shipment delays, spoilage, and pilfering.[178] An artificial lake used as a transshipment pool was dredged east of Chang'an in 743, where curious northerners could finally see the array of boats found in southern China, delivering tax and tribute items to the imperial court.[179] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 414 pixelsFull resolution (1006 × 521 pixel, file size: 509 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 414 pixelsFull resolution (1006 × 521 pixel, file size: 509 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Zhang Xuan (Chinese: 張萱; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chang Hsüan) was a Chinese painter who lived in the 8th century, during the Tang Dynasty. ... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Wu Zetian (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (625 – December 16, 705), personal name Wu Zhao (武曌), was the only woman in the history of China to assume the title of Emperor. ...


Literature

The Tang period was a golden age of Chinese literature and art. There are over 48,900 poems penned by some 2,200 Tang authors that have survived until modern times.[180][181] Perfecting one's skills in the composition of poetry became a required study for those wishing to pass imperial examinations,[182] while poetry was also heavily competitive; poetry contests amongst esteemed guests at banquets and courtiers of elite social gatherings was common in the Tang period.[183] Poetry styles that were popular in the Tang included gushi and jintishi, with the renowned Tang poet Li Bai (701–762) famous for the former style, and Tang poets like Wang Wei (701–761) and Cui Hao (704–754) famous for their use of the latter. Jintishi poetry, or regulated verse, is in the form of eight-line stanzas or seven characters per line with a fixed pattern of tones that required the second and third couplets to be antithetical (although the antithesis is often lost in translation to other languages).[184] Tang poems in particular remain the most popular out of every historical era of China. This great emulation of Tang era poetry began in the Song Dynasty period, as it was Yan Yu (active 1194–1245) who asserted that he was the first to designate the poetry of the High Tang (c. 713–766) era as the orthodox material with "canonical status within the classical poetic tradition."[185] At the pinnacle of all the Tang poets, Yan Yu had reserved the position of highest esteem for that of Du Fu (712–770),[185] a man who would not be viewed as such in his own era of poetic competitors, and branded by his peers as an anti-traditional rebel.[186] Below is an example of Du Fu's poetry, To My Retired Friend Wei (Chinese: 贈衛八處士). Like many other poems in the Tang it featured the theme of a long parting between friends, which was often due to officials being frequently transferred to the provinces:[180] Chinese literature spans back thousands of years, from the earliest recorded dynastic court archives to the matured fictional novel arising in the medieval period to entertain the masses of literate Chinese. ... Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong Hand-painted Chinese New Years duilian (對聯 couplet), a by-product of Chinese poetry, pasted on the sides of doors leading to peoples homes, at Lijiang City, Yunnan Poetry is the most highly regarded literary genre in ancient China. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Chinese Jade ornament with flower design, Jin Dynasty (1115-1234 AD), Shanghai Museum. ... State Banquet. ... Shi (è©©) is the Chinese word for poem; it can also be used to mean Chinese poetry other than lyrics, or (most commonly) the classical form of poetry developed in the late Han dynasty and which reached its zenith in the Tang dynasty. ... Shi (è©©) is the Chinese word for poem; it can also be used to mean Chinese poetry other than lyrics, or (most commonly) the classical form of poetry developed in the late Han dynasty and which reached its zenith in the Tang dynasty. ... Li Po redirects here. ... This article is about the 8th century Chinese poet; for other people whose names are rendered Wang Wei when romanized, see Wang Wei (disambiguation). ... Cui Hao (崔颢; pinyin: CuÄ« Hào, 704 - 754) was a poet of the Tang dynasty in China. ... In poetry, a stanza is a unit within a larger poem. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Look up Antithesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Du Fu (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Tu Fu, 712–770) was a prominent Chinese poet of the Tang Dynasty. ...

Written calligraphy of Emperor Taizong on a Tang stele.
Written calligraphy of Emperor Taizong on a Tang stele.
Image:Cquote1.png

人生不相見, It is almost as hard for friends to meet
動如參與商。 As for the morning and evening stars.
今夕復何夕, Tonight then is a rare event,
共此燈燭光。 Joining, in the candlelight,
少壯能幾時, Two men who were young not long ago
鬢髮各已蒼。 But now are turning grey at the temples.
訪舊半為鬼, To find that half our friends are dead
驚呼熱中腸。 Shocks us, burns our hearts with grief.
焉知二十載, We little guessed it would be twenty years
重上君子堂。 Before I could visit you again.
昔別君未婚, When I went away, you were still unmarried;
兒女忽成行。 But now these boys and girls in a row
怡然敬父執, Are very kind to their father's old friend.
問我來何方。 They ask me where I have been on my journey;
問答乃未已, And then, when we have talked awhile,
兒女羅酒漿。 They bring and show me wines and dishes,
夜雨翦春韭, Spring chives cut in the night-rain
新炊間黃粱。 And brown rice cooked freshly a special way.
主稱會面難, My host proclaims it a festival,
一舉累十觴。 He urges me to drink ten cups --
十觴亦不醉, But what ten cups could make me as drunk
感子故意長。 As I always am with your love in my heart?
明日隔山嶽, Tomorrow the mountains will separate us;
世事兩茫茫。 After tomorrow - who can say?
Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Calligraphy is an art dating back to the earliest day of history, and widely practiced throughout China to this day. ... Emperor Taizong of Tang China (Chinese: , January 23, 599–July 10, 649), born Lĭ ShìMín (Chinese: ), was the second emperor of the Tang Dynasty of China from 626 to 649. ... This article is about the stone structure. ... Image File history File links Cquote1. ...

Image:Cquote2.png

There were other important literary forms besides poetry during the Tang period. There was Duan Chengshi's (d. 863) Miscellaneous Morsels from Youyang, an entertaining collection of foreign legends and hearsay, reports on natural phenomena, short anecdotes, mythical and mundane tales, as well as notes on various subjects. The exact literary category or classification that Duan's large informal narrative would fit into is still debated amongst scholars and historians.[188] Image File history File links Cquote2. ... Du Fu (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Tu Fu, 712–770) was a prominent Chinese poet of the Tang Dynasty. ... Duan Chengshi (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Tuan Chengshih, d. ... The Miscellaneous Morsels from Youyang (Chinese: ; pinyin: Yǒuyáng Zázǔ) is a miscellany of Chinese and foreign legends and hearsay, reports on natural phenomena, short anecdotes, and tales of the wonderous and mundane, as well as notes on such topics as medicinal herbs and tattoos. ... An anecdote is a short tale narrating an interesting or amusing biographical incident. ...


Short story fiction and tales were also popular during the Tang, one of the more famous ones being Yingying's Biography by Yuan Zhen (779–831), which was widely circulated in his own time and by the Yuan Dynasty (1279–1368) became the basis for plays in Chinese opera.[189][190] Timothy C. Wong places this story within the wider context of Tang love tales, which often share the plot designs of quick passion, inescapable societal pressure leading to the abandonment of romance, followed by a period of melancholy.[191] Wong states that this scheme lacks the undying vows and total self-commitment to love found in Western romances such as Romeo and Juliet, but that underlying traditional Chinese values of inseparableness of self from one's environment (including human society) served to create the necessary fictional device of romantic tension.[192] Pinyin Yuan Zhen (779 to 831) was an important Chinese writer in the middle Tang Dynasty. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... Emperor Xuan-Zong of Tang (left) and his Consort Yang Yuhuan (right) portrayed in a Chinese Opera 19th century Chinese opera Chinese opera costumes Some athletic jump Chinese opera is a popular form of drama in China. ... Melancholy redirects here. ... For other uses, see Romeo and Juliet (disambiguation). ...


There were large encyclopedias published in the Tang. The Yiwen Leiju encyclopedia was compiled in 624 by the chief editor Ouyang Xun (557–641) as well as Linghu Defen (582–666) and Chen Shuda (d. 635). The encyclopedia Treatise on Astrology of the Kaiyuan Era was fully compiled in 729 by Gautama Siddha (fl. 8th century), an ethnic Indian astronomer, astrologer, and scholar born in the capital Chang'an. Cyclopedia redirects here. ... The Yiwen Leiju (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; literally Collection of Literature Arranged by Categories) is a Chinese encyclopedia completed during the Tang Dynasty by the calligrapher Ouyang Xun (歐陽詢). It was divided into 47 sections and many subsections. ... Ouyang Xun (歐陽詢 pinyin: ou1yang2 xun2; aka Ouyang Hsun) (557 - 641 AD) was a Confucian scholar and calligrapher of the early Tang Dynasty (唐朝). In 622 AD he was one of three who compiled the Classics Anthology of Literary Works (藝文類聚, pinyin: yi4wen2 lei4ju4, Yiwen Leiju). ... Chen Shuda (陳叔達) (d. ... The Treatise on Astrology of the Kaiyuan Era (Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Great Tang Treatise on Astrology of the Kaiyuan Era in the full title, is a Chinese astrology encyclopedia compiled by the lead editor Gautama Siddha and a numerous of scholars from 714 to 724 during the... Gautama Siddha (Chinese: ; Pinyin: , fl. ...

Small Wild Goose Pagoda, built by 709, was adjacent to the Dajianfu Temple in Chang'an, where Buddhist monks from India and elsewhere gathered to translate Sanskrit texts into Chinese.
Small Wild Goose Pagoda, built by 709, was adjacent to the Dajianfu Temple in Chang'an, where Buddhist monks from India and elsewhere gathered to translate Sanskrit texts into Chinese.[193]

Chinese geographers such as Jia Dan wrote accurate descriptions of places far abroad. In his work written between 785 and 805, he described the sea route going into the mouth of the Persian Gulf, and that the medieval Iranians (whom he called the people of Luo-He-Yi) had erected 'ornamental pillars' in the sea that acted as lighthouse beacons for ships that might go astray.[194] Confirming Jia's reports about lighthouses in the Persian Gulf, Arabic writers a century after Jia wrote of the same structures, writers such as al-Mas'udi and al-Muqaddasi. The Tang Dynasty Chinese diplomat Wang Xuance traveled to Magadha (modern northeastern India) during the 7th century.[195] Afterwards he wrote the book Zhang Tianzhu Guotu (Illustrated Accounts of Central India), which included a wealth of geographical information.[196] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Small Wild Goose Pagoda in Xian, China The Small Wild Goose Pagoda, sometimes Little Goose Pagoda (Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ), is one of two significant pagodas in the city of Xian, China. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... This article explores the history of geography. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Eddystone Lighthouse, one of the first wavewashed lighthouses For other uses, see Lighthouse (disambiguation). ... Al-Masudi or Abu-Alhasan Ali bin al-Husain. ... Muhammad ibn Ahmad Shams al-Din Al-Muqaddasi (Arabic: محمد بن امحد شمس الدين المقدسي) (also known as Al-Maqdisi) was a notable medieval Arab geographer, author of Ahsan at-Taqasim fi Ma`rifat il-Aqalim (The Best Divisions for Knowledge of the Regions). ... The approximate extent of the Magadha state in the 5th century BC The Magadha state circa 600 BC, before it expanded Magadha (मगध) formed one of the sixteen Mahājanapadas (Sanskrit, great countries) or regions in ancient India. ...


Many histories of previous dynasties were compiled between 636 and 659 by court officials during and shortly after the reign of Emperor Taizong of Tang. These included the Book of Liang, Book of Chen, Book of Northern Qi, Book of Zhou, Book of Sui, Book of Jin, History of Northern Dynasties and the History of Southern Dynasties. Although not included in the official Twenty-Four Histories, the Tongdian and Tang Huiyao were nonetheless valuable written historical works of the Tang period. The Shitong written by Liu Zhiji in 710 was a meta-history, as it covered the history of Chinese historiography in past centuries until his time. The Great Tang Records on the Western Regions, compiled by Bianji, recounted the journey of Xuanzang, the Tang era's most renowned Buddhist monk. Emperor Taizong of Tang China (Chinese: , January 23, 599–July 10, 649), born Lĭ ShìMín (Chinese: ), was the second emperor of the Tang Dynasty of China from 626 to 649. ... The Book of Liang (Ch: 梁書, Liangshu), was compiled under Yao Silian 姚思廉 in 635. ... The Book of Chen (Traditional Chinese: 陳書; pinyin: Chén Shū) was the official history of the Chinese dynasty Chen Dynasty. ... The Book of Northern Qi (Chinese: 北齊書, pinyin Běi Qí Shū), was the official history of the Chinese dynasty Northern Qi. ... The Book of Zhou (Traditional Chinese: 周書; pinyin Zhōu Shū) was the official history of the Chinese/Xianbei dynasty Northern Zhou, and it ranks among the official Twenty-Four Histories of imperial China. ... The Sui Dynasty (隋朝 Hanyu Pinyin: suí cháo, 581-618) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... The Book of Jin (Chinese:晋书) is one of the official Chinese historical works. ... The History of Northern Dynasties (Chinese: ; pinyin: Běishǐ) is one of the official Chinese historical works in the Twenty-Four Histories canon. ... The History of Southern Dynasties (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is one of the official Chinese historical works in the Twenty-Four Histories canon. ... The Twenty-Four Histories is a collection of historical books covering a period of history from 3000 B.C. to the Ming Dynasty in the 17th century. ... The Tongdian (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Tungtien) is an important Chinese institutional history and encyclopedia text. ... The Tang Huiyao (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Tang Huiyao; literally Institutional History of Tang) is an institutional history of Tang Dynasty compiled by Wang Pu and presented it to Emperor Taizu of Song in 961. ... The Shitong (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Shihtung; literally Generality of Historiography) is the first Chinese work about historiography complied by Liu Zhiji between 708 and 710. ... Liu Zhiji (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Liú Zhījī; Wade-Giles: Liu Chihchi, 661–721), courtesy name Zixuan (子玄), was a Chinese historian and author of the Shitong born in presant-day Xuzhou, Jiangsu during the Tang Dynasty. ... Chinese historiography refers to the study of methods and assumptions made in studying Chinese history. ... The Great Tang Records on the Western Regions (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Dà Táng Xīyù Jì; Wade-Giles: Ta Tang Hsiyü Chi) is a travelogue and recounts of Xuanzangs nineteen years journey through Changan to India between 626 and 645. ... Bianji (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Biàn Jī; Wade-Giles: Pien Chi, fl. ... A portrait of Xuanzang Xuanzang (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsüan-tsang; CantoneseIPA: jyn4tsɔŋ1; CantoneseJyutping: jyun4zong1) was a famous Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler and translator that brought up the interaction between China and India in the early Tang period. ... Categories: Buddhism-related stubs | Buddhist terms ...


The Classical Prose Movement was spurred large in part by the writings of Tang authors Liu Zongyuan (773–819) and Han Yu (768–824). This new prose style broke away from the poetry tradition of the 'piantiwen' style begun in the ancient Han Dynasty. Although writers of the Classical Prose Movement imitated 'piantiwen', they criticized it for its often vague content and lack of colloquial language, focusing more on clarity and precision to make their writing more direct.[197] This guwen (archaic prose) style can be traced back to Han Yu, and would become largely associated with orthodox Neo-Confucianism.[198] The Classical Prose Movement (Chinese 古文運動 pinyin guwen yundong) of the late Tang dynasty and the China advocated clarity and precision rather than the florid piantiwen (駢體文) style which had become popular since the Han dynasty. ... Liu Zongyuan (柳宗元) (773 - 819) was a Chinese writer who lived in Changan in the Tang dynasty. ... Hán Yù (韓愈) (768 - 824), was a precursor of Neo-Confucianism as well as an essayist and poet. ... in Christianity: Eastern Christianity Oriental Orthodoxy Orthodox Christianity Orthodoxy by country in Judaism: Orthodox Judaism Modern Orthodox Judaism Jewish organisations: Orthodox Union Categories: ... Neo-Confucianism (traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: )/(traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a form of Confucianism that was primarily developed during the Sung Dynasty, but which can be traced back to Han Yu and Li Ao in the Tang Dynasty. ...


Religion and philosophy

A Tang Dynasty sculpture of a Bodhisattva
A Tang Dynasty sculpture of a Bodhisattva

Since ancient times, the Chinese believed in a folk religion that incorporated many deities. The Chinese believed that the afterlife was a reality parallel to the living world, complete with its own bureaucracy and afterlife currency needed by dead ancestors.[199] This is reflected in many short stories written in the Tang about people accidentally winding up in the realm of the dead, only to come back and report their experiences.[199] Chinese monk lighting incense in a temple in Beijing. ... Yin Yang symbol and Ba gua paved in a clearing outside of Nanning City, Guangxi province, China. ... Download high resolution version (531x743, 113 KB)Tang Bodhisattva. ... Download high resolution version (531x743, 113 KB)Tang Bodhisattva. ... Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Scriptures Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History 4th Buddhist Council Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      A statue of a Bodhisattva, Akasagarbha. ... Clothed statues of Matsu/Mazu (Chinese goddess of the Sea) Chinese folk religion comprises the religion practiced in much of China for thousands of years which included ancestor veneration and drew heavily upon concepts and beings within Chinese mythology. ...


Buddhism, originating in India around the time of Confucius, continued to flourish during the Tang period and was adopted by the imperial family, becoming thoroughly sinicized and a permanent part of Chinese traditional culture. In an age before Neo-Confucianism and figures such as Zhu Xi (1130–1200), Buddhism had begun to flourish in China during the Southern and Northern Dynasties, and became the dominant ideology during the prosperous Tang. Buddhist monasteries played an integral role in Chinese society, offering lodging for travelers in remote areas, schools for children throughout the country, and a place for urban literati to stage social events and gatherings such as going-away parties.[200] Buddhist monasteries were also engaged in the economy, since their land property and serfs gave them enough revenues to set up mills, oil presses, and other enterprises.[201][202][203] Although the monasteries retained 'serfs', these monastery dependents could actually own property and employ others to help them in their work, including their own slaves.[204] Buddhism, a Dharmic faith, is usually considered one of the worlds major religions, with between 230 to 500 million followers. ... Confucius (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kung-fu-tzu), lit. ... Neo-Confucianism (traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: )/(traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a form of Confucianism that was primarily developed during the Sung Dynasty, but which can be traced back to Han Yu and Li Ao in the Tang Dynasty. ... Zhu Xi or Chu Hsi (born October 18, 1130, Yuxi, Fujian province, China – died April 23, 1200, China) was a Song Dynasty (960-1279) Confucian scholar who became the leading figure of the School of Principle and the most influential rationalist Neo-Confucian in China. ... This article is about China. ...


The prominent status of Buddhism in Chinese culture began to decline as the dynasty and central government declined as well during the late 8th century to 9th century. Buddhist convents and temples that were exempt from state taxes beforehand were targeted by the state for taxation. In 845 Emperor Wuzong of Tang finally shut down 4,600 Buddhist monasteries along with 40,000 temples and shrines, forcing 260,000 Buddhist monks and nuns to return to secular life;[28][205] this episode would later be dubbed one of the Four Buddhist Persecutions in China. Although the ban would be lifted just a few years after, Buddhism never regained its once dominant status in Chinese culture.[28][205][206][207] This situation also came about through new revival of interest in native Chinese philosophies, such as Confucianism and Daoism. Han Yu (786–824)—who Arthur F. Wright stated was a "brilliant polemicist and ardent xenophobe"—was one of the first men of the Tang to denounce Buddhism.[208] Although his contemporaries found him crude and obnoxious, he would foreshadow the later persecution of Buddhism in the Tang, as well as the revival of Confucian theory with the rise of Neo-Confucianism of the Song Dynasty.[208] Nonetheless, Chán Buddhism gained popularity amongst the educated elite.[28] There were also many famous Chan monks from the Tang era, such as Mazu Daoyi, Baizhang, and Huangbo Xiyun. The sect of Pure Land Buddhism initiated by the Chinese monk Huiyuan (334–416) was also just as popular as Chan Buddhism during the Tang.[209] A Beguine convent in Amsterdam. ... Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya Buddhist temples, monasteries, stupas, and pagodas sorted by location. ... Emperor Tang Wuzong (武宗 814-846), born Li Yan, was a later emperor of the Tang dynasty of China. ... Secularity (adjective form secular) is the state of being separate from organized religion. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Three Disasters of Wu. ... Hán Yù (韓愈) (768 - 824), was a precursor of Neo-Confucianism as well as an essayist and poet. ... Polemic is the art or practice of disputation or controversy, as in religious, philosophical, or political matters. ... Look up xenophobia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Zen (disambiguation). ... Mazu Daoyi (Chn: 馬祖道一) (709 CE–788 CE) (WG: Ma-tsu Tao-yi) was a master of the Chinese Chan Buddhist lineage and a student of the sixth Chan Patriach, Hui-neng. ... Baizhang Huaihai (Chinese: 百丈懷海; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Pai-chang Huai-hai; Japanese: Hyakujo Ekai) (720-814) was a Chinese Zen master during the Tang Dynasty. ... Huangbo Xiyun (Simplified Chinese: 黄檗希运; Traditional Chinese: 黄檗希運; Hanyu Pinyin: Huángbò XÄ«yùn; Wade-Giles: Huang-po Hsi-yün) (died 850) was an influential Chinese master of Chan Buddhism. ... The Buddha Amitabha, 13th century, Kamakura, Japan. ... Huiyuan (334-417 B.C) was a Buddhist teacher who founded a monastery in Jianxi province and wrote the text ‘A Monk Does Not Bow Down Before A King’ (404B.C.). Huiyuan worked with monks, lay people, and even rulers to further Buddhist principles and Buddhist acceptance in China. ...

Rivaling Buddhism was Daoism, a native Chinese philosophical and religious belief system that found its roots in the book of the Daodejing (attributed to Laozi in the 6th century BC) and the Zhuangzi. The ruling Li family of the Tang Dynasty actually claimed descent from the ancient Laozi.[210] On numerous occasions where Tang princes would become crown prince or Tang princesses taking vows as Daoist priestesses, their lavish former mansions would be converted into Daoist abbeys and places of worship.[210] Many Daoists were associated with alchemy in their pursuits to find an elixir of immortality and a means to create gold from concocted mixtures of many other elements.[211] Although they never achieved their goals in either of these futile pursuits, they did contribute to the discovery of new metal alloys, porcelain products, and new dyes.[211] The historian Joseph Needham labeled the work of the Daoist alchemists as "proto-science rather than pseudo-science."[211] Image File history File links Stone_1-1-.jpg Nestorian Stele. ... Image File history File links Stone_1-1-.jpg Nestorian Stele. ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... The Tao Te Ching (道德經, Pinyin: D Jīng, thus sometimes rendered in recent works as Dao De Jing; archaic pre-Wade-Giles rendering: Tao Teh Ching; roughly translated as The Book of the Way and its Virtue (see dedicated chapter below on translating the title)) is an ancient Chinese scripture... Laozi (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Lao Tzu; also Lao Tse, Laotze, Lao Zi, and in other ways) was an ancient Chinese philosopher. ... Zhuangzi (Traditional: 莊子; Simplified: 庄子, Pinyin: Zhuāng Zǐ, Wade-Giles: Chuang TzÅ­, lit. ... Bold textTHIS IS THE PAGE THAT A.S. REALLY NEEDS!! THIS IS NOW MARKED!!! ] ps i like A.O. This article is about an abbey as a Christian monastic community. ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... The elixir of life, also known as the elixir of immortality or Dancing Water and sometimes equated with the Philosophers stone, is a legendary potion, or drink, that grants the drinker eternal life or eternal youth. ...


The Tang Dynasty also officially recognized various foreign religions. The Assyrian Church of the East, otherwise known as the Nestorian Christian Church, was given recognition by the Tang court. In 781, the Nestorian Stele was created in order to honor the achievements of their community in China. A Christian monastery was established in Shaanxi province where the Daqin Pagoda still stands, and inside the pagoda there is Christian-themed artwork. Although the religion largely died out after the Tang, it was revived in China following the Mongol invasions of the 13th century.[212] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Assyrian Church of the East... The form of Christianity often called Nestorianism but better described as the Church of the East spread widely across the continent of Asia following the banishment and condemnation of Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople, at the Council of Ephesus in 431. ... Detail of the stele The Nestorian Stele or Nestorian Stone, formally the Memorial of the Propagation in China of the Luminous Religion from Daqin (大秦景教流行中國碑; pinyin: Dàqín Jǐngjiào liúxíng Zhōngguó bÄ“i, abbreviated 大秦景教碑), is a Tang Chinese stele erected in 781 which celebrates the... Remnants of the pagoda Daqin Pagoda (大秦塔) in Zhouzhi, Shaanxi Province, China is the remnant of the earliest surviving Christian church in China. ...


Innovations

The Diamond Sutra, printed in 868, the world's first widely printed book (using woodblock printing).
The Diamond Sutra, printed in 868, the world's first widely printed book (using woodblock printing).

Woodblock printing made the written word available to vastly greater audiences. The text of the Diamond Sutra is an early example of Chinese woodblock printing, complete with illustrations embedded with the text. Among the earliest documents to be printed were Buddhist texts as well as calendars, the latter essential for calculating and marking which days were auspicious and which days were not.[213] With so many books coming into circulation for the general public, literacy rates could improve, along with the lower classes being able to obtain cheaper sources of study. Therefore, there was more lower class people seen entering the Imperial Examinations and passing them by the later Song Dynasty.[214][215][34] Although the later Bi Sheng's movable type printing in the 11th century was innovative for his period, woodblock printing that became widespread in the Tang would remain the dominant printing type in China until the more advanced printing press from Europe became widely accepted and used in East Asia. The history of science and technology in China is both long and rich with science and technological contribution. ... The Chinese Diamond Sutra, the oldest known dated printed book in the world, printed in the 9th year of Xiantong Era of the Tang Dynasty, i. ... Yuan Dynasty woodblock edition of a Chinese play For the use of the technique in art, see Woodcut on the technique, and Old master print for the history in Europe and woodblock printing in Japan. ... Yuan Dynasty woodblock edition of a Chinese play For the use of the technique in art, see Woodcut on the technique, and Old master print for the history in Europe and woodblock printing in Japan. ... The Chinese Diamond Sutra, the oldest known dated printed book in the world, printed in the 9th year of Xiantong Era of the Tang Dynasty, i. ... Pì Shēng (Wade-Giles selling) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; died 1052) was the inventor of the first know movable type printing system. ... For the weblog software, see Movable Type. ... For other uses, see Print. ... For the article on the development of printing in Europe, see History of western typography. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Technology during the Tang period was built also upon the precedents of the past. The mechanical gear systems of Zhang Heng (78–139) and Ma Jun (fl. 3rd century) gave the Tang engineer, astronomer, and monk Yi Xing (683–727) a great source of influence when he invented the world's first clockwork escapement mechanism in 725.[216] This was used alongside a clepsydra clock and waterwheel to power a rotating armillary sphere in representation of astronomical observation.[217] Yi Xing's device also had a mechanically-timed bell that was struck automatically every hour, and a drum that was struck automatically every quarter hour; essentially, a striking clock.[218] Yi's astronomical clock and water-powered armillary sphere became well known throughout the country, since students attempting to pass the imperial examinations by 730 had to write an essay on the device as an exam requirement.[219] However, the most common type of public and palace timekeeping device was the inflow clepsydra, improved in about 610 by the Sui Dynasty engineers Geng Xun and Yuwen Kai when they provided a steelyard balance that allowed seasonal adjustment in the pressure head of the compensating tank and could then control the rate of flow for different lengths of day and night.[220] For other uses, see Zhang Heng (disambiguation). ... South Pointing Chariot (replica) Ma Jun (馬鈞, Wade-Giles: Ma Chün; 200 - 265), styled Deheng (徳衡), was a Chinese mechanical engineer and government official during the Three Kingdoms era of China. ... Yi Xing (Yi-xing) (一行) (683 – 727) was a Chinese astronomer and buddhist monk of the Tang Dynasty. ... A simple escapement. ... A water clock or clepsydra is a device for measuring time by letting water regularly flow out of a container usually by a tiny aperture. ... An overshot water wheel standing 42 feet high powers the Old Mill at Berry College in Rome, Georgia A water wheel (also waterwheel, Norse mill, Persian wheel or noria) is a hydropower system; a system for extracting power from a flow of water. ... Armillary sphere An armillary sphere (variations known as a spherical astrolabe, armilla, or armil) is a model of the celestial sphere, invented by the ancient Greek Eratosthenes in 255 BC. Its name comes from the Latin armilla (circle, bracelet), since it has a skeleton made of graduated metal circles linking... Astronomy, which etymologically means law of the stars, (from Greek: αστρονομία = άστρον + νόμος) is a science involving the observation and explanation of events occurring outside Earth and its atmosphere. ... Big Ben, the tower clock of the Palace of Westminster in London, is a famous striking clock. ... Prague astronomical clock Astronomical clock in Lund Cathedral An astronomical clock is a clock with special mechanisms and dials to display the relative positions of the sun, moon, zodiacal constellations, and sometimes major planets. ... Clepsydra may refer to Clepsydra, a type of water thief. ... A steelyard balance is a straight-beam balance with arms of unequal length. ... Fluid pressure is the pressure at some point within a fluid, such as water or air. ...

A Tang Dynasty bronze foliate mirror, with decorations of mythical animals and phoenixes, 8th century.
A Tang Dynasty bronze foliate mirror, with decorations of mythical animals and phoenixes, 8th century.

There were many other technically impressive inventions during the Tang era. This included a 0.91 m (3 ft) tall mechanical wine server of the early 8th century that was in the shape of an artificial mountain, carved out of iron and rested on a lacquered-wooden tortoise frame.[221] This intricate device used a hydraulic pump that siphoned wine out of metal dragon-headed faucets, as well as tilting bowls that were timed to dip wine down, by force of gravity when filled, into an artificial lake that had intricate iron leaves popping up as trays for placing party treats.[221] Furthermore, as the historian Charles Benn describes it: Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,592 × 1,944 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,592 × 1,944 pixels, file size: 2. ... This article is about the metal alloy. ... In a general sense, lacquer is a clear or coloured coating, that dries by solvent evaporation only and that produces a hard, durable finish that can be polished to a very high gloss, and gives the illusion of depth. ... Japanese name Hiragana: KyÅ«jitai: Shinjitai: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Thai name Thai: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: The Chinese dragon is a Chinese mythical creature, depicted as a long, scaled, snake-like creature with four claws. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ...

Midway up the southern side of the mountain was a dragon...the beast opened its mouth and spit brew into a goblet seated on a large [iron] lotus leaf beneath. When the cup was 80 percent full, the dragon ceased spewing ale, and a guest immediately seized the goblet. If he was slow in draining the cup and returning it to the leaf, the door of a pavilion at the top of the mountain opened and a mechanical wine server, dressed in a cap and gown, emerged with a wooden bat in his hand. As soon as the guest returned the goblet, the dragon refilled it, the wine server withdrew, and the doors of the pavilion closed...A pump siphoned the ale that flowed into the ale pool through a hidden hole and returned the brew to the reservoir [holding more than 16 quarts/15 liters of wine] inside the mountain.[221]

A rounded ceramic plate with "three colors" (sancai) glaze design, 8th century.
A rounded ceramic plate with "three colors" (sancai) glaze design, 8th century.

Although the use of a teasing mechanical puppet in this wine-serving device was certainly ingenious, the use of mechanical puppets in China date back to the Qin Dynasty (221–207 BC)[222] while Ma Jun in the 3rd century had an entire mechanical puppet theater operated by the rotation of a waterwheel.[222] There was also an automatic wine-server known in the ancient Greco-Roman world, a design of Heron of Alexandria that employed an urn with an inner valve and a lever device similar to the one described above. Sancai horse, Tang Dynasty, 7-8th century. ... Qin Dynasty in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded by the... South Pointing Chariot (replica) Ma Jun (馬鈞, Wade-Giles: Ma Chün; 200 - 265), styled Deheng (徳衡), was a Chinese mechanical engineer and government official during the Three Kingdoms era of China. ... The Greco-Roman period of history refers to the culture of the peoples who were incorporated into the Roman Republic and Roman Empire. ... Heros aeolipile Hero (or Heron) of Alexandria (c. ...


The Chinese of the Tang era were also very interested in the benefits of officially classifying all of the medicines used in pharmacology. In 657, Emperor Gaozong of Tang (r. 649–683) commissioned the literary project of publishing an official materia medica, complete with text and aid of illustrated drawing for 833 different medicinal substances taken from different stones, minerals, metals, plants, herbs, animals, vegetables, fruits, and cereal crops.[223] In addition to compiling pharmacopeias, the Tang fostered learning in medicine by upholding imperial medical colleges, state examinations for doctors, and publishing forensic manuals for physicians.[224] Beyond medicine, the Chinese of the Tang period employed complex chemical formulas for an array of different purposes, often found through experiments of Daoist alchemy. These included a waterproof and dust-repelling cream or varnish for clothes and weapons, fireproof cement for glass and porcelain wares, a waterproof cream applied to silk clothes of underwater divers, a cream designated for polishing bronze mirrors, and many other useful formulas.[225] Traditional Chinese medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... Emperor Gaozong (628 - 683) was the third emperor of Tang Dynasty in China and he ruled from 649 to 683. ... Materia medica is a Latin term for any material or substance used in the composition of curative agents in medicine. ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... Waterproof fabrics are usually natural or synthetic fabrics that are laminated to or coated in some sort of permanently waterproofing material, such as rubber, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyurethane (PU), silicone elastomer, and wax. ... This article is about varnish. ... Fireproof is Christian band Pillars second full length album. ... For other uses, see Cement (disambiguation). ... A diver is an person who practices scuba diving or surface supplied diving. ...

The Dunhuang map, a star map from the Tang Dynasty showing the North Polar region. The approximate date of this map's creation is 700. Constellations of the three schools were distinguished with different colors: white, black and yellow for stars of Wu Xian, Gan De and Shi Shen respectively. The whole set of star maps contained 1,300 stars.
The Dunhuang map, a star map from the Tang Dynasty showing the North Polar region. The approximate date of this map's creation is 700.[226] Constellations of the three schools were distinguished with different colors: white, black and yellow for stars of Wu Xian, Gan De and Shi Shen respectively. The whole set of star maps contained 1,300 stars.

In the realm of technical Chinese architecture, there were also government standard building codes, outlined in the early Tang book of the Yingshan Ling (National Building Law).[227] Fragments of this book have survived in the Tang Lü (The Tang Code),[228] while the Song Dynasty architectural manual of the Yingzao Fashi (State Building Standards) by Li Jie (1065–1101) in 1103 is the oldest existing technical treatise on Chinese architecture that has survived in full.[227] During the reign of Emperor Xuanzong of Tang (712–756) there were 34,850 registered craftsmen serving the state, managed by the Agency of Palace Buildings (Jingzuo Jian).[228] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 597 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,128 × 2,136 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 597 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,128 × 2,136 pixels, file size: 1. ... Star Map from the Tang Dynasty (North Polar region). ... Star Maps were ancient semi-sentient devices created during the reign of the Rakatan Infinite Empire. ... Wu Xian (Chinese: å·«å’¸) was a Chinese astronomer who supposedly lived in the Shang Dynasty (c. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Shi Shen (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Shih Shen, fl. ... The Liuhe Pagoda of Hangzhou, China, built in 1165 AD during the Song Dynasty. ... Bracket arm clusters containing cantilevers, Yingzao Fashi The Yingzao Fashi (Chinese:營造法式; Treatise on Architectural Methods or State Building Standards) is a technical treatise on architecture and craftsmanship written by the Chinese author Li Jie (1065–1110),[1] the Directorate of Buildings and Construction during the mid Song Dynasty of China. ... The Liuhe Pagoda, or Six Harmonies Pagoda, in Hangzhou, erected in 1156 and fully constructed in 1165 AD. The architecture of the Song Dynasty was based upon the accomplishments of its predecessors, much like every subsequent dynastic period of China. ... Emperor Tang Xuanzong (唐玄宗) (September 8, 685 - May 3, 762), born Li Longji (李隆基), was the sixth emperor of the Tang dynasty of China, reigning from 712 to 756. ... Craftsman is an artisan who practices a handicraft or trade; a style of architecture and furniture arising from the Arts and Crafts movement; a military rank within the Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers, equivalent to a private; and a brand of tools. ...


In the realm of cartography, there were further advancements since the map-makers of the Han Dynasty. When the Tang chancellor Pei Ju (547–627) was working for the Sui Dynasty as a Commercial Commissioner in 605, he created a well-known gridded map with a graduated scale in the tradition of Pei Xiu (224–271).[229][230] The Tang chancellor Xu Jingzong (592–672) was also known for his map of China drawn in the year 658.[230] In the year 785 the Emperor Dezong had the geographer and cartographer Jia Dan (730–805) complete a map of China and her former colonies in Central Asia.[230] Upon its completion in 801, the map was 9.1 m (30 ft) in length and 10 m (33 ft) in height, mapped out on a grid scale of one inch equaling one hundred li (Chinese unit of measuring distance).[230] A Chinese map of 1137 is similar in complexity to the one made by Jia Dan, carved on a stone stele with a grid scale of 100 li.[231] However, the only type of map that has survived from the Tang period are star charts. Despite this, the earliest extant terrain maps of China come from the ancient State of Qin; maps from the 4th century BC that were excavated in 1986.[232] Cartography or mapmaking (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) is the study and practice of making maps or globes. ... Pei Ju (裴矩) (547?[1]-627), courtesy name Hongda (弘大), formally Duke Jing of Anyi (安邑敬公), was a high level official during the Chinese dynasties Sui Dynasty and Tang Dynasty, briefly serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Gaozu of Tang. ... A variable scale for measuring maps The scale of a map is the ratio of a single unit of distance on the map to the equivalent distance on the ground. ... Pei Xiu (裴秀) was a minister of the Kingdom of Wei during the Three Kingdoms Period of China. ... Xu Jingzong (許敬宗) (592-September 20, 672[1]), courtesy name Yanzu (延族), formally Duke Gong of Gaoyang (高陽恭公), was a chancellor of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, and he, allied with Emperor Gaozongs wife Empress Wu (later known as Wu Zetian), was exceedingly powerful during most of Emperor Gaozongs reign. ... Emperor Tang Dezong (唐德宗李适 742-805), born Li Kuo, was the 9th emperor of the Tang dynasty of China. ... The li (里 lǐ) is a Chinese unit of distance, until recently usually considered to be about 576 metres, but is now standardised at a half a kilometre or 500 metres (547 yards). ... A celestial map from the 17th century, by the Dutch cartographer Frederik de Wit. ... Cartography or mapmaking (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) has been an integral part of the human story for a long time (maybe 8,000 years - nobody knows exactly, but longer than written words). ... Qin or Chin (Wade-Giles) (秦), pronounced something like Shin, (778 BC-207 BC) was a state during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of China. ...


The 2nd century inventor Ding Huan (fl. 180) of the Han Dynasty invented a rotary fan for air conditioning, with seven wheels 3 m (10 ft) in diameter and manually powered.[233] In 747, Emperor Xuanzong had the Cool Hall (Liang Tian) built in the imperial palace, which the Tang Yulin describes as having water-powered fan wheels for air conditioning as well as rising jet streams of water from fountains.[234] During the subsequent Song Dynasty, written sources mentioned the air conditioning rotary fan as even more widely used.[235] Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (206 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–220 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication... For other uses, see Fan. ... Note: in the broadest sense, air conditioning can refer to any form of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning. ...


Tang women

A Tang woman playing polo on a horse, 8th century.
A Tang woman playing polo on a horse, 8th century.

Women's social rights and social status during the Tang era were incredibly liberal-minded for the medieval period. However, this was largely reserved for urbane women of elite status, as men and women in the rural countryside labored hard in their different set of tasks; with wives and daughters responsible for more domestic tasks of weaving textiles and rearing of silk worms, while men tended to farming in the fields.[44] There were many women in the Tang era who gained access to religious authority by taking vows as Daoist priestesses.[210] The head mistresses of the bordellos in the North Hamlet (also known as the Gay Quarters) of the capital Chang'an acquired large amounts of wealth and power.[236] Their high-class courtesans, who very much resembled Japanese geishas,[237] were well respected. These courtesans were known as great singers and poets, supervised banquets and feasts, knew the rules to all the drinking games, and were trained to have the utmost respectable table manners.[237][238] Although they were renowned for their polite behavior, the courtesans were known to dominate the conversation amongst elite men, and were not afraid to openly castigate or criticize prominent male guests who talked too much or too loudly, boasted too much of their accomplishments, or had in some way ruined dinner for everyone by rude behavior (on one occasion a courtesan even beat up a drunken man who had insulted her).[238] When singing to entertain guests, courtesans not only composed the lyrics to their own songs, but they popularized a new form of lyrical verse by singing lines written by various renowned and famous men in Chinese history.[180] For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Bombyx mori Linnaeus, 1758 For the band named Silkworm, see Silkworm (band). ... Prostitution is the sale of sexual services (typically manual stimulation, oral sex, sexual intercourse, or anal sex) for cash or other kind of return, generally indiscriminately with many persons. ... For other uses, see Changan (disambiguation). ... Young men sipping tea and having sex. ... A courtesan in mid-16th century usage was a high-class prostitute or mistress, especially one associated with rich, powerful, or upper-class men who provided luxuries and status in exchange for her services. ... Typical nape make-up Geisha ) or Geigi ) are traditional, female Japanese entertainers, whose skills include performing various Japanese arts, such as classical music and dance. ... Drinking games are games which involve the drinking of beer or other alcoholic beverages. ... Table manners are the etiquette used when eating. ...

Beauties Wearing Flowers, by painter Zhou Fang, 8th century.
Beauties Wearing Flowers, by painter Zhou Fang, 8th century.

Women who were full-figured (even plump) were considered attractive by men, as men also enjoyed the presence of assertive, active women.[239][240] In example of the latter, the foreign horse-riding sport of polo from Persia became a wildly popular trend amongst the Chinese elite, as women often played the sport (as glazed earthenware figurines from the time period portray).[239] The preferred hairstyle for women was to bunch their hair up like "an elaborate edifice above the forehead,"[240] while affluent ladies wore extravagant head ornaments, combs, pearl necklaces, face powders, and perfumes.[241] A law was passed in 671 which attempted to force women to wear hats with veils again in order to promote decency, but these laws were ignored as some women started wearing caps and even no hats at all, as well as men's riding clothes and boots, and tight-sleeved bodices.[242] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Zhou Fang (c740-c800, Chinese characters 周昉, Wade-Giles Chou Fang) was one of two influential painters during the mid-Tang dynasty. ... For other uses, see Polo (disambiguation). ... Earthenware is a common ceramic material, which is used extensively for pottery tableware and decorative objects. ...


There were some prominent court women after the era of Empress Wu, such as Yang Guifei (719–756), who had Emperor Xuanzong appoint some of her friends and cronies in important ministerial and martial positions.[39] Yáng GuìfÄ“i (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), Yáng: (a common surname), GuìfÄ“i: highest-ranking imperial concubine (literally means precious princess consort), (June 1, 719 — July 15, 756), born Yáng Yùhuán (楊玉環), was one of the Four Beauties of ancient China. ...


Tea, food, and necessities

During the earlier Southern and Northern Dynasties (420–589), and perhaps even earlier, the drink of tea had become popular in southern China. Tea comes from the leaf buds of Camelia sinensis, native to southwestern China. Tea was viewed then as a beverage of tasteful pleasure and looked upon with pharmacological purpose as well.[180] During the Tang Dynasty, tea was synonymous with everything sophisticated in society. The Tang poet Lu Tong (790–835) devoted most of his poetry to his love of tea. The 8th century author Lu Yu (known as the Sage of Tea) even wrote a treatise on the art of drinking tea, called the Classic of Tea (Chájīng).[243] Tea was also enjoyed by Uyghur Turks; when riding into town, the first places they visited were the tea shops.[107] Although wrapping paper had been used in China since the 2nd century BC,[244] during the Tang Dynasty the Chinese were using wrapping paper as folded and sewn square bags to hold and preserve the flavor of tea leaves.[244] Indeed, paper found many other uses besides writing and wrapping during the Tang era. Earlier, the first recorded use of toilet paper was made in 589 by the scholar-official Yan Zhitui (531–591),[245] and in 851 an Arab Muslim traveler commented on how the Tang era Chinese were not careful about cleanliness because they did not wash with water when going to the bathroom; instead, he said, the Chinese simply used paper to wipe with.[245] Image File history File links Lu Yu The Book of Tea File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Lu Yu The Book of Tea File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A statue of Lu Yu located in Xian Lu Yu (陆羽) (733 – 804) is respected as the Sage of Tea for his contribution to Chinese tea culture. ... The Classic of Tea (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the very first monograph on tea in the world, written by Lu Yu between 760 CE and 780 CE. According to popular legend, Lu Yu was an orphan of Jinling county (now Tianmen county in Hubei province) who was adopted... This article is about China. ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze Camellia sinensis is the tea plant, the plant species whose leaves and leaf buds are used to produce tea. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A statue of Lu Yu located in Xian Lu Yu (陆羽) (733 – 804) is respected as the Sage of Tea for his contribution to Chinese tea culture. ... The Classic of Tea (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the very first monograph on tea in the world, written by Lu Yu between 760 CE and 780 CE. According to popular legend, Lu Yu was an orphan of Jinling county (now Tianmen county in Hubei province) who was adopted... Love gift Man presents a cut of meat to a youth with a hoop. ... Paper bag redirects here. ... For the South Park episode, see Toilet Paper (South Park episode). ... Yan Zhitui (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Yen2 Chih1-Tui1, 531–591) was a Chinese scholar, calligrapher, painter, musician, and government official who served four different Chinese states during the late Southern and Northern Dynasties: the Liang Dynasty in southern China, the Northern Qi and Northern Zhou Dynasties of northern... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


In ancient times, the Chinese had outlined the five most basic foodstuffs known as the five grains: sesamum, legumes, wheat, panicled millet, and glutinous millet.[246] The Ming Dynasty encyclopedist Song Yingxing (1587–1666) noted that rice was not counted amongst the five grains from the time of the legendary and deified Chinese sage Shennong (the existence of whom Yingxing wrote was "an uncertain matter") into the 2nd millenniums BC, because the properly wet and humid climate in southern China for growing rice was not yet fully settled or cultivated by the Chinese.[246] Binomial name Sesamum indicum Sesame is a plant grown primarily for its oil-rich seeds. ... This article is about the fruit of the plants also called legumes. For the plants themselves, see Fabaceae . ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... White-fruited Rowan (Sorbus glabrescens) corymb; note the branched structures holding the fruits. ... For other uses, see Millet (disambiguation). ... For the food products made from gluten see Wheat gluten (food). ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Cyclopedia redirects here. ... Song Yingxing (Traditional Chinese:宋應星; Simplified Chinese:宋应星; Wade Giles: Sung Ying-Hsing; 1587-1666 AD) was a Chinese scientist and encyclopedist who lived during the late Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Shennong‎ Shennong (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Yan Emperor (炎帝) or the Emperor of the Five Grains (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ), is a legendary ruler of China and culture hero of Chinese mythology who is believed to had lived some 5,000 years ago, and taught... Alternative meaning: In geology, North China (continent) and South China (continent) were two ancient landmasses that correspond to modern northern and southern China. ...

A terracotta sculpture of a lady, 7th-8th century. During the Tang era, female hosts gathered feasts, tea parties, and played drinking games with their guests.
A terracotta sculpture of a lady, 7th-8th century. During the Tang era, female hosts gathered feasts, tea parties, and played drinking games with their guests.

During the Tang, the many common foodstuffs and cooking ingredients in addition to those already listed were barley, garlic, salt, turnips, soybeans, pears, apricots, peaches, apples, pomegranates, jujubes, rhubarb, hazelnuts, pine nuts, chestnuts, walnuts, yams, taro, etc.[247] The various meats that were consumed included pork, chicken, lamb (especially preferred in the north), sea otter, bear (which was hard to catch, but there were recipes for steamed, boiled, and marinated bear), and even bactrian camels.[247] In the south along the coast meat from seafood was by default the most common, as the Chinese enjoyed eating cooked jellyfish with cinnamon, Sichuan pepper, cardamom, and ginger, as well as oysters with wine, fried squid with ginger and vinegar, horseshoe crabs and red crabs, shrimp, and pufferfish, which the Chinese called 'river piglet'.[248] Some foods were also off-limits, as the Tang court encouraged people not to eat beef (since the bull was a valuable draft animal), and from 831 to 833 Emperor Wenzong of Tang even banned the slaughter of cattle on the grounds of his religious convictions to Buddhism.[249] From the trade overseas and over land, the Chinese acquired golden peaches from Samarkand, date palms, pistachios, and figs from Persia, pine seeds and ginseng roots from Korea, and mangoes from Southeast Asia.[250][251] In China, there was a great demand for sugar; during the reign of Harsha (r. 606–647) over North India, Indian envoys to Tang China brought two makers of sugar who successfully taught the Chinese how to cultivate sugarcane.[252][253] Cotton also came from India as a finished product from Bengal, although it was during the Tang that the Chinese began to grow and process cotton, and by the Yuan Dynasty it became the prime textile fabric in China.[224] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 274 × 598 pixelsFull resolution‎ (779 × 1,701 pixels, file size: 531 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 274 × 598 pixelsFull resolution‎ (779 × 1,701 pixels, file size: 531 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Terra cotta is a hard semifired waterproof ceramic clay used in pottery and building construction. ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. Allium sativum L., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. ... This article is about common table salt. ... Trinomial name Brassica rapa rapa L. For similar vegetables also called turnip, see Turnip (disambiguation). ... Soy redirects here. ... Species About 30 species; see text For other uses, see Pear (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Prunus armeniaca L. For other uses, see Apricot (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (L.) Batsch Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... This article is about the fruit. ... Binomial name L. The Pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 5–8 m tall. ... Binomial name (L.) H. Karst. ... For other uses see Rhubarb (disambiguation) Species About 60, including: R. nobile R. palmatum Rhubarb is a perennial plant that grows from thick short rhizomes, comprising the genus Rheum. ... Binomial name Corylus avellana L. The Common Hazel (Corylus avellana) is a shrub native to Europe and Asia. ... Pine nuts are the edible seeds of pine trees (family Pinaceae, genus Pinus). ... Species Castanea alnifolia - Bush Chinkapin* Castanea crenata - Japanese Chestnut Castanea dentata - American Chestnut Castanea henryi - Henrys Chestnut Castanea mollissima - Chinese Chestnut Castanea ozarkensis - Ozark Chinkapin Castanea pumila - Allegheny Chinkapin Castanea sativa - Sweet Chestnut Castanea seguinii - Seguins Chestnut * treated as a synonym of by many authors Chestnut is a... For other uses, see Walnut (disambiguation). ... Yams at Brixton market Yam is the common name for some species in the genus Dioscorea (family Dioscoreaceae). ... This article is about the plant. ... For other uses, see Pork (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... An unweaned lamb Legs of lamb in a supermarket cabinet The terms lamb, hoggett or mutton are culinary names for the meat of a domestic sheep. ... Binomial name Enhydra lutris (Linnaeus, 1758) The Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris) is a large otter native to the North Pacific, from northern Japan and Kamchatka west across the Aleutian Islands south to California. ... For other uses, see Bear (disambiguation). ... Marination, also known as marinading, is the process of soaking foods in a seasoned, often acidic, liquid before cooking. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Bactrian Camel range The Bactrian Camel (Camelus bactrianus) is a large even-toed ungulate native to the steppes of eastern Asia. ... For other uses, see Jellyfish (disambiguation). ... Binomial name J.Presl Cassia (Chinese cinnamon) is also commonly called (and sometimes sold as) cinnamon. ... Sichuan pepper (or Szechuan pepper) is the outer pod of the tiny fruit of a number of species in the genus Zanthoxylum (most commonly Zanthoxylum piperitum, Zanthoxylum simulans, and Zanthoxylum sancho), widely grown and consumed in Asia as a spice. ... This article is about the herbs. ... For other uses, see Ginger (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Oyster (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Squid (disambiguation). ... Vinegar is sometimes infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The horseshoe crab, horsefoot, king crab, or sauce-pan (Limulus polyphemus, formerly known as Limulus cyclops, Xiphosura americana, Polyphemus occidentalis) is a chelicerate arthropod. ... For other uses, see Crab (disambiguation). ... Superfamilies Alpheoidea Atyoidea Bresilioidea Campylonotoidea Crangonoidea Galatheacaridoidea Nematocarcinoidea Oplophoroidea Palaemonoidea Pandaloidea Pasiphaeoidea Procaridoidea Processoidea Psalidopodoidea Stylodactyloidea True shrimp are swimming, decapod crustaceans classified in the infraorder Caridea, found widely around the world in both fresh and salt water. ... Genera Amblyrhynchotes Arothron Auriglobus Canthigaster Carinotetraodon Chelonodon Colomesus Contusus Ephippion Feroxodon Fugu Gastrophysus Javichthys Lagocephalus Liosaccus Marilyna Monotretus Omegaphora Pelagocephalus Polyspina Reicheltia Sphoeroides Takifugu Tetractenos Tetraodon Torquigener Tylerius Xenopterus Blowfish redirects here. ... For other uses, see Beef (disambiguation). ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... A draught animal is a (semi-)domesticated animal used for transport and haulage (the heavy labour of pulling carts, hauling timber and ploughing fields are examples). ... Emperor Tang Wenzong (唐文宗李昂 809-840), born Li Ang, was the 14th emperor of the Tang dynasty of China. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... Binomial name (L.) Batsch Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... Binomial name L. The Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is a palm in the genus Phoenix, extensively cultivated for its edible fruit. ... Binomial name L. The pistachio (Pistacia vera L., Anacardiaceae; sometimes placed in Pistaciaceae) is a small tree up to 10 m tall, native to mountainous regions of Iran, Turkmenistan and western Afghanistan. ... Species About 800, including: Ficus altissima Ficus americana Ficus aurea Ficus benghalensis- Indian Banyan Ficus benjamina- Weeping Fig Ficus broadwayi Ficus carica- Common Fig Ficus citrifolia Ficus coronata Ficus drupacea Ficus elastica Ficus godeffroyi Ficus grenadensis Ficus hartii Ficus lyrata Ficus macbrideii Ficus macrophylla- Moreton Bay Fig Ficus microcarpa- Chinese... Species Subgenus Panax Section Panax Series Notoginseng Panax notoginseng Series Panax Panax bipinnatifidus Panax ginseng Panax japonicus Panax quinquefolius Panax vietnamensis Panax wangianus Panax zingiberensis Section Pseudoginseng Panax pseudoginseng Panax stipuleanatus Subgenus Trifolius Panax trifolius Ginseng field in Wisconsin Ginseng refers to species within Panax, a genus of 11 species... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... Species About 35 species, including: Mangifera altissima Mangifera applanata Mangifera caesia Mangifera camptosperma Mangifera casturi Mangifera decandra Mangifera foetida Mangifera gedebe Mangifera griffithii Mangifera indica Mangifera kemanga Mangifera laurina Mangifera longipes Mangifera macrocarpa Mangifera mekongensis Mangifera odorata Mangifera pajang Mangifera pentandra Mangifera persiciformis Mangifera quadrifida Mangifera siamensis Mangifera similis Mangifera... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... Harsha or Harshavardhana (606-648) was an Indian emperor who ruled northern India as paramount monarch for over forty years. ... Dark green region marks the approximate extent of northern India while the regions marked as light green lies within the sphere of north Indian influence. ... Species Saccharum arundinaceum Saccharum bengalense Saccharum edule Saccharum officinarum Saccharum procerum Saccharum ravennae Saccharum robustum Saccharum sinense Saccharum spontaneum Sugarcane or Sugar cane (Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation) of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae, tribe Andropogoneae), native to warm temperate to tropical... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ...


Methods of food preservation were important and practiced throughout China. The common people used simple methods of preservation, such as digging deep ditches and trenches, brining, and salting their foods.[254] The emperor had large ice pits located in the parks in and around Chang'an for preserving food, while the wealthy and elite had their own smaller ice pits.[255] Each year the emperor had laborers carve 1000 blocks of ice from frozen creeks in mountain valleys, each block with the dimension of 3 ft (0.91 m) by 3 ft (0.91 m) and 3½ ft.[255] There were many frozen delicacies enjoyed during the summer, especially chilled melon.[255] Various preserved foods Food preservation is the process of treating and handling food in such a way as to stop or greatly slow down spoilage to prevent foodborne illness while maintaining nutritional value, density, texture and flavor. ... In cooking, brining is a process similar to marination in which meat is soaked in a salt solution (the brine) before cooking. ... For other uses, see Melon (disambiguation). ...


Historiography

The first classic work about the Tang is the Book of Tang by Liu Xu (887–946) et al of the Later Jin, who redacted it during the last years of his life. This was edited into another history (labelled the New Book of Tang) in order to distinguish it, which was a work by the Song historians Ouyang Xiu (1007–1072), Song Qi (998–1061), et al of the Song Dynasty (between the years 1044 and 1060). Both of them were based upon earlier annals, yet those are now lost.[256] Both of them also rank among the Twenty-Four Histories of China. One of the surviving sources of the Book of Tang, primarily covering up to 756, is the Tongdian, which Du You presented to the emperor in 801. The Tang period was again placed into the enormous universal history text of the Zizhi Tongjian, edited, compiled, and completed in 1084 by a team of scholars under the Song Dynasty Chancellor Sima Guang (1019–1086). This historical text, written with 3 million Chinese characters in 294 volumes, covered the history of China from the beginning of the Warring States (403 BC) until the beginning of the Song Dynasty (960). Chinese historiography refers to the study of methods and assumptions made in studying Chinese history. ... [Jiu] Tang Shu, [Old] Book of Tang (also, [Chiu] Tang shu), is the first classic work about the Tang Dynasty. ... The Later Jin (936-947) was one of the Five Dynasties during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period in China. ... Xin Tang shu, New Book of Tang (also, Hsin Tang shu), is a classic work of history about the Tang Dynasty edited by Ouyang Xiu (1007-1072 CE) and Song Qi (998-1061) of the Song dynasty. ... Ouyang Xiu (Ou-Yang Hsiu) (歐陽修; 欧阳修 style name: Yongshu 永叔; also known as Zuiweng 醉翁 and Liuyi Jushi 六一居士) (Wade-Giles: Ouyang Hsiu) (1007 - 1072) was a Chinese statesman, historian, essayist and poet of the Song Dynasty. ... The Twenty-Four Histories is a collection of historical books covering a period of history from 3000 B.C. to the Ming Dynasty in the 17th century. ... The Tongdian (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Tungtien) is an important Chinese institutional history and encyclopedia text. ... Du You (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Tu Yu, 735-812) was a scholar, historian and prime minister of the Tang Dynasty, who had devoted 36 years to the compilation of the Tongdian, a historical encyclopedia with 200 sections, on collection of laws, regulations and general events from ancient times till his... Universal history is basic to the Western tradition of historiography, especially the Judeo-Christian wellspring of that tradition. ... Zizhi Tongjian (traditional Chinese character: 資治通鑑; simplified Chinese character: 资治通鉴; pinyin Zīzhì Tōngjìan, Wade-Giles Tzu-chih tung-chien) is known to be a important Chinese history text of annual chronology. ... Sima Guang (Chinese:司马光; Wade-Giles:Szuma Kuang, 1019-1086) was a Chinese historian, scholar and statesman of the Song Dynasty. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Alternative meaning: Warring States Period (Japan) The Warring States Period (traditional Chinese: 戰國時代, simplified Chinese: 战国时代 pinyin Zhànguó Shídài) takes place from sometime in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by Qin in 221 BC. It is nominally considered to be the second part of the Eastern...


See also

This is a list of emperors from the Tang Dynasty (618-907) of China. ... Night Shining White, a handscroll attributed to Han Gan (active 742–756). ... Di Renjie (狄仁傑) (630 - 700) was a Chinese official famous for opposing corruption who twice served as the Chancellor of Tang China. ... Wei Zheng (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Wei Cheng, 580-643), was a Chinese politician and the major contributor of the Book of Sui, composed in 636. ... The following is a list of tributaries of Imperial China. ... Imperial embassies to China were missions to China for importing the technologies and culture of China to Japan. ... The Eight Immortals of the Wine Cup or Eight Immortals Indulged in Wine (Chinese: 酒中八仙; Pinyin: jiǔzhōng bāxīan) were a group of Tang Dynasty scholars who liked to drink alcoholic beverages. ... I Ching (monk) or Yi Jing (Yijing, Yiqing, I-Tsing or YiChing) (義淨, 三藏法師義淨 635-713) is Tang Dynasty Buddhist monk, original name was Zhang Wen Ming (张文明). He contributed to the world the information of ancient Srivijaya (written in Chinese), large numbers of Buddhist scriptures, his adventure stories en route to Nalanda... Yan Zhenqing (Simplified Chinese: 顏真卿; Traditional Chinese: 顏真卿; pinyin: ) (709 – 785) was a leading Chinese calligrapher and a loyal governor of the Tang Dynasty. ... Kai Yuan Za Bao(chinese:开元杂报) is an early newspaper of 8th centuary. ...

Notes

^ a: During the reign of the Tang the world population grew from about 190 million to approximately 240 million, a difference of 50 million. See also medieval demography.
Medieval demography is the study of human demography in Europe during the Middle Ages. ...

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  162. ^ Benn, 151-152.
  163. ^ Benn, 173-174.
  164. ^ Benn, 152.
  165. ^ Benn, 150-154.
  166. ^ Benn, 154-155.
  167. ^ a b Benn, 132.
  168. ^ Benn, 142-147.
  169. ^ Benn, 143.
  170. ^ Ebrey, 103.
  171. ^ Benn, xiii.
  172. ^ Benn, xiv, xv, xvi, xvii, xviii
  173. ^ Studwell, 4.
  174. ^ Schafer, 21.
  175. ^ Schafer, 25.
  176. ^ a b c Schafer, 17–18.
  177. ^ Reischauer, 143–144.
  178. ^ Schafer, 18–19.
  179. ^ Schafer, 19–20.
  180. ^ a b c d Ebrey (1999), 120.
  181. ^ Harper, 33.
  182. ^ Benn, 259.
  183. ^ Benn, 137.
  184. ^ Ebrey (2006), 102.
  185. ^ a b Yu, 76.
  186. ^ Yu, 75.
  187. ^ University of Virginia's 300 Tang Poems
  188. ^ Reed, 121.
  189. ^ Ebrey (2006), 104–105.
  190. ^ Wong (1979), 97.
  191. ^ Wong (1979), 95–100.
  192. ^ Wong (1979), 98–99.
  193. ^ Kiang, 12.
  194. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 3, 661.
  195. ^ Sen, 9, 22–24.
  196. ^ Needham, Volume 3, 511.
  197. ^ Ebrey (2006), 106.
  198. ^ Huters, 52.
  199. ^ a b Whitfield, 333.
  200. ^ Ebrey (1999), 121.
  201. ^ Ebrey (1999), 122.
  202. ^ Eberhard, 181.
  203. ^ Adshead, 86.
  204. ^ Ebrey (1999), 126.
  205. ^ a b Fairbank, 86.
  206. ^ Ebrey (1999), 124.
  207. ^ Harper, 34.
  208. ^ a b Wright, 88.
  209. ^ Ebrey (1999), 123.
  210. ^ a b c Benn, 60.
  211. ^ a b c Fairbank, 81.
  212. ^ Gernet, 215.
  213. ^ Ebrey (1999), 124–125.
  214. ^ Fairbank, 94.
  215. ^ Ebrey (1999), 147.
  216. ^ Needham, Volume 3, 319.
  217. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 473-475.
  218. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 473-474.
  219. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 475.
  220. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 480.
  221. ^ a b c Benn, 144.
  222. ^ a b Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 158.
  223. ^ Benn, 235.
  224. ^ a b Adshead, 83.
  225. ^ Needham, Volume 5, Part 4, 452.
  226. ^ Xi (1981), 464.
  227. ^ a b Guo, 1.
  228. ^ a b Guo, 3.
  229. ^ Needham, Volume 3, 538–540.
  230. ^ a b c d Needham, Volume 3, 543.
  231. ^ Needham, Volume 3, Plate LXXXI.
  232. ^ Hsu (1993), 90.
  233. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 99, 151, 233.
  234. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 134 & 151.
  235. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 151.
  236. ^ Benn, 64-66.
  237. ^ a b Benn, 64.
  238. ^ a b Benn, 66.
  239. ^ a b Ebrey (1999), 114–115.
  240. ^ a b Gernet, 165–166.
  241. ^ Gernet, 165.
  242. ^ Schafer, 28–29.
  243. ^ Ebrey (1999), 95.
  244. ^ a b Needham, Volume 5, Part 1, 122
  245. ^ a b Needham, Volume 5, Part 1, 123.
  246. ^ a b Song, 3-4.
  247. ^ a b Benn, 120.
  248. ^ Benn, 121.
  249. ^ Benn, 125.
  250. ^ Benn, 123.
  251. ^ Schafer, 1–2.
  252. ^ Sen, 38–40.
  253. ^ Adshead, 76, 83–84.
  254. ^ Benn, 126-127.
  255. ^ a b c Benn, 126.
  256. ^ Chronicles of the Chinese DynastiesPDF (25.9 KiB))

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Bai Shouyi (Traditional 白壽彝; Simplified 白寿彝; Pinyin: Bái Shòuyì) (February 1909 _ March 21, 2000) was a prominent Chinese historian, thinker, social activist and ethnologist who revolutionized recent Chinese historiography and pioneered in relying heavily on scientific excavations and reports. ... Dr. John Bowman Winifred (born 1942) is an Irish historian and broadcaster. ... Bracket arm clusters containing cantilevers, Yingzao Fashi The Yingzao Fashi (Chinese:營造法式; Treatise on Architectural Methods or State Building Standards) is a technical treatise on architecture and craftsmanship written by the Chinese author Li Jie (1065–1110),[1] the Directorate of Buildings and Construction during the mid Song Dynasty of China. ... Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham (December 9, 1900 – March 24, 1995) was a British biochemist and pre-eminent authority on the history of Chinese science. ... The Association for Asian Studies is a society focused on facilitating contact and information exchange among scholars of East Asian fields. ... Song Yingxing (Traditional Chinese:宋應星; Simplified Chinese:宋应星; Wade Giles: Sung Ying-Hsing; 1587-1666 AD) was a Chinese scientist and encyclopedist who lived during the late Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). ... Xue Zongzheng (Chinese: , b. ...

Further reading

  • Chen, Guocan. "Hebei Sanzhen" ("Three Jiedushi of Hebei"). Encyclopedia of China, 1st ed.
  • Chen, Zhen. "Jiedushi". Encyclopedia of China, 1st ed.
  • de la Vaissière, E, Sogdian Traders. A History, Leiden : Brill, 2005. ISBN 90-04-14252-5
  • Schafer, Edward H. (1967). The Vermilion Bird: T’ang Images of the South. University of California Press. Berkeley and Los Angeles.
  • The “New T’ang History” (Hsin T’ang-shu) on the History of the Uighurs. Translated and annotated by Colin Mackerras.

The Encyclopedia of China (Chinese: ) is the first large-scale encyclopedia in the Chinese language in the modern era. ... The Encyclopedia of China (Chinese: ) is the first large-scale encyclopedia in the Chinese language in the modern era. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Tang Dynasty
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Art of the Tang Dynasty
  • The Tang Dynasty, Minnesota State University Emuseum
  • The Tang Dynasty at the Metropolitan Museum of Art
  • Home of 300 Tang Poems, University of Virginia
  • The Tang Dynasty at AsianSpiritGallery.
  • Paintings of Sui and Tang dynasities
Preceded by
Sui Dynasty
Dynasties in Chinese history
618 – 907
Succeeded by
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms

The Sui Dynasty of China amongst the Asian, African, and European spheres of the world, 600 AD. The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-618 AD[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese history. ... Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: 五代十國 Simplified Chinese: 五代十国 Hanyu pinyin: Wǔdàishíguó) (907-960) was a period of political upheaval in China, between the Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Tang Dynasty - MSN Encarta (1004 words)
The Tang Dynasty (Chinese : 唐朝 ; pinyin : Táng Cháo ; Middle Chinese : dhɑng) (June 18, 618 – June 4, 907) was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui...
Building on the reunification of northern and southern China by the Sui dynasty (581-618), the Tang empire established a strong, centralized state system that brought together the aristocratic clans of all regions, and ended four centuries of political and cultural division between northern and southern China.
The most important turning point in Tang history was the rebellion in 755 of An Lushan (An Lu-shan), the military governor of northeastern China, who feared that political changes at court were beginning to threaten his power.
Tang Dynasty - Conservapedia (703 words)
One of the most prominent figures of the Tang dynasty was a general known as An Lushan - his name indicates that he was a Soghdian ("An" indicates his place of origin), and that his given name in Soghdia was "Rokhan", the male form of Roxanna, the name of Alexander the Great's wife.
Culturally, the late Tang was quite inferior to the high Tang period, although the fashions for foreign clothes and music remained the same.
The Tang dynasty period was also a period of massive Chinese influence on Japan.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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