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Encyclopedia > Tanakh at Qumran

The Tanakh is the Hebrew Bible and Qumran is an archaeological site near the Dead Sea. More than two hundred portions of the Tanakh have been found near Qumran, forming part of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The scrolls were found in a series of caves, which have since been numbered, and these numbers used in the reference name of each scroll portion. For example 4Q108 is a fragment of a scroll from Cave 4, it is the 108th listed manuscript from that cave. More than half of the Tanakh portions from Qumran are from Cave 4. 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh (Jewish tradition) or Old Testament (Christian tradition). ... The Dead Sea (Hebrew: , translated as Sea of Salt); (Arabic: ) is a salt lake between the West Bank and Israel to the west, and Jordan to the east. ... Tanakh (Hebrew: ‎) (also Tanach, IPA: or , or Tenak, is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... Qumran (Hebrew:חירבת קומראן Khirbet Qumran) is located on a dry plateau about a mile inland from the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea in Israel. ... Fragments of the scrolls on display at the Archeological Museum, Amman The Dead Sea scrolls (Hebrew: מגילות ים המלח) comprise roughly 825-872 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1956 in eleven caves in and around the Wadi Qumran (near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet...


The Dead Sea Scrolls in general are Hebrew language manuscripts, written in Assyrian Block script (90—95%). Some, however, were written in Paleo-Hebrew script. A few biblical manuscripts were written in Greek uncial script and appear to be copies of the Septuagint text. Nearly all the scrolls were written on vellum, however there are a few papyri. Although not a biblical text, one scroll (3Q15) was actually inscribed on copper.[1] “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... It became one of the most widely used writing systems, and was spread by traders of Phoenicia across Europe and the Middle East, where it became used for a variety of languages and spawned many subsequent scripts. ... The Book of Kells, c. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... Vellum (from the Latin for wool or pelt) is a sort of parchment, a material for the pages of a book or codex, characterized by its thin, smooth, durable properties. ... Papyrus plant Cyperus papyrus at Kew Gardens, London Papyrus is an early form of paper produced from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus, a wetland sedge that was once abundant in the Nile Delta of Egypt. ... The Copper Scroll is one of the Dead Sea Scrolls found at Khirbet Qumran, but differs significantly from the others. ...


List of Tanakh portions from Qumran

Fragments of the scrolls on display at the Archeological Museum, Amman
Fragments of the scrolls on display at the Archeological Museum, Amman
Tanakh at Qumran
Name Contents # Script type
1Q1 Genesis Hebrew vellum
1Q2 Exodus Hebrew vellum
1Q3 Leviticus Paleo vellum
1Q4 Deuteronomy a Hebrew vellum
1Q5 Deuteronomy b Hebrew vellum
1Q6 Judges Hebrew vellum
1Q7 1-2 Samuel Hebrew vellum
1Q8 Isaiah b Hebrew vellum
1Q9 Ezekiel Hebrew vellum
1Q10 Psalms a Hebrew vellum
1Q11 Psalms b Hebrew vellum
1Q12 Psalm 44 Hebrew vellum
1Q13 Phylactery Decalogue Hebrew vellum
1Q71 Daniel a Hebrew vellum
1Q72 Daniel b Hebrew vellum
1QIsa Isaiah a Hebrew vellum
1QIsb Isaiah b Hebrew vellum
2Q1 Genesis Hebrew vellum
2Q2 Exodus a Hebrew vellum
2Q3 Exodus b Hebrew vellum
2Q4 Exodus c Hebrew vellum
2Q5 Leviticus en Paleo vellum
2Q6 Numbers a Hebrew vellum
2Q7 Numbers b Hebrew vellum
2Q8 Numbers c Hebrew vellum
2Q9 Numbers d Hebrew vellum
2Q10 Deuteronomy 1 a Hebrew vellum
2Q11 Deuteronomy b Hebrew vellum
2Q12 Deuteronomy 10 c Hebrew vellum
2Q13 Jeremiah Hebrew vellum
2Q14 Psalms 103-104 Hebrew vellum
2Q15 Job 3 Hebrew vellum
2Q16 Ruth a Hebrew vellum
2Q17 Ruth b Hebrew vellum
3Q1 Ezekiel 16 Hebrew vellum
3Q2 Psalm 2 Hebrew vellum
3Q3 Lamentations Hebrew vellum
4Q1 Gen-Ex a Hebrew vellum
4Q2 Genesis b Hebrew vellum
4Q3 Genesis c Hebrew vellum
4Q4 Genesis d Hebrew vellum
4Q5 Genesis e Hebrew vellum
4Q6 Genesis f Hebrew vellum
4Q7 Genesis g Hebrew vellum
4Q8 Genesis h Hebrew vellum
4Q9 Genesis j Hebrew vellum
4Q10 Genesis k Hebrew vellum
4Q11 Gen-Ex l Paleo vellum
4Q12 Genesis m Paleo vellum
4Q13 Exodus b Hebrew vellum
4Q14 Exodus c Hebrew vellum
4Q15 Exodus d Hebrew vellum
4Q16 Exodus e Hebrew vellum
4Q17 Ex-Lev f Hebrew vellum
4Q18 Exodus g Hebrew vellum
4Q19 Exodus h Hebrew vellum
4Q20 Exodus j Hebrew vellum
4Q21 Exodus k Hebrew vellum
4Q22 Exodus m Paleo vellum
4Q23 Lev-Num a Hebrew vellum
4Q24 Leviticus b Hebrew vellum
4Q25 Leviticus c Hebrew vellum
4Q26 Leviticus d Hebrew vellum
4Q26a Leviticus e Hebrew vellum
4Q26b Leviticus g Hebrew vellum
4Q27 Numbers b Hebrew vellum
4Q28 Deuteronomy a Hebrew vellum
4Q29 Deuteronomy b Hebrew vellum
4Q30 Deuteronomy c Hebrew vellum
4Q31 Deuteronomy d Hebrew vellum
4Q32 Deuteronomy e Hebrew vellum
4Q33 Deuteronomy f Hebrew vellum
4Q34 Deuteronomy g Hebrew vellum
4Q35 Deuteronomy h Hebrew vellum
4Q36 Deuteronomy i Hebrew vellum
4Q37 Deuteronomy j Hebrew vellum
4Q38 Deuteronomy k1 Hebrew vellum
4Q38a Deuteronomy k2 Hebrew vellum
4Q38b Deuteronomy k3 Hebrew vellum
4Q39 Deuteronomy l Hebrew vellum
4Q40 Deuteronomy m Hebrew vellum
4Q41 Deuteronomy n Hebrew vellum
4Q42 Deuteronomy o Hebrew vellum
4Q43 Deuteronomy p Hebrew vellum
4Q44 Deuteronomy q Hebrew vellum
4Q45 Deuteronomy r Paleo vellum
4Q46 Deuteronomy s Paleo vellum
4Q47 Joshua a Hebrew vellum
4Q48 Joshua b Hebrew vellum
4Q49 Judges a Hebrew vellum
4Q50 Judges b Hebrew vellum
4Q51 Samuel a Hebrew vellum
4Q52 Samuel b Hebrew vellum
4Q53 Samuel c Hebrew vellum
4Q54 Kings Hebrew vellum
4Q55 Isaiah a Hebrew vellum
4Q56 Isaiah b Hebrew vellum
4Q57 Isaiah c Hebrew vellum
4Q58 Isaiah d Hebrew vellum
4Q59 Isaiah e Hebrew vellum
4Q60 Isaiah f Hebrew vellum
4Q61 Isaiah g Hebrew vellum
4Q62 Isaiah h Hebrew vellum
4Q63 Isaiah j Hebrew vellum
4Q64 Isaiah k Hebrew vellum
4Q65 Isaiah l Hebrew vellum
4Q66 Isaiah m Hebrew vellum
4Q67 Isaiah n Hebrew vellum
4Q68 Isaiah o Hebrew vellum
4Q69 Isaiah p Hebrew vellum
4Q70 Jeremiah a Hebrew vellum
4Q71 Jeremiah b Hebrew vellum
4Q72 Jeremiah c Hebrew vellum
4Q73 Ezekiel a Hebrew vellum
4Q74 Ezekiel b Hebrew vellum
4Q75 Ezekiel c Hebrew vellum
4Q76 The Twelve a Hebrew vellum
4Q77 The Twelve b Hebrew vellum
4Q78 The Twelve c Hebrew vellum
4Q79 The Twelve d Hebrew vellum
4Q80 The Twelve e Hebrew vellum
4Q81 The Twelve f Hebrew vellum
4Q82 The Twelve g Hebrew vellum
4Q83 Psalms a Hebrew vellum
4Q84 Psalms b Hebrew vellum
4Q85 Psalms c Hebrew vellum
4Q86 Psalms d Hebrew vellum
4Q87 Psalms e Hebrew vellum
4Q88 Psalms f Hebrew vellum
4Q89 Psalms g Hebrew vellum
4Q90 Psalms h Hebrew vellum
4Q91 Psalms j Hebrew vellum
4Q92 Psalms k Hebrew vellum
4Q93 Psalms l Hebrew vellum
4Q94 Psalms m Hebrew vellum
4Q95 Psalms n Hebrew vellum
4Q96 Psalms o Hebrew vellum
4Q97 Psalms p Hebrew vellum
4Q98 Psalms q Hebrew vellum
4Q98a Psalms r Hebrew vellum
4Q98b Psalms s Hebrew vellum
4Q98c Psalms t Hebrew vellum
4Q98d Psalms u Hebrew vellum
4Q98e Psalms v Hebrew vellum
4Q98f Psalms w Hebrew vellum
4Q98g Psalms x Hebrew vellum
4Q99 Job a Hebrew vellum
4Q100 Job b Hebrew vellum
4Q101 Job c Paleo vellum
4Q104 Ruth a Hebrew vellum
4Q105 Ruth b Hebrew vellum
4Q106 Canticles a Hebrew vellum
4Q107 Canticles b Hebrew vellum
4Q108 Canticles c Hebrew vellum
4Q109 Qohelet a Hebrew vellum
4Q110 Qohelet b Hebrew vellum
4Q111 Lamentations Hebrew vellum
4Q112 Daniel a Hebrew vellum
4Q113 Daniel b Hebrew vellum
4Q114 Daniel c Hebrew vellum
4Q115 Daniel d Hebrew vellum
4Q116 Daniel e Hebrew vellum
4Q117 Ezra Hebrew vellum
4Q118 Chronicles Hebrew vellum
4Q119 Leviticus a Greek vellum
4Q120 Leviticus b Greek papyrus
4Q121 Numbers Greek vellum
4Q122 Deuteronomy Greek vellum
4Q123 Joshua* Paleo vellum
4Q124 Unidentified Paleo vellum
4Q125 Unidentified Paleo vellum
4Q126 Unidentified Greek vellum
4Q127 Exodus* Greek papyrus
4Q522 Ps 122* Hebrew vellum
5Q1 Deuteronomy Hebrew vellum
5Q2 1 Kings 1 Hebrew vellum
5Q3 Isaiah 40 Hebrew vellum
5Q4 Amos 1 Hebrew vellum
5Q5 Psalms 119 Hebrew vellum
5Q6 Lamentations a Hebrew vellum
5Q7 Lamentations 4 b Hebrew vellum
5Q8 Phylactery Hebrew vellum
6Q1 Genesis 6 Paleo vellum
6Q2 Leviticus 8 Paleo vellum
6Q3 Deuteronomy 26 Hebrew vellum
6Q4 1-2 Kings Hebrew vellum
6Q6 Canticles Hebrew vellum
6Q7 Daniel Hebrew vellum
6Q19 Genesis Hebrew vellum
6Q20 Deuteronomy Hebrew vellum
7Q1 Exodus Greek papyrus
7Q3 Unidentified Greek papyrus
7Q4 Unidentified Greek papyrus
7Q5 Controversial Greek papyrus
8Q1 Genesis 17-18 Hebrew vellum
8Q2 Psalms 17-18 Hebrew vellum
8Q3 Phylactery Ex, Dt Hebrew vellum
11Q1 Leviticus a Paleo vellum
11Q2 Leviticus b Paleo vellum
11Q3 Deuteronomy 1 Hebrew vellum
11Q4 Ezekiel Hebrew vellum
11Q5 Psalms a Hebrew vellum
11Q6 Ps 141;133;144;118 b Hebrew vellum
11Q7 Psalms c Hebrew vellum
11Q8 Psalms d Hebrew vellum
11Q9 Psalms 36-37;86 e Hebrew vellum

Fragments of the scrolls on display at the Archeological Museum, Amman. ... Fragments of the scrolls on display at the Archeological Museum, Amman. ... Fragment 5 from Cave 7 of the Qumran Community Among the Dead Sea scrolls, 7Q5 is the designation for a papyrus fragment discovered in Cave 7 of the Qumran community. ...

See also

Fragments of the Dead Sea scrolls on display at the Archeological Museum, Amman A biblical manuscript is any handwritten copy of a portion of the text of the Bible. ...

External links

  • Biblical Archaeology Society website: 'Caves and Contents'
  • Orion Center for the Study of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Associated Literature
  • D Barthélemy (ed) and JT Milik. Qumran Cave I. Discoveries in the Judaean Desert I. Oxford: Clarendon, 1955.
  • M Baillet, JT Milik and R de Vaux (eds). Les 'Petites Grottes' de Qumrân. Discoveries in the Judaean Desert III. Oxford: Clarendon, 1962.
  • Eugene Ulrich and others. Paleo Hebrew and Greek Biblical Manuscripts. Qumran Cave 4 IV. Discoveries in the Judaean Desert IX. Oxford: Clarendon, 1992.
  • Eugene Ulrich and others. Genesis to Numbers. Qumran Cave 4 VII. Discoveries in the Judaean Desert XII. Oxford: Clarendon, 1994.
  • Eugene Ulrich and others. Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Kings. Qumran Cave 4 IX. Discoveries in the Judaean Desert XIV. Oxford: Clarendon, 1995.
  • Eugene Ulrich and others. Psalms to Chronicles. Qumran Cave 4 XI. Discoveries in the Judaean Desert XVI. Oxford: Clarendon, 2000.
  • MA Hoselton. 'Inventory of Manuscripts from Qumran'. Dead Sea Scrolls and Qumran. Unpublished.

 
 

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