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Encyclopedia > Tammany Hall

Tammany Hall was the Democratic Party political machine that played a major role in controlling New York City politics from the 1790s to the 1960s. It usually controlled Democratic Party nominations and patronage in Manhattan from the mayoral victory of Fernando Wood in 1854 to the election of Fiorello LaGuardia in 1934, then weakened and collapsed. The History of the Democratic Party is an account of a continuously supported political party in the United States of America. ... In this 1899 cartoon from Puck, all of New York City politics revolves around boss Richard Croker A political machine is an unofficial system of political organization based on patronage, the spoils system, behind-the-scenes control, and longstanding political ties within the structure of a representative democracy. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... ... Fernando Wood (June 14, 1812–February 14, 1881) is famous for being one of the most colorful mayors in the history of New York City. ... Fiorello Henry LaGuardia (December 11, 1882–September 20, 1947) was the Mayor of New York from 1934 to 1945. ...

Tammany Hall on West 14th Street, NYC
Tammany Hall on West 14th Street, NYC

Contents

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x816, 94 KB) Historic American Building Survey Tammany Hall Photographer: Irving Underhill (d. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x816, 94 KB) Historic American Building Survey Tammany Hall Photographer: Irving Underhill (d. ...

History

1790-1850

The Tammany Society was founded in the 1780s. The name "Tammany" comes from Tamanend, a Native American leader of the Lenape. The society adopted many Native American words and customs, going so far as to call its hall a wigwam. By 1798, however, the Society's activities had grown increasingly politicized and eventually Tammany, led by Aaron Burr, emerged as the center for Jeffersonian Republican politics in the city. Burr built the Tammany society into a political machine for the election of 1800, in which he was elected Vice President. Without Tammany, historians believe, President John Adams might have won New York state's electoral votes and won reelection. [1] In 1830, the Society's headquarters were established on West 14th Street in a building called Tammany Hall, and thereafter the name of the building and the group were synonymous. Tamanend or Saint Tammany (c. ... Tamanend or Saint Tammany (c. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... == The Band == Wigwam are Alex James, the bassist from Blur and Betty Boo. ... This article does not adequately cite its references. ... The Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison as the Republican party (not related to the present-day Republican Party) in 1792, was the dominant political party in the United States from 1800 until the 1820s, when it split into competing factions, one of which became the... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826) served as Americas first Vice President (1789–1797) and as its second President (1797–1801). ...


After 1839, Tammany became the city affiliate of the Democratic Party, emerging as the controlling interest in New York City elections after Andrew Jackson's. In the 1830s the Loco-Focos comprised a democratic, anti-monopoly faction that appealed to workingmen. Throughout the 1830s and 1840s the Society expanded its political control even further by earning the loyalty of the city's ever-expanding immigrant community, a task that was accomplished by helping newly-arrived foreigners obtain jobs, a place to live, and even citizenship so that they could vote for Tammany candidates in city and state elections. The mass immigrant constituency primarily functioned as a base of political capital. The "ward boss" served as the local vote gatherer and provider of patronage. New York City used the designation "ward" for its smallest political units from 1686-1938. The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... Loco-Focos, the name, given to an ultra-democratic or radical faction in the Democratic party in New York City, the United States during the Second Party System. ... 1869 tobacco label featuring Boss Tweed A boss, in politics, is a person who wields de facto power over a particular political region or constituency. ...

Thomas Nast denounces Tammany as a ferocious tiger killing democracy; the tiger image caught on.

Image File history File links Nast-Tammany. ... Image File history File links Nast-Tammany. ... Thomas Nast (September 27, 1840 – December 7, 1902) was a famous caricaturist and editorial cartoonist in the 19th century and is considered to be the father of American political cartooning. ...

The Irish

Tammany is forever linked with the rise of the Irish in American politics. Beginning in 1846, large numbers of Irish Catholics began arriving in New York. Equipped with a knowledge of English, very tight loyalties, a genius for politics, and what critics said was a propensity to use violence to control the polls, the Irish quickly dominated Tammany. In exchange for votes, they were provided with money and food. From 1872 onward, Tammany had an Irish "boss." They played an increasingly important role in state politics, supporting one candidate and feuding with another. The greatest success came in 1928 when a Tammany hero, New York Governor Al Smith, won the Democratic presidential nomination. Irish Americans are residents or citizens of the United States who claim Irish ancestry. ... For other uses, see Al Smith (disambiguation). ...

Tammany Ring, by Thomas Nast
Tammany Ring, by Thomas Nast

Image File history File links Tammany Ring, by Thomas Nast. ... Image File history File links Tammany Ring, by Thomas Nast. ... Thomas Nast (September 27, 1840 – December 7, 1902) was a famous caricaturist and editorial cartoonist in the 19th century and is considered to be the father of American political cartooning. ...

Tweed Machine

By 1854, Tammany's lineage and support from immigrants made it a powerful force in New York politics. Tammany controlled businesses, politics, and sometimes law enforcement. Businesses would give gifts to their workers and, in exchange, tell the workers to vote for the politicians that were supported by Tammany. In 1854, the Society elected its first New York City mayor. Tammany's "bosses" (called the "Grand Sachem") and their supporters enriched themselves by illegal means. The most infamous boss of all was William M. "Boss" Tweed. Tweed's control over the Tammany Hall machine allowed him to win election to the New York State Senate. His political career ended when he became mired in corruption, and he went to prison along with his partner Francis I.A. Boole, after his ousting at the hands of a reform movement led by New York's Democratic governor Samuel J. Tilden in 1872. In 1892, a Protestant minister, Charles Henry Parkhurst, made a widely heard denunciation of the Hall, which led to a Grand Jury investigation, the appointment of the Lexow Committee and the election of a reform mayor in 1894. 1869 Tobacco label featuring Boss Tweed. ... Samuel Jones Tilden (February 9, 1814 - August 4, 1886) was the Democratic candidate for the US presidency in the disputed election of 1876, the most controversial American election of the 19th century. ... Charles Henry Parkhurst (17 April, 1842 - 1933), American clergyman and social reformer, born in Framingham, Massachusetts. ... Lexow Committee (1894 - 1895). ...


1890-1950

Weakened by defeats, the tiger is hunted by enemies in 1893. Puck cartoon by F. Opper
Weakened by defeats, the tiger is hunted by enemies in 1893. Puck cartoon by F. Opper

Despite occasional defeats, Tammany was consistently able to survive and, indeed, prosper; it continued to dominate city and even state politics. Under leaders like John Kelly and Richard Croker, it controlled Democratic politics in the city. Tammany opposed William Jennings Bryan in 1896. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1221x940, 198 KB) Summary 1893 US cartoon Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1221x940, 198 KB) Summary 1893 US cartoon Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... John Kelly (1822-1886) of New York City was U.S. Representative from New York from 1855 to 1858. ... All politics revolved around the Boss. ... William Jennings Bryan (March 19, 1860 – July 26, 1925) was an American lawyer, statesman, and politician. ...


In 1901, anti-Tammany forces elected a reformer, Republican Seth Low, to become mayor. From 1902 until his death in 1924, Charles F. Murphy was Tammany's boss. In 1932, the machine suffered a dual setback when Mayor James Walker was forced from office and reform-minded Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected president. Roosevelt stripped Tammany of its federal patronage -- much expanded because of the New Deal -- and handed city patronage to Ed Flynn, boss of the Bronx. Roosevelt helped Republican Fiorello LaGuardia become mayor on a Fusion ticket, thus removing even more patronage from Tammany's control. Seth Low, born in Brooklyn, New York, (January 18, 1850 - September 17, 1916) was a U.S. educator and political figure. ... Charles Francis Murphy (1858 - 1924) was a U.S. political figure. ... This article is about the 1926 Mayor of New York. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... The New Deal was the title President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave to the series of programs initiated between 1933–1938 with the goal of relief, recovery and reform of the United States economy during the Great Depression. ... Fiorello Henry LaGuardia (December 11, 1882–September 20, 1947) was the Mayor of New York from 1934 to 1945. ... Electoral fusion is an arrangement where two or more political parties support a common candidate, pooling the votes for all those parties. ...


Tammany depended for its power on government contracts, jobs, patronage, corruption, and ultimately the ability of its leaders to swing the popular vote. The last element weakened after 1940 with the decline of relief programs like WPA and CCC that Tammany used to gain and hold supporters. Congressman Christopher "Christy" Sullivan was one of the last "bosses" of Tammany Hall before its collapse. WPA Graphic The Works Progress Administration (later Work Projects Administration, abbreviated WPA), was created on May 6, 1935 by Presidential order (Congress funded it annually but did not set it up). ... CCC workers on road construction, Camp Euclid, Ohio 1936 The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was a work relief program for young men from unemployed families established on March 19, 1933 by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in his first hundred days. ... Christopher Daniel Sullivan (1870-1942) of New York City was a U.S. Representative from New York from 1917 to 1941. ...


Tammany never recovered, but it staged a small scale come-back in the early 1950s under the leadership of Carmine DeSapio, who succeeded in engineering the elections of Robert Wagner, Jr. as mayor in 1953 and Averill Harriman as state governor in 1954, while simultaneously blocking his enemies, especially Franklin D. Roosevelt, Jr. in the 1954 race for state Attorney General. Carmine Gerard DeSapio (10 December 1908– 27 July 2004) was an American politician from New York City. ... Robert Ferdinand Wagner, Jr. ... William Averell Harriman William Averell Harriman (November 15, 1891 – July 26, 1986) was a Governor of New York. ... Franklin D. Roosevelt, Jr. ...

All politics revolved around the Boss. 1899 cartoon from Puck

Eleanor Roosevelt organized a counterattack with Herbert Lehman and Thomas Finletter to form the New York Committee for Democratic Voters, a group dedicated to fighting Tammany. In 1961, the group helped remove DeSapio from power. The once mighty Tammany political machine, now deprived of its leadership, quickly faded from political importance, and by the mid-1960s it ceased to exist. The last building to serve as the physical Tammany Hall, on Union Square, is now home to the New York Film Academy. A large decorated flagpole base within Union Square Park is dedicated to sachem Charles F. Murphy.
Image File history File links BOSSCROKER.JPG Summary Boss Crocker on Tammany US Cartoon 1899 Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links BOSSCROKER.JPG Summary Boss Crocker on Tammany US Cartoon 1899 Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (October 11, 1884 – November 7, 1962) was an American political leader who used her stature as First Lady of the United States from 1933 to 1945 to promote her husbands (Franklin D. Roosevelts) New Deal, as well as civil rights. ... Herbert Henry Lehman (March 28, 1878 - December 5, 1963) was a Governor and Senator from New York. ... Union Square Union Square (also known as Union Square Park) is an important and historic intersection in New York City, located where Broadway and the Bowery came together in the early 19th century. ... New York Film Academy (known more commonly as NYFA) is a privately owned film school best known for its intensive short term filmmaking courses. ... Charles Francis Murphy (1858 - 1924) was a U.S. political figure. ...


Leaders

1797 1804 Aaron Burr
1804 1814 Teunis Wortmann
1814 1817 George Buckmaster
1817 1822 Jacob Barker
1822 1827 Stephen Allen
1827 1828 Mordecai M. Noah
1828 1835 Walter Bowne
1835 1842 Isaac Varian
1842 1848 Robert H. Morris
1848 1850 Isaac V. Fowler
1850 1856 Fernando Wood
1857 1858 Isaac V. Fowler
1858 Fernando Wood
1858 1859 William M. Tweed and Isaac V. Fowler
1859 1867 William M. Tweed and Richard B. Connolly
1867 1871 William M. Tweed
1872 John Kelly and John Morrissey
1872 1886 John Kelly
1886 1902 Richard Croker
1902 Lewis Nixon
1902 Charles F. Murphy, Daniel F. McMahon, and Louis F. Haffen
1902 1924 Charles F. Murphy
1924 1929 George W. Olvany
1929 1934 John F. Curry
1934 1937 James J. Dooling
1937 1942 Christopher D. Sullivan
1942 Charles H. Hussey
1942 1944 Michael J. Kennedy
1944 1947 Edward V. Loughlin
1947 1948
1948 1949 Hugo E. Rogers
1949 1961 Carmine G. DeSapio

This article does not adequately cite its references. ... Jacob Barker (1779-1871) was an American financier and lawyer, born in Swan Island, Me. ... Mordecai Manuel Noah was a Jewish American diplomat, journalist, and utopian born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 14 July 1785; he died in New York, 22 May 1851. ... An 1838 cartoon, How to Make the Mare Mayor Go, depicts Varian (exiting stage left) and Clark (on a stalled mare). ... Robert Morris is an American cryptographer. ... Isaac V. Fowler ( - September 29, 1869) was thrice the Grand Sachem of the Tammany Society, better known as Tammany Hall, from 1848-1850, 1857-1858, and 1858-1859, the last term shared with William M. Boss Tweed. ... Fernando Wood (June 14, 1812–February 14, 1881) is famous for being one of the most colorful mayors in the history of New York City. ... Isaac V. Fowler ( - September 29, 1869) was thrice the Grand Sachem of the Tammany Society, better known as Tammany Hall, from 1848-1850, 1857-1858, and 1858-1859, the last term shared with William M. Boss Tweed. ... Fernando Wood (June 14, 1812–February 14, 1881) is famous for being one of the most colorful mayors in the history of New York City. ... 1869 Tobacco label featuring Boss Tweed. ... Isaac V. Fowler ( - September 29, 1869) was thrice the Grand Sachem of the Tammany Society, better known as Tammany Hall, from 1848-1850, 1857-1858, and 1858-1859, the last term shared with William M. Boss Tweed. ... 1869 Tobacco label featuring Boss Tweed. ... 1869 Tobacco label featuring Boss Tweed. ... John Kelly (1822-1886) of New York City was U.S. Representative from New York from 1855 to 1858. ... John Morrissey (1831-1878) John Morrissey (February 12, 1831 - May 1, 1878) also known as Old Smoke was a boxer and a gang member in New York in the 1850s and later became a Democratic State Senator and U.S. Congressman from New York backed by Tammany Hall. ... All politics revolved around the Boss. ... Lewis Nixon (born April 7, 1861 in Leesburg, Virginia, died September 23, 1940) was a naval architect, and political activist. ... Charles Francis Murphy (1858 - 1924) was a U.S. political figure. ... Charles Francis Murphy (1858 - 1924) was a U.S. political figure. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Christopher Daniel Sullivan (1870-1942) of New York City was a U.S. Representative from New York from 1917 to 1941. ... Michael Joseph Kennedy (October 25, 1897 - November 1, 1949) was an American businessman and politician. ... Carmine Gerard DeSapio (10 December 1908– 27 July 2004) was an American politician from New York City. ...

Bibliography

  • Allen, Oliver E. The Tiger: The Rise and Fall of Tammany Hall (1993)
  • Costikyan, Edward N. "Politics in New York City: a Memoir of the Post-war Years." New York History 1993 74(4): 414-434. Issn: 0146-437x Costikyan was a member of the Tammany Executive Committee 1955-64, and laments the passing of its social services and its unifying force
  • Erie, Steven P. Rainbow's End: Irish-Americans and the Dilemmas of Urban Machine Politics, 1840—1985 (1988).
  • Finegold, Kenneth. Experts and Politicians: Reform Challenges to Machine Politics in New York, Cleveland, and Chicago (1995) on Progressive Era
  • LaCerra, Charles. Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Tammany Hall of New York. University Press of America, 1997. 118 pp.
  • Lash, Joseph. Eleanor, The Years Alone. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1972, 274-276.
  • Lui, Adonica Y. "The Machine and Social Policies: Tammany Hall and the Politics of Public Outdoor Relief, New York City, 1874-1898." Studies in American Political Development (1995) 9(2): 386-403. Issn: 0898-588x
  • Mandelbaum, Seymour J. Boss Tweed's New York (1965) (ISBN 0-471-56652-7)
  • Moscow, Warren. The Last of the Big-Time Bosses: The Life and Times of Carmine de Sapio and the Rise and Fall of Tammany Hall (1971)
  • Mushkat, Jerome. Fernando Wood: A Political Biography (1990)
  • M. Ostrogorski; Democracy and the Party System in the United States (1910)
  • Herbert S. Parmet and Marie B. Hecht. Aaron Burr; Portrait of an Ambitious Man 1967.
  • William Riordan, Plunkitt of Tammany Hall (1963) 1915 memoir of New York City ward boss George Washington Plunkitt who coined the term "honest graft"
  • Sloat, Warren. A Battle for the Soul of New York: Tammany Hall, Police Corruption, Vice, and Reverend Charles Parkhurst's Crusade against Them, 1892-1895. Cooper Square, 2002. 482 pp.
  • Stave, Bruce M. , John M. Allswang, Terrence J. McDonald, Jon C. Teaford. "A Reassessment of the Urban Political Boss: An Exchange of Views" History Teacher, Vol. 21, No. 3 (May, 1988) , pp. 293-312
  • Steffens, Lincoln. The Shame of the Cities (1904) muckraking expose of machines in major cities
  • T. L. Stoddard, Master of Manhattan (1931), on Crocker
  • Thomas, Samuel J. "Mugwump Cartoonists, the Papacy, and Tammany Hall in America's Gilded Age." Religion and American Culture 2004 14(2): 213-250. Issn: 1052-1151 Fulltext: in Swetswise, Ingenta and Ebsco
  • Nancy J. Weiss, Charles Francis Murphy, 1858-1924: respectability and responsibility in Tammany politics(1968).
  • M. R. Werner, Tammany Hall (1932)
  • Harold B. Zink; City Bosses in the United States: A Study of Twenty Municipal Bosses (1930)

George Washington Plunkitt, center George Washington Plunkitt (1842-1924) was a long-time State Senator from the U.S. state of New York, representing the Fifteenth Assembly District, who was especially powerful in New York City. ...

References

This article incorporates text from the Eleanor Roosevelt National Historic Site operated by the National Park Service, placed into the public domain. The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

  1. ^ Parmet and Hecht 149-50

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Tammany Hall (665 words)
Tammany Hall was the name given to the Democratic political machine that dominated New York City politics from the mayoral victory of Fernando Wood in 1854 through the election of Fiorello LaGuardia in 1934.
The Tammany Society of New York City was founded in 1786 as a fraternal organization whose primary activities were social.
Ultimately, even Tammany was unable to escape from the drastic social and cultural changes brought on by the Great Depression, and in 1932 the machine suffered a dual setback when Mayor James Walker was forced from office and FDR was elected president.
Tammany Hall - LoveToKnow 1911 (1064 words)
TAMMANY HALL, a political organization in New York City, U.S.A., claiming to be the regular representative of the Democratic party in that city.
The most conspicuous overthrows of Tammany since the days of Tweed were in 1894, in 1901, when practically the whole reform ticket from mayor to alderman was elected, and in 1909, when the mayor (not a member of Tammany) was the only Tammany nominee on the general ticket elected.
The power of Tammany Hall is the natural result of the well-regulated machine which it has built up throughout the city, directed by an omnipotent "boss." Each of the "assembly districts" into which the city is divided sends a certain number of representatives to the General Committee of Tammany Hall.
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