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Encyclopedia > Tamil people
Tamils
Total population

77,000,000  [1]

Regions with significant populations
Flag of India India 61,527,000 (1996)[2]
Flag of Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 3,000,000 (1993)[2]
Flag of Malaysia Malaysia 1,060,000 (1993)[2]
Flag of Singapore Singapore 111,000 (1993) [2]
Languages
Tamil
Religions
Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism
Related ethnic groups
Dravidian people · Brahui people · Kannadigas · Malayalis · Tamils · Telugus · Tuluvas · Gonds

The Tamil people are a multi-ethnic group from the Indian subcontinent with a recorded history going back more than two millennia.[3] The oldest Tamil communities are those of southern India and north-eastern Sri Lanka. There are also a number of Tamil emigrant communities scattered around the world, especially in central Sri Lanka, Malaysia, South Africa, Singapore, and Mauritius with more recent emigrants found in New Zealand, Australia, Canada, the United States, and Europe. There are an estimated 77 million Tamils around the world. Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sri_Lanka. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaysia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Singapore. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... A silhouette of Buddha at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... This article is under construction. ... Languages Dravidian languages Religions Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Traditional religions Related ethnic groups Brahui people Gondi people Kannadigas Kodava Malayalis Tamils Telugus Tuluvas Dravidian people, Dravidian race or Dravidians are terms that are some times given to people of mainly Southern India, Northeastern Sri Lanka, and parts of Pakistan, Bangladesh and... The Brahui people or Brohi people (Urdu: بروہی) are an ethnic group of about 2. ... Kannadiga (Kannada: ಕನ್ನಡಿಗ |masculine|), or Kannadati (Kannada: ಕನ್ನಡತಿ |feminine|) are an ethnic group primarily located in the state of Karnataka in India and neighbouring areas like Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu, Kerala ,Goa and Maharashtra. ... Languages Malayalam (മലയാളം) Religions Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Judaism, Related ethnic groups Dravidian people Brahui people Kannadigas Tamils Telugus Tuluvas Malayali or Malayalee(മലയാളി) is a name given to the inhabitants of the state of Kerala. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The Tuluvas (Tulu: ತುಳುವ) are speakers of the Tulu language. ... Gondi refers to a people and their language in Central India. ... Multiethnic societies, in contrast to monoethnic societies, integrate different ethnic groups irrespective of differences in culture, race, and history under a common social identity larger than one nation in the conventional sense. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... These pages contain the trends of millennia and centuries. ... South India is a linguistic-cultural region of India that comprises the four states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu and the two Union Territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry, whose inhabitants are collectively referred to as South Indians. ... A memorial statue in Hanko, Finland, commemorating the thousands of emigrants who left the country to start a new life in the United States Emigration is the act of nolan muir the phenomenon of leaving ones native country to settle abroad. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ...


The art and architecture of the Tamil people encompass some of the greatest contributions of India to the art world. The music, the temple architecture and the stylised sculptures favoured by the Tamil people are still being learnt and practiced. The classical language of Tamil, one of the oldest languages in India, has the oldest extant literature amongst other Dravidian languages.[4] The ancient Tamil music was the music of the ancient Tamil people. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Tamil literature is literature in the Tamil language which most prominently includes the contributions of the Tamil country (or Tamizhagam) history, a large part of which constitutes the modern state of Tamil Nadu and Kerala as well as some parts of Karnataka and Andra pradesh. ... The Dravidian family of languages includes approximately 73 languages[1] that are mainly spoken in southern India and northeastern Sri Lanka, as well as certain areas in Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, and eastern and central India, as well as in parts of Afghanistan and Iran, and overseas in other countries such...


Unlike many ethnic groups, Tamils were not governed by a single political entity during most of their history; Tamilakam, the traditional name for the Tamil lands, was politically united for only a brief period, between the 9th and 12th centuries, under the Chola Empire. The Tamil identity is primarily linguistic, although in recent times the definition has been broadened to include emigrants of Tamil descent who maintain Tamil cultural traditions, even if they no longer regularly speak the language. Tamils are ethnically, linguistically and culturally related to the other Dravidian peoples of the Indian subcontinent. The ancient Tamil country of the classical era extended from River Krishna to the Cape Comorin(Kanyakumari). ... The Chola Dynasty (Tamil: , IPA: ) was a Tamil dynasty that ruled primarily in southern India until the 13th century. ... Cultural identity is the (feeling of) identity of a group or culture, or of an individual as far as she/he is influenced by her/his belonging to a group or culture. ... Languages Dravidian languages Religions Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Traditional religions Related ethnic groups Brahui people Gondi people Kannadigas Kodava Malayalis Tamils Telugus Tuluvas Dravidian people, Dravidian race or Dravidians are terms that are some times given to people of mainly Southern India, Northeastern Sri Lanka, and parts of Pakistan, Bangladesh and... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ...

Contents

History

See also: History of Tamil Nadu

A temple from the Chola period. ...

Pre-historic period

The Great Temple at Thanjavur built by Rajaraja Chola I
The Great Temple at Thanjavur built by Rajaraja Chola I

The origins of the Tamil people, like those of the other Dravidian peoples, are unknown, although genetic and archaeological evidence suggests a possible migration into India around 6000 BCE.[5] The earliest clear evidence of the presence of the Tamil people in modern Tamil Nadu are the megalithic urn burials, dating from around 1000 BCE and onwards, which have been discovered at various locations in Tamil Nadu, notably in Adichanallur.[6][7] These burials conform to the descriptions of funerals in classical Tamil literature in a number of details, and appear to be concrete evidence of the existence of Tamils in southern India during that period.[8] In modern times, ancient Tamil literature like Sangam poetry and epics like Silapthigaaram have been interpreted as making references to a lost continent Kumari Kandam.[9] Kumari Kandam has in turn been suggested to be identical with the lost land of Lemuria, though many dismiss this as a myth. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 397 × 599 pixels Full resolution (1024 × 1544 pixel, file size: 729 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Brihadeeswarar Temple Tamil people Metadata... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 397 × 599 pixels Full resolution (1024 × 1544 pixel, file size: 729 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Brihadeeswarar Temple Tamil people Metadata... Detail of a statue of Rajaraja at Brihadisvara Temple Rajaraja Chola I was the king of the Chola dynasty, who ruled between 985 and 1014 CE. Rajaraja, the greatest of all the Chola rulers of the Vijayalaya dynasty, laid the foundation for the growth of the Chola kingdom into an... Languages Dravidian languages Religions Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Traditional religions Related ethnic groups Brahui people Gondi people Kannadigas Kodava Malayalis Tamils Telugus Tuluvas Dravidian people, Dravidian race or Dravidians are terms that are some times given to people of mainly Southern India, Northeastern Sri Lanka, and parts of Pakistan, Bangladesh and... DNA, the molecular basis for inheritance. ... This July 2007 does not cite any references or sources. ... “Era Vulgaris” redirects here. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Megalithic tomb, Mane Braz, Brittany Bronze age wedge tomb in the Burren area of Ireland For the record label, see Megalith Records. ... Adichanallur is an archaeological site near 24 Tirunelveli in Tamil Nadu, India. ... Tamil literature is literature in the Tamil language which most prominently includes the contributions of the Tamil country (or Tamizhagam) history, a large part of which constitutes the modern state of Tamil Nadu and Kerala as well as some parts of Karnataka and Andra pradesh. ... now. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Lemuria is the name of a hypothetical lost land variously located in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. ...


Classical period

From around the third century BCE onwards, three royal dynasties—the Cholas, the Cheras and the Pandyas—rose to dominate the ancient Tamil country.[7] Each of these dynasties had its own realm within the Tamil-speaking region. Classical literature and inscriptions also describe a number of Velirs, or minor chieftains, who collectively ruled over large parts of central Tamil Nadu.[10] Wars between the kings and the chieftains were frequent, as were conflicts with ancient Sri Lanka.[11][12] These wars appear to have been fought to assert hegemony and demand tribute, rather than to subjugate and annex those territories. The kings and chieftains were patrons of the arts, and a significant volume of literature exists from this period.[10] The literature shows that many of the cultural practices that are considered peculiarly Tamil date back to the classical period.[10] The Chola Dynasty (Tamil: , IPA: ) was a Tamil dynasty that ruled primarily in southern India until the 13th century. ... The Chera dynasty (Tamil: சேரர்) was one of the ancient Tamil dynasties that ruled southern India from ancient times until around the fifteenth century CE. The Early Cheras ruled over the Malabar Coast, Coimbatore, Karur and Salem Districts in South India, which now forms part of the modern day Kerala and... The Pandyan kingdom பாண்டியர் was an ancient Tamil state in South India of unknown antiquity. ... The ancient Tamil country refers to the areas of South India and the northeastern Sri Lanka in which Tamil was the major language during ancient times. ... Sangam literature refers to a body of classical Tamil literature created between the years 200 BCE and 300 CE.[1][2] This collection contains 2381 poems written by 473 poets, some 102 of whom are anonymous authors[3]. The period during which these poems were written is commonly referred to... Velirs were tribal chieftains who ruled in the Tamil country during the early historic period. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ...


Agriculture was important during this period, and there is evidence that irrigation networks were built as early as 2nd century CE.[13] Internal and external trade flourished, and evidence exists of significant contact with Ancient Rome.[14] Large quantities of Roman coins and signs of the presence of Roman traders have been discovered at Karur and Arikamedu.[14] There is also evidence that at least two embassies were sent to the Roman Emperor Augustus by Pandya kings.[15] Potsherds with Tamil writing have also been found in excavations on the Red Sea, suggesting the presence of Tamil merchants there.[16] An anonymous first century traveler's account written in Greek, Periplus Maris Erytraei, describes the ports of the Pandya and Chera kingdoms and their commercial activity in great detail. Periplus also indicates that the chief exports of the ancient Tamils were pepper, malabathrum, pearls, ivory, silk, spikenard, diamonds, sapphires, and tortoiseshell.[17] Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The main Roman currency during most of the Roman Republic and the western half of the Roman Empire consisted of coins including the aureus (gold), the denarius (silver), the sestertius (bronze), the dupondius (bronze), and the as (copper). ... Roman commerce was the engine that drove the growth of the Roman Empire. ... Karur (Tamil : கரூர் ) is a town and a municipality in Karur district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... Arikamedu is an archaeological site near Pondicherry, southern India, where Mortimer Wheeler conducted its best-known excavation in the 1940s. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Augustus (disambiguation). ... In archaeology, a sherd is a fragment of pottery or other ceramic. ... The term archaeological excavation has a double meaning. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Merchants function as professionals who deal with trade, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves, in order to produce profit. ... The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (Periplus Maris Erythraei) is a Greek periplus, describing navigation and trading opportunities from Roman Egyptian ports like Berenice along the coast of the Red Sea, and others along East Africa and India. ... Seaport, a painting by Claude Lorrain, 1638 The Port of Wellington at night. ... Binomial name Piper nigrum L. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Malabathrum, also known as Malabar leaf is the name used in classical and medieval texts for the leaf of the plant Cinnamomum tamala. ... Freshadama grade cultured freshwater pearls. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Silk dresses Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. ... Binomial name Nardostachys grandiflora DC. Spikenard (also nard and muskroot) is a flowering plant of the Valerian family that grows in the Himalayas of India and Nepal. ... This article is about the gemstone. ... Sapphire is the single crystal form of aluminium oxide (Al2O3). ... Tortoiseshell can refer to: a Tortoiseshell cat a pattern used in clothing and jewellery the Small Tortoiseshell, a butterfly the Hawksbill turtle This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


The classical period ended around the fourth century CE with invasions by the Kalabhra, referred to as the kalappirar in Tamil literature and inscriptions.[18] These invaders are described as evil kings and barbarians coming from lands to the north of the Tamil country.[19] This period, commonly referred to as the Dark Age of the Tamil country, ended with the rise of the Pallava dynasty.[18][20][21] “Era Vulgaris” redirects here. ... Kalabhras were the South Indian dynasty who between the 3rd and the 6th century C.E. ruled over entire Tamil country, displacing the ancient Chola, Pandya and Chera dynasties. ... The Pallava kingdom (Tamil: பல்லவர்) was an ancient South Indian kingdom. ...


Imperial and post-imperial periods

Detail from a temple in Chidambaram. The Tamil kings were patrons of the arts, and built many ornate temples.
Detail from a temple in Chidambaram. The Tamil kings were patrons of the arts, and built many ornate temples.

Although the Pallava records can be traced from the second century CE, they did not rise to prominence as an imperial dynasty until the sixth century.[22] The dynasty does not appear to have been Tamil in origin, although they rapidly adopted the local culture and the Tamil language. The Pallavas sought to model themselves after great northern dynasties such as the Mauryas and Guptas.[23] They therefore transformed the institution of the kingship into an imperial one, and sought to bring vast amounts of territory under their direct rule. The Pallavas were initially Buddhists, but later converted to Hinduism. They encouraged the Bhakti movement, which had risen to counter the growing influence of Jainism and Buddhism.[24] The Pallavas pioneered the building of large, ornate temples in stone which formed the basis of the Dravidian temple architecture. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the town in Cuddalore district. ... The Pallava kingdom (Tamil: பல்லவர்) was an ancient South Indian kingdom. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Lion Capital of Asoka, erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in ancient India. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Bhakti movements are Hindu religious movements in which the main spiritual practice is the fostering of loving devotion to God, called bhakti. ... This article is under construction. ... A silhouette of Buddha at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ...


The Pallava dynasty was overthrown in the 9th century by the resurgent Cholas.[22] The Cholas become dominant in the 10th century and established an empire covering most of southern India and Sri Lanka.[22] The empire had strong trading links with China and Southeast Asia.[25][26] The Cholas' navy conquered the South Asian kingdom of Sri Vijaya in Sumatra and continued as far as Thailand and Burma.[22] Chola power declined in the 12th and 13th centuries, and the Pandya dynasty enjoyed a brief period of resurgence thereafter during the rule of Sundara Pandya.[22] However, repeated Muslim invasions from the 15th century onwards placed a huge strain on the empire's resources, and the dynasty came to an end in the 16th century.[27] The Pallava kingdom (Tamil: பல்லவர்) was an ancient South Indian kingdom. ... The Cholas were a South Indian Tamil dynasty, antedating the early Sangam literature (c. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The multinational Combined Task Force One Five Zero (CTF-150) The British Grand Fleet, the supreme naval force of World War I A rare occurrence of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... Srivijaya (-jaya meaning success or excellence) was an ancient kingdom on the island of Sumatra which was to influence much of the Malay Archipelago. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in South Asia. ...


The western Tamil lands became increasingly politically distinct from the rest of the Tamil lands after the Chola and Pandya empires lost control over them in the 13th century[citation needed]. They developed their own distinct language and literature, which increasingly grew apart from Tamil, evolving into the modern Malayalam language by the 15th century.[28] Malayalam ( ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ...

The remains of a palace of Ettappan, a Nayak who ruled Ettayapuram.

No major empires arose thereafter, and Tamil Nadu was for a while ruled by a number of different local chiefs, such as the Nayaks of the modern Maharashtra[citation needed] and Andhra Pradesh regions. From the 17th century onwards, European powers began establishing settlements and trading outposts in the region. A number of battles were fought between the British, French and Danish in the 18th century, and by the end of the 18th century most of Tamil Nadu was under British rule. Download high resolution version (996x376, 54 KB){{GFDL} The remains of Ettappans palace in Ettayapuram File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (996x376, 54 KB){{GFDL} The remains of Ettappans palace in Ettayapuram File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A Nayak (also Nayaka, Nayaker/Naicker (Tamil) or Nayadu/Naidu (Telegu) or Nair (Malayalam) Nayake/Naike (Sinhala) or Naik (Marathi) ) is the title of a government official, equivalent to a provincial governor or viceroy, in the Telugu kingdoms of southern India, including the Kakatiya kingdom of Warangal (11th-14th centuries... The house in Ettayapuram where Bharathiar was born Ettayapuram (எட்டையாபுரம் in Tamil) is a village in Thoothukudi (a. ... A Nayak (also Nayaka, Nayaker/Naicker (Tamil) or Nayadu/Naidu (Telegu) or Nair (Malayalam) Nayake/Naike (Sinhala) or Naik (Marathi) ) is the title of a government official, equivalent to a provincial governor or viceroy, in the Telugu kingdoms of southern India, including the Kakatiya kingdom of Warangal (11th-14th centuries... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA:  , English: ) is Indias third largest state in terms of area and second largest in terms of population after Uttar Pradesh. ... , Andhra Pradesh (Telugu: , Urdu: ), the Rice Bowl of India, is a state in southern India. ... European settlements in India (1501-1739). ...

Tamils in Sri Lanka

See also: History of Sri Lanka, Jaffna Kingdom, and Sri Lankan Tamils
The Nallur Kandaswamy temple in Jaffna
The Nallur Kandaswamy temple in Jaffna

There is little consensus on the history of the Tamil-speaking parts of Sri Lanka prior to the Chola period. Some Sinhala historians argue that there was no organised Tamil presence in Sri Lanka until the invasions from southern India in the 10th century, whereas many Tamil historians contend that Tamils are the original inhabitants of the island and they were called Araipadi and Elapadi. The historical evidence is not conclusive either way. The recorded History of Sri Lanka boasts of 25 chronicled centuries. ... Jaffna Kingdom was a historically important regional power in medieval Sri Lanka. ... Sri Lankan Tamils also known as Eelam Tamils, Ceylonese or Ceylon Tamils and Jaffna Tamils are today a trans-national minority, and are Tamil people from Sri Lanka. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (989x648, 144 KB) Summary Its a famous Hindu temple in Jaffna city. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (989x648, 144 KB) Summary Its a famous Hindu temple in Jaffna city. ... Jaffna District. ... The Chola Dynasty (Tamil: , IPA: ) was a Tamil dynasty that ruled primarily in southern India until the 13th century. ... Languages Sinhala Religions Theravada Buddhism, Christianity, small groups of atheists, agnostics, Muslims, others Related ethnic groups Indo-Aryans, Dravidians, Veddahs, Bengalis The Sinhalese are the main ethnic group of Sri Lanka. ... A historian is an individual who studies history and who writes on history. ... South India is a geographic and linguistic-cultural region of India. ...


The historical record does establish that the Tamil kingdoms of India were closely involved in Sri Lankan affairs from about the 2nd century BCE.[11][12] There is evidence of early Tamil traders in Anuradhapura[citation needed]. Tamil adventurers invaded the island as far back as 100 BCE.[29] Tamil wars against Sri Lanka culminated in the Chola annexation of the island in the 10th century, which lasted until the latter half of the eleventh century.[30][31][32] Anuradhapura, (අනුරාධපුර in Sinhala), is one of the ancient capitals of Sri Lanka, world famous for its well preserved ruins of the Great Sri Lankan Civilization. ...


The decline of Chola power in Sri Lanka was followed by the re-establishment of the Polonnaruwa monarchy in the late eleventh century.[33] In 1215, the Arya Chakaravarthi dynasty established an independent Jaffna kingdom[34] in the Jaffna peninsula and parts of northern Sri Lanka. The Arya Chakaravarthi expansion into the south was halted by Alagakkonara,[35] a man from a family of Malayali merchants who had become the chief minister of the Sinhalese king Parakramabahu V (1344–1359). Alagakkonara built a fortress at Kotte,[36] and held the Arya Chakravarthi army there while he defeated the invading fleet at Panadura, southwest of Kotte. A descendant of Alagakkonara (Tamil Alagakonar) later became King of the Sinhalese,[37] but this line was deposed by the Ming admiral Cheng Ho (Zheng He) in 1409. The Arya Chakaravarthi dynasty ruled over large parts of northeast Sri Lanka until 1619, when it was conquered by the Portuguese. The coastal areas of the island was then taken by the Dutch, and in 1796 these became part of the British Empire. The Chola Dynasty (Tamil: , IPA: ) was a Tamil dynasty that ruled primarily in southern India until the 13th century. ... The second most ancient of Sri Lankas kingdoms, Polonnaruwa was first declared the capital city by King Vijayabahu I, who defeated the Chola invaders in 1070 CE to reunite the country once more under a local leader. ... Arya Chakaravarthi is a name of a dynasty of Hindu Kings of the Jaffna Kingdom in Sri Lanka. ... Jaffna Kingdom was a historically important regional power in medieval Sri Lanka. ... Jaffna District. ... Nissanka Alagakkonara (1340-1380) was the chieftain at Rayigama during the fourteenth century Sri Lanka. ... District Kotte Division, Colombo District Government  - Mayor Swarnalatha Silva (Sri Lanka Freedom Party) Area  - City 17 km²  (6. ... District Kotte Division, Colombo District Government  - Mayor Swarnalatha Silva (Sri Lanka Freedom Party) Area  - City 17 km²  (6. ... Ming China under the Yongle Emperor Capital Nanjing (1368-1421) Beijing (1421-1644) Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1368-1398 Hongwu Emperor  - 1627-1644 Chongzhen Emperor History  - Established in Nanjing January 23, 1368  - Fall of Beijing 1644  - End of the Southern Ming April, 1662 Population  - 1393 est. ... Zheng He (Traditional Chinese:鄭和, Simplified Chinese: 郑和 , Hanyu Pinyin: Zhèng Hé, Wade_Giles: Cheng Ho) (1371 - Chinese mariner and explorer, made the voyages collectively referred to as the Eunuch Sanbao to the Western Ocean (三保太監下西洋) or Zheng He to the Western... Zheng He (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Zhèng Hé; Wade-Giles: Cheng Ho; Birth name: 馬三寶 / 马三宝; Pinyin: ; Islamic name: حجّي محمود شمس Hajji Mahmud Shams) (1371–1433), was a Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat and fleet admiral, who made the voyages collectively referred to as the travels of Eunuch Sanbao to the Western... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...


Modern period

A colonial-era photograph of a Tamil couple.
A colonial-era photograph of a Tamil couple.

British colonists consolidated the Tamil territory in southern India into the Madras Presidency, which was integrated into British India. Similarly, the Tamil parts of Sri Lanka joined with the other regions of the island in 1802 to form the Ceylon colony. They remained in political union with India and Sri Lanka after their independence, in 1947 and 1948 respectively. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Madras Presidency, also known as Madras Province and known officially as Presidency of Fort St. ... The flag of British India British India, circa 1860 The British Raj (Raj in Hindi meaning Rule; from Sanskrit Rajya) was the British rule between 1858 and 1947 of the Indian Subcontinent, which included the present-day India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Burma (Myanmar), whereby these lands were under the colonial...


When India became independent in 1947, Madras Presidency became the Madras State, comprised of present-day Tamil Nadu, coastal Andhra Pradesh, northern Kerala, and the southwest coast of Karnataka. The state was subsequently split along linguistic lines. In 1953, the northern districts formed Andhra Pradesh. Under the States Reorganization Act in 1956, Madras State lost its western coastal districts. The Bellary and South Kanara districts were ceded to Mysore state, and Kerala was formed from the Malabar district and the former princely states of Travancore and Cochin. In 1968, Madras State was renamed Tamil Nadu. , Andhra Pradesh (Telugu: , Urdu: ), the Rice Bowl of India, is a state in southern India. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... , Bellary (Kannada: pronunciation: in Kannada and in English) is a city in Bellary District in Karnataka state, India. ... Dakshina Kannada, also called South Kannada, South Kanara, or South Canara, is a district of Indias Karnataka state. ... The Kingdom of Mysore was one of the three largest princely states within the erstwhile British Empire of India. ... Malabar District was an administrative district of British India and independent Indias Madras State. ... A princely state is any state under the reign of a prince and is thus a principality taken in the broad sense. ... Flag for former princely state of Travancore Travancore or Thiruvithaamkoor (Malayalam: തിരുവിതാങ്കൂര്‍ [], തിരുവിതാംകൂര്‍ [], തിരുവിതാങ്കോട് []) was a princely state in India with its capital at Trivandrum (Thiruvananthapuram). ... , Kochi ( ; Malayalam: []); formerly known as Cochin) is a city in the Indian state of Kerala. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ...


There was some initial demand for an independent Tamil state following the adoption of the federal system.[38] However, the Indian constitution granted significant autonomy to the states, and protests by Tamils in 1963 led to the government adopting a new policy called the "three language formula". This has led to Tamils in India becoming increasingly satisfied with the federal arrangement, and there is very little support for secession or independence today. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


In Sri Lanka, however, the unitary arrangement led to a growing belief among some Tamils of discrimination by the Sinhalese majority. This resulted in a demand for federalism, which in the 1970s grew into a movement for an autonomous Tamil country. The situation deteriorated into civil war in the early 1980s. A ceasefire in effect since 2002 broke down in August 2006 amid shelling and bombing from both sides. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political federalism is a political philosophy in which a group of members are bound together (Latin: foedus, covenant) with a governing representative head. ... Combatants Military of Sri Lanka Indian Peace Keeping Force Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Commanders Junius Richard Jayawardene (1983-89) Ranasinghe Premadasa (1989-93) Dingiri Banda Wijetunge (1993-94) Chandrika Kumaratunga (1994-2005) Mahinda Rajapaksa (2005-present) Velupillai Prabhakaran (1983-present) Strength 111,000[1] 11,000[1] The Sri...


Geographic distribution

Indian Tamils

Most Indian Tamils live in the state of Tamil Nadu. Tamils are the majority in the union territory of Pondicherry, a former French colony. Pondicherry is a subnational enclave situated within Tamil Nadu. There are also Tamil communities in other parts of India. Most of these have emerged fairly recently, dating to the colonial and post-colonial periods, but some—particularly the Hebbar and Mandyam Tamils of southern Karnataka, the Tamils of Palakkad in Kerala, and the Tamils of Pune, Maharashtra—date back to at least the medieval period. Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... A Union Territory is an administrative division of India. ... Map of Pondicherry Region, Union Territory of Pondicherry, India Pondicherry (Tamil:புதுவை,Hindi: पॉण्डिचेरी) is a Union Territory of India. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... , Pune (Marathi: पुणे ,pronunciation: ) is a city located in the western Indian state of Maharashtra. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA:  , English: ) is Indias third largest state in terms of area and second largest in terms of population after Uttar Pradesh. ...


Sri Lankan Tamils

See also: Sri Lankan Civil War, Sri Lankan Tamils, and Hill Country Tamils
A Hill Country Tamil woman working on a tea plantation in upcountry Sri Lanka.
A Hill Country Tamil woman working on a tea plantation in upcountry Sri Lanka.

There are today two groups of Tamils in Sri Lanka. The first are the Sri Lankan Tamils, who either descend from the Tamils of the old Jaffna kingdom or who migrated to the East coast. The second are the Indian Tamils or Hill Country Tamils, who are descendants of bonded labourers sent from Tamil Nadu to Sri Lanka in the 19th century to work in tea plantations.[39] Ceylon Tamils mostly live in the Northern and Eastern provinces and in the capital of Colombo, whereas hill-country Tamils largely live in the central highlands.[40] The Hill Country Tamils and Ceylon Tamils historically have seen themselves as separate communities. In 1949, the United National Party Government, which included G. G. Ponnambalam, a leader of the Tamil Congress and of the Sri Lankan Tamils, stripped the Indian Tamils of their nationality, including their right to vote. Prominent Tamil political leaders such as S. J. V. Chelvanayakam and his Tamil opposition party opposed this move.[41] Combatants Military of Sri Lanka Indian Peace Keeping Force Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Commanders Junius Richard Jayawardene (1983-89) Ranasinghe Premadasa (1989-93) Dingiri Banda Wijetunge (1993-94) Chandrika Kumaratunga (1994-2005) Mahinda Rajapaksa (2005-present) Velupillai Prabhakaran (1983-present) Strength 111,000[1] 11,000[1] The Sri... Sri Lankan Tamils also known as Eelam Tamils, Ceylonese or Ceylon Tamils and Jaffna Tamils are today a trans-national minority, and are Tamil people from Sri Lanka. ... The Indian Tamils, Hill-country Tamils, Up-country Tamils or Indian origin Tamils are descended from indentured labourers sent from South India to Sri Lanka in the 19th and 20th centuries to work in coffee plantations there (and, after the collapse of coffee planting in Sri Lanka, in tea and... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 450 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Dones tamil recolectora de te a la provincia Central de Sri Lanka, foto feta per J. Ollé el juliol del 2006 File links The following... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 450 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Dones tamil recolectora de te a la provincia Central de Sri Lanka, foto feta per J. Ollé el juliol del 2006 File links The following... The Indian Tamils, Hill-country Tamils, Up-country Tamils or Indian origin Tamils are descended from indentured labourers sent from South India to Sri Lanka in the 19th and 20th centuries to work in coffee plantations there (and, after the collapse of coffee planting in Sri Lanka, in tea and... Sri Lankan Tamils also known as Eelam Tamils, Ceylonese or Ceylon Tamils and Jaffna Tamils are today a trans-national minority, and are Tamil people from Sri Lanka. ... Jaffna Kingdom was a historically important regional power in medieval Sri Lanka. ... The Indian Tamils, Hill-country Tamils, Up-country Tamils or Indian origin Tamils are descended from indentured labourers sent from South India to Sri Lanka in the 19th and 20th centuries to work in coffee plantations there (and, after the collapse of coffee planting in Sri Lanka, in tea and... An Indentured Servant (or in the U.S. bonded labourer) is a labourer under contract to work for an employer for a specific amount of time, usually seven to eight years, to pay off a passage to a new country or home. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Tea leaves in a Chinese gaiwan. ... Sri Lankan Tamils also known as Eelam Tamils, Ceylonese or Ceylon Tamils and Jaffna Tamils are today a trans-national minority, and are Tamil people from Sri Lanka. ... The United National Party, often referred to as the UNP Sinhalese: එක්සත් ජාතික පක්ෂය (pronounced Eksath Jathika Pakshaya), Tamil: ஐக்கிய தேசியக் கட்சி), is a leading political party in Sri Lanka. ... Ganapathipillai Gangaser Ponnambalam (8 November 1902 – 9 December 1977), known as G.G. Ponnambalam, was a Tamil politician in Ceylon, and then after independence, in Sri Lanka. ... ACTC flag All Ceylon Tamil Congress (in Tamil: அகில இலங்கைத் தமிழ்க் காங்கிரஸ்), is the oldest Tamil political party in Sri Lanka. ... Sri Lankan Tamils also known as Eelam Tamils, Ceylonese or Ceylon Tamils and Jaffna Tamils are today a trans-national minority, and are Tamil people from Sri Lanka. ... Samuel James Veluppillai Chelvanayakam (March 31, 1898-April 27, 1977) was a Sri Lankan politician and leader of the Tamil community. ...


Under an agreement between the Sri Lankan and Indian governments in the 1960s, around 40% of Hill Country Tamils were granted Sri Lankan nationality, and many of the remainder were repatriated to India.[42] However, the ethnic conflict has led to the growth of a greater sense of common Tamil identity, and the two groups are now more supportive of each other.[43] By the 1990s most Indian Tamils had received Sri Lankan citizenship.[44]


There is also a significant Tamil-speaking Muslim population in Sri Lanka. Unlike Tamil-speaking Muslims from India, however, they do not identify themselves as ethnic Tamils and are therefore usually listed as a separate ethnic group in official statistics.[45][46] Islam in Sri Lanka is practiced entirely by Sri Lankan Muslims, who make up approximately 8% of the population, comprise a group of minorities practicing the religion of Islam in Sri Lanka. ...


Tamil emigrant communities

See also: Tamil diaspora and Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora

Significant Tamil emigration began in the 18th century, when the British colonial government sent many poor Tamils as indentured labourers to far-off parts of the Empire, especially Malaya, South Africa, Fiji, Mauritius and the Caribbean. At about the same time, many Tamil businessmen also immigrated to other parts of the British Empire, particularly to Burma and East Africa.[47] Many Tamils still live in these countries, and the Tamil communities in Singapore, Reunion Island, Malaysia and South Africa have retained much of their culture and language. Many Malaysian children attend Tamil schools, and a significant portion of Tamil children in Mauritius and Reunion are brought up with Tamil as their first language. In Singapore, Tamil students learn Tamil as their second language in school, with English as the first. To preserve the Tamil language, the Singapore government has made it a national language despite Tamils comprising only about 10% of the population, and has also introduced compulsory instruction of the language for Tamils. Other Tamil communities, such as those in South Africa and Fiji, no longer speak Tamil as a first language, but still retain a strong Tamil identity, and are able to understand the language, while most elders speak it as a first language.[48] The Tamil diaspora is a term used to denote people of Tamil Nadu and Sri Lankan Tamil origin who have settled in many parts of the rest of India and Sri Lanka, or in other regions, particularly Malaysia, Singapore, the Middle East, Reunion, South Africa, Mauritius, Fiji, Guyana, Trinidad and... The Sri Lankan Tamil Diaspora also known as Jaffnese diaspora and Ceylonese diaspora refers to the global diaspora of the people of Sri Lankan Tamil origin. ... An Indentured servant is an unfree labourer under contract to work (for a specified amount of time) for another person, often without any pay, but in exchange for accommodation, food, other essentials and/or free passage to a new country. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... “West Indian” redirects here. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... Réunion is an island and overseas département (département doutre-mer, or DOM) of France, located in the Indian Ocean east of Madagascar, about 200 km southwest of Mauritius. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ...


A large emigration also began in the 1980s, as Sri Lankan Tamils sought to escape the ethnic conflict there. These recent emigrants have most often fled to Australia, Europe, North America and Southeast Asia.[49] Today, the largest concentration of Tamils outside southern Asia is in Toronto, Canada.[50] World map showing the location of Europe. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


Since the 1950s a large number of Tamil Brahmin professionals have emigrated to Western countries, partly in search of more lucrative prospects, and partly because of what they perceived as injustice in the reservation system in Indian education and jobs. A Brahmin (anglicised from the Sanskrit word IAST ; Devanagari ), also known as Vipra, Dvija, Dvijottama (best of the Dvijas), (god on Earth) is a member of an upper caste within Hindu society. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ...


Many young Tamil professionals from India have also immigrated to Europe and the United States in recent times in search of better opportunities. These new immigrant communities have established cultural associations to protect and promote Tamil culture and language in their adopted homes. The Federation of Tamil Sangams in North America (FeTNA, established 1987) is an umbrella organization of many (but not all) local North American Tamil diaspora organizations. ...


Culture

Language and literature

Main articles : Tamil language, Tamil literature

Tamils have strong feelings towards the Tamil language, which is often venerated in literature as "Tamil̲an̲n̲ai", "the Tamil mother".[51] It has historically been, and to large extent still is, central to the Tamil identity.[52] Like the other languages of South India, it is a Dravidian language, unrelated to the Indo-European languages of northern India. The language has been far less influenced by Sanskrit than the other Dravidian languages, and preserves many features of Proto-Dravidian, though modern-day spoken Tamil in Tamil Nadu, freely uses loanwords from Sanskrit and English.[53] Tamil literature is of considerable antiquity, and was recognised as a classical language by the government of India. Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Tamil literature is literature in the Tamil language which most prominently includes the contributions of the Tamil country (or Tamizhagam) history, a large part of which constitutes the modern state of Tamil Nadu and Kerala as well as some parts of Karnataka and Andra pradesh. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... South India is a linguistic-cultural region of India that comprises the four states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu and the two Union Territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry, whose inhabitants are collectively referred to as South Indians. ... The Dravidian family of languages includes approximately 73 languages[1] that are mainly spoken in southern India and northeastern Sri Lanka, as well as certain areas in Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, and eastern and central India, as well as in parts of Afghanistan and Iran, and overseas in other countries such... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Proto-Dravidian is the proto-language of the Dravidian languages. ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Tamil literature is literature in the Tamil language which most prominently includes the contributions of the Tamil country (or Tamizhagam) history, a large part of which constitutes the modern state of Tamil Nadu and Kerala as well as some parts of Karnataka and Andra pradesh. ... A classical language, is a language with a literature that is classical—ie, it should be ancient, it should be an independent tradition that arose mostly on its own, not as an offshoot of another tradition, and it must have a large and extremely rich body of ancient literature. ... The Government of India (Hindi: भारत सरकार [1]Bhārat Sarkār), officially referred to as the Union Government, and commonly as Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of a federal union of 28 states and 7 union territories, collectively called the Republic of...


Classical Tamil literature, which ranges from lyric poetry to works on poetics and ethical philosophy, is remarkably different from contemporary and later literature in other Indian languages, and represents the oldest body of secular literature in South Asia.[54] Notable works in classical Tamil literature include the Tirukkural, by Tiruvalluvar, the five great Tamil epics, and the works of Auvaiyar. Sangam literature refers to a body of classical Tamil literature created between the years 200 BCE and 300 CE.[1][2] This collection contains 2381 poems written by 473 poets, some 102 of whom are anonymous authors[3]. The period during which these poems were written is commonly referred to... omg holy crap| cellpadding=4 cellspacing=0 style=width:270px; margin: 0 0 1em 1em; background:#FFFFFF; border: 0px #aaaaaa solid; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 85%; float:right; | // |- |} Lyric be excepted. ... Aristotles Poetics aims to give an account of poetry. ... Ethics (via Latin from the Ancient Greek moral philosophy, from the adjective of Ä“thos custom, habit), a major branch of philosophy, is the study of values and customs of a person or group. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Tiruvalluvar statue at Kanyakumari Tirukural (திருக்குறள் in Tamil) is an important work of Tamil literature by Tiruvalluvar written in the form of couplets expounding various aspects of life. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Manimegalai, Seevaga Sindhamani, Valayaapathi, Kundalakesi and Silapadhigaaram constitute the Five Great Epics of Tamil Literature. ... Auvaiyar is a female icon of Tamil literature. ...


Modern Tamil literature is diverse. It includes Indian Nationalism, in the works of Subramanya Bharathi; historical romanticism, by Kalki Krishnamurthy; radical and moderate social realism, by Pudhumaipithan and Jayakanthan; and feminism, by Malathi Maithri and Kutti Revathi. Sujatha, an author whose works range from romance novels to science fiction, is one of the most popular modern writers in Tamil. Sri Lankan Tamil literature has produced several works reflecting the civilian tragedy caused by decades of war. There is also an emerging diaspora literature in Tamil. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Subramanya Bharathi 1882 - 1921 Subramanya Bharathi (Tamil: ) (December 11, 1882 - September 11, 1921) was a Tamil poet from Tamil Nadu, India, freedom fighter and reformer. ... Kalki R Krishnamurthy Kalki (Tamil: ) is the pen name of Krishnamurthy (Tamil: ) (September 9, 1899–December 5, 1954), an Indian freedom fighter, novelist, short-story writer, journalist, satirist, travel writer, script-writer, poet, critic, and connoisseur of the arts. ... A Diego Rivera mural depicting factory workers in Detroit Social Realism is an artistic movement, expressed in the visual and other realist arts, which depicts working class activities as heroic. ... Pudhumaipithan April 25, 1906 - May 5, 1948 Pudhumaipithan is the pseudonym of Viruthachalam(April 25, 1906 - May 5, 1948),one of the most influential and revolutionary writers of Tamil fiction. ... Jayakanthan (Tamil: ) (born April 24, 1934) is a Tamil writer, essayist, journalist, pamphleteer, film-maker and critic. ... Feminism comprises a number of social, cultural and political movements, theories and moral philosophies that are concerned with the impact of cultural, political, and economic practices and inequalities on discrimination against women. ... Sujatha (b. ... A romance novel is a literary genre developed in Western culture, mainly in English-speaking countries. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... For other uses, see Diaspora (disambiguation). ...


There are a number of regional dialects in use by the Tamil people. These dialects vary among regions and communities. Tamil dialects are mainly differentiated by the disparate phonological changes and sound shifts that have evolved from Old Tamil. Although most Tamil dialects do not differ significantly in their vocabulary, there are a few exceptions. The dialects spoken in Sri Lanka retain many words that are not in everyday use in India, and use many other words slightly differently. The dialect of the Iyers of Palakkad has a large number of Malayalam loanwords, has been influenced by Malayalam syntax, and has a distinct Malayalam accent. The Sankethi, Hebbar, and Mandyam dialects, the former spoken by groups of Tamil Iyers, and the latter two by Vaishnavites who migrated to Karnataka in the 11th century, retains many Vaishnavite religious and spiritual values. Although not a dialect, the Tamil spoken in Chennai infuses English words, and is called Madras Bashai (Madras language).[citation needed] Sri Lankan Tamil dialects is a group of dialects that are distinct from Tamil dialects used in Tamil Nadu and Kerala states of India. ... Iyers (Tamil : ஐயர்) are a section of Tamil Brahmins (a priestly Hindu caste from India) who mostly profess the advaita philosophy propounded by Adi Shankara. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Malayalam ( ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ... Sankethi is distinct from Tamil and is now an independent language according to Dravidian linguists such as Hampa Nagarajaiah. ... Hebbar Iyengars are followers of Ramanujas philosophy preaching Vishishtadvaita. ... Mandya is a district of Karnataka, India. ... Iyer is the name given to a community of Brahmins (members of the priestly class / caste) of India whose members profess the advaita philosophy propounded by sri Shankaracharya and whose ancestors have had strong ties with the Tamil region,for many centuries. ... Temple dedicated to the worship of Vishnu as Venkateswara. ... Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Vaishnavites are followers of Vaishnavism in which Vishnu or His avatars are worshipped as the supreme God. ... , “Madras” redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Madras bashai (Tamil: மெட்ராஸ் பாஷை), is a type of mixed language spoken in the city of Chennai, India (previously known as Madras). ...


Visual art and architecture

See also: Chola Art

Most traditional Tamil art is religious in some form and usually centres on Hinduism, although the religious element is often only a means to represent universal—and, occasionally, humanist—themes.[55] Detail of a Statue of Rajaraja Chola I at the Brihadisvara Temple The period of the imperial Cholas (c. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Humanism[1] is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities—particularly rationality. ...


The most important form of Tamil painting is Tanjore painting, which originated in Thanjavur in the ninth century. The painting's base is made of cloth and coated with zinc oxide, over which the image is painted using dyes; it is then decorated with semi-precious stones, as well as silver or gold thread.[56] A style which is related in origin, but which exhibits significant differences in execution, is used for painting murals on temple walls; the most notable example are the murals on the Meenakshi temple, of Madurai.[57] Tamil art, in general, is known for its stylistic elegance, rich colours, and attention to small details. A Tanjore Painting depicting Goddess Saraswati A rare Tanjore style painting from the late 19th century depicting the ten Sikh Gurus with Bhai Bala and Bhai Mardana. ... , “Tanjore” redirects here. ... (8th century - 9th century - 10th century - other centuries) Events Beowulf might have been written down in this century, though it could also have been in the 8th century Viking attacks on Europe begin Oseberg ship burial The Magyars arrive in what is now Hungary, forcing the Serbs and Bulgars south... Zinc oxide is a chemical compound with formula ZnO. It is nearly insoluble in water but soluble in acids or alkalis. ... Salle des illustres, ceiling painting, by Jean André Rixens. ... Meenakshi temple A different view of the Meenakshi temple The Meenakshi temple is a Hindu temple in the Tamil Nadu city of Madurai. ... , Madurai   (Tamil: , IPA: ) is a city and a municipal corporation with a population of 1. ...

Tamil sculpture ranges from elegant stone sculptures in temples, to bronze icons with exquisite details.[58] The medieaval Chola bronzes are considered to be one of India's greatest contributions to the world art.[59][60] Unlike most Western art, the material in Tamil sculpture does not influence the form taken by the sculpture; instead, the artist imposes his/her vision of the form on the material.[61] As a result, one often sees in stone sculptures flowing forms that are usually reserved for metal.[62] As with painting, these sculptures show a fine eye for detail; great care is taken in sculpting the minute details of jewelery, worn by the subjects of the sculpture. The lines tend to be smooth and flowing, and many pieces skillfully capture movement. The cave sculptures at Mamallapuram are a particularly fine example of the technique, as are the bronzes of the Chola period. A particularly popular motif in the bronzes was the depiction of Shiva as Nataraja, in a dance posture with one leg upraised, and a fiery circular halo surrounding his body. Download high resolution version (535x756, 107 KB) Source Nataraja-Shiva From fr: File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (535x756, 107 KB) Source Nataraja-Shiva From fr: File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Gopuram of Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple in Srirangam Gopuram, a prominent feature of the Hindu temple architecture of South India, is the rising tower at the entrance of a temple. ... Meenakshi temple A different view of the Meenakshi temple The Meenakshi temple is a Hindu temple in the Tamil Nadu city of Madurai. ... , Madurai   (Tamil: , IPA: ) is a city and a municipal corporation with a population of 1. ... A sculpture is a three-dimensional object, which for the purposes of this article is man-made and selected for special recognition as art. ... Assorted ancient Bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ... Shore Temple, rescued from the sea Mahabalipuram (after the demon king Mahabali) or Mamallapuram (after the Pallava king Mamalla) is a 7th century port city of the South Indian dynasty of the Pallavas around 60 km south from the city of Chennai in Tamil Nadu. ... The Chola Dynasty (Tamil: , IPA: ) was a Tamil dynasty that ruled primarily in southern India until the 13th century. ... Shiva (also spelled Siva; Sanskrit ) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism. ... Bronze Chola Statue of Nataraja Nataraja (literally, The King of Dance) is the dancing posture of Lord Åšiva, the aspect of God as the Destroyer in Hinduism. ...

An inside view of a traditional Tamil house

Tamil temples were often simply treated as sculptures on a grand scale. The temples are most notable for their high spires, known as Gopura, consisting of a number of stepped levels, and the vimanam, which rises above the sanctum sanctorum. During the Chola period, the vimanams had more prominence, as seen in the Brihadīsvara temple of Thanjavur. During the Nayak period, the spires became progressively more elaborate and ornate, as exemplified by the Meenakshi Temple in Madurai, while the vimanam became much smaller. From the 13th century onwards, the entrance gates to the temples, called gopurams in Tamil, also began to grow bigger, and more elaborate. The temples at Chidambaram and Srirangam have particularly impressive gopurams, covered with sculptures and reliefs of various scenes and characters from Hindu mythology. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x681, 89 KB) Summary An inside view of Tamil house. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x681, 89 KB) Summary An inside view of Tamil house. ... Gopuram of Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple in Srirangam Gopuram, a prominent feature of the Hindu temple architecture of South India, is the rising tower at the entrance of a temple. ... The Sikhara of the Raghunath Temple at Jammu, India is built in the Nagar style of temple architecture. ... The sanctum sanctorum is the area inside a Hindu temple complex where the main deity is installed. ... The Cholas were a South Indian Tamil dynasty, antedating the early Sangam literature (c. ... The Brihadisvara temple (also spelled Brahadeeswarar temple) is an ancient Hindu temple located at Thanjavur in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. ... , “Tanjore” redirects here. ... It was a fall from eternal glory to deep abyss for Madurai when the Tamil Kingdoms disintegrated, and its wealth was plundered by the ravaging armies of Delhis Muslim Rulers. ... Meenakshi temple A different view of the Meenakshi temple The Meenakshi temple is a Hindu temple in the Tamil Nadu city of Madurai. ... , Madurai   (Tamil: , IPA: ) is a city and a municipal corporation with a population of 1. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Gopuram of Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple in Srirangam Gopuram, a prominent feature of the Hindu temple architecture of South India, is the rising tower at the entrance of a temple. ... This article is about the town in Cuddalore district. ... Srirangam (Tamil: ஸ்ரீரங்கம்), also known as Thiruvarangam, is an island town in the district of Tiruchirapalli ( also known shortly as Trichy or Tiruchi) in South India. ... Hindu mythology is a term used by modern scholarship for a large body of Indian literature that details the lives and times of legendary personalities, deities and divine incarnations on earth interspersed with often large sections of philosophical and ethical discourse. ...


As with Indian art in general, Tamil art does not traditionally aspire to portraiture or realism. Much more emphasis is placed on the representation of ideal prototypes, and on depicting the symbols with which the theme of the artistic work is associated. This means that small details, such as the direction which a hand faces, the animals or trees portrayed, or the time of day depicted, are often of critical importance to understanding the meaning of a work of art.[63] A miniature, Kishengarh, Jaipur, Rajasthan Indian cave art at Bhimbetka The vast scope of the art of India intertwines with the cultural history, religions and philosophies which place art production and patronage in social and cultural contexts. ... Self-portrait by Vincent Van Gogh A portrait is a painting, photograph, or other artistic representation of a person. ... Realism in the visual arts and literature is the depiction of subjects as they appear in everyday life, without embellishment or interpretation. ...


Performing arts

See also: Music of Tamil Nadu and Ancient Tamil music

The traditional Tamil performing arts have ancient roots.[64] The royal courts and temples have been centres for the performing arts since the classical period, and possibly earlier. Descriptions of performances in classical Tamil literature and the Natya Shastra, a Sanskrit treatise on the performing arts, indicate a close relationship between the ancient and modern artforms. The aim of a performance in Tamil tradition, is to bring out the rasa, the flavor, mood, or feeling, inherent in the text, and its quality is measured by the extent to which it induces the mood in the audience.[64] Tamil Nadu is a state in southern India. ... The ancient Tamil music was the music of the ancient Tamil people. ... The performing arts are those forms of art which differ from the plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artists own body, face and presence as a medium, and the latter uses materials such as clay, metal or paint which can be molded or transformed to create some... The Natya Shastra or Nātyaśāstra is the principal work of dramatic theory in the Sanskrit drama of classical India. ...


Tamil shares a classical musical tradition, called carnatic music, with the rest of South India. It is primarily oriented towards vocal music, with instruments functioning either as accompaniments, or as imitations of the singer's role. Ancient Tamil music, stemming from the long traditions of classical literature and Cilappatikaram, played a major part in the evolution of Carnatic music.[65] Carnatic music is organized around the twin notions of melody types (rāgam), and cyclical rhythm types (thāḷam). Unlike the northern Hindustani music tradition, carnatic music is almost exclusively religious. In sharp contrast with the restrained and intellectual nature of carnatic music, Tamil folk music tends to be much more exuberant. Popular forms of Tamil folk music include the Villuppattu, a form of music performed with a bow, and the Naattupurapaattu, ballads that convey folklore and folk history. Tamil Nadu is a state in southern India. ... Carnatic music, also known as is one of the two styles of Indian classical music, the other being Hindustani music. ... South India is a linguistic-cultural region of India that comprises the four states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu and the two Union Territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry, whose inhabitants are collectively referred to as South Indians. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... In music accompaniment is the art of playing along with a soloist or ensemble, often known as the lead, in a supporting manner as well as the music thus played. ... The ancient Tamil music was the music of the ancient Tamil people. ... Sangam literature refers to a body of classical Tamil literature created between the years 200 BCE and 300 CE.[1][2] This collection contains 2381 poems written by 473 poets, some 102 of whom are anonymous authors[3]. The period during which these poems were written is commonly referred to... Cilappatikaram (Tamil: சிலப்பதிகாரம் IPA tʃɪlÊŒppʌθɪkɑːɹʌm),[1] is one of the five great epics of ancient Tamil Literature. ... Hindustani (हिन्‍दुस्‍थानी) classical music is an Indian classical music tradition originating in the North of the Indian subcontinent circa the 13th and 14th centuries CE. Developing a strong and diverse tradition over several centuries, it has contemporary... Folk music can have a number of different meanings, including: Traditional music: The original meaning of the term folk music was synonymous with the term Traditional music, also often including World Music and Roots music; the term Traditional music was given its more specific meaning to distinguish it from the... Villuppattu is a Tamil folk art of story telling where narration is interspersed with music. ... Naattupurapaattu literally translates to songs of the country or in other words country or folk song. ... Illustration by Arthur Rackham of the ballad The Twa Corbies A ballad is a story, usually a narrative or poem, in a song. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The dominant classical dance amongst Tamils is Bharatanatyam. Bharatanatyam is performative, rather than participative. The dance is an exposition of the story contained in a song, and is usually performed by one performer on stage, with an orchestra of drums, a drone, and one or more singers backstage. The story is told through a complicated combination of mudras (hand gestures), facial expressions, and body postures. Dancers used to be exclusively female, but the dance now also has several well-known male practitioners.[64] Bharatanatyam[1] is a classical dance form originating from Tamil Nadu[2][3][4][5][6], a state in Southern India. ...


The most notable of Tamil folk dances is karakattam. In its religious form, the dance is performed in front of an image of the goddess Mariamma. The dancer bears, on his or her head, a brass pot filled with uncooked rice, decorated with flowers and surrounded by a bamboo frame, and tumbles and leaps to the rhythm of a song without spilling a grain. Karakāṭṭam is usually performed to a special type of song, known as temmanguppattu, or thevar pattu, a folk song in the mode of a lover speaking to his beloved, to the accompaniment of a nadaswaram and melam. Other Tamil folk dances include mayilattam, where the dancers tie a string of peacock feathers around their waists; oyilattam, danced in a circle while waving small pieces of cloth of various colors; poykkal kuthiraiyaattam, in which the dancers use dummy horses; manaattam, in which the dancers imitate the graceful leaping of deer; paraiyattam, a dance to the sound of rhythmical drumbeats; and thippanthattam, a dance involving playing with burning torches.[66] The kuravanci is a type of dance-drama, performed by four to eight women. The drama is opened by a woman playing the part of a female soothsayer of a wandering kurava tribe, who tells the story of a lady pining for her lover. Folk dancers in Prague Folk dance is a term used to describe a large number of dances, mostly of European origin, that tend to share the following attributes: They were originally danced in about the 19th century or earlier (or are, in any case, not currently copyrighted); Their performance is... In India, every village contains a small temple dedicated to various local form of goddess Mari or Mariamma who is worshipped as goddess of fertility and dispeller of epidemics. ... Nadaswaram, also spelt Nadhaswaram, and also called Nagaswaram, is one of the most popular classical instruments of south India and the worlds loudest non-brass acoustic instrument. ... The Thavil The thavil is a barrel shaped percussion instrument from South India. ... Mayilattam is an artistic and religious form of dance performed in the Hindu temples of Kerala in reverence to Lord Subrahmanya. ... Fawn and Stag redirect here. ... A soothsayer is a person who claims to speak of sexual activities specifically one who predicts the future based upon personal, sexual, or religious beliefs rather than scientific facts. ...


The therukoothu, literally meaning "street play", is a form of village theater or folk opera. It is traditionally performed in village squares, with no sets and very simple props. The performances involve songs and dances, and the stories can be either religious or secular.[67] The performances are not formal, and performers often interact with the audience, mocking them, or involving them in the dialogue. Therukkūthu has, in recent times, been very successfully adapted to convey social messages, such as abstinence and anti-caste criticism, as well as information about legal rights, and has spread to other parts of India.[68] This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... Abstinence is a voluntary restraint from indulging a desire or appetite for certain bodily activities that are widely experienced as giving pleasure. ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social restriction and social stratification, enforced by law or common practice, based on endogamy, occupation, economic status, race, ethnicity, etc. ...


The village of Melatur, in Tamil Nadu, has a special type of performance, called the bhagavatamela, in honour of the local deity, which is performed once a year, and lasts all night. Tamil Nadu also has a well developed stage theater tradition, which has been heavily influenced by western theatre. A number of theatrical companies exist, with repertoires including absurdist, realist, and humorous plays.[69] Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Absurdist Fiction, an extreme branch of satire, is a form of fiction or poetry that utilizes absurd characters, situations or subjects to promote thoughtful laughter. ... Realism in the visual arts and literature is the depiction of subjects as they appear in everyday life, without embellishment or interpretation. ... The word comedy has a classical meaning (comical theatre) and a popular one (the use of humor with an intent to provoke laughter in general). ...


Both classical and folk performing arts survive in modern Tamil society. Tamil people in Tamil Nadu are also passionate about films. The Tamil film industry, commonly dubbed Kollywood, is the second-largest film industry in India.[70] Tamil cinema is appreciated both for its technical accomplishments, and for its artistic and entertainment value. The overwhelming majority of Tamil films contain song and dance sequences, and Tamil film music is a popular genre in its own right, often liberally fusing elements of carnatic, Tamil folk, North Indian styles, hip-hop, and heavy metal. Famous music directors of the late 20th century included M. S. Viswanathan, Ilayaraaja, and A R Rahman. Film is a term that encompasses individual motion pictures, the field of film as an art form, and the motion picture industry. ... Image:Veerapandi. ... Carnatic music, also known as is one of the two styles of Indian classical music, the other being Hindustani music. ... Heavy metal (sometimes referred to simply as metal) is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s. ... M. S. Viswanathan often referred to just as M.S.V., is a prolific film music composer in the Tamil film industry, which he dominated for two decades during the 1960s and 70s. ... Ilaiyaraja ( இைளயராஜா in Tamil) (born June 2, 1943) is an Indian film composer. ... A.R. Rahman Allah Rakha Rahman (born Thursday January 6, 1966 as A.S. Dileep Kumar in Chennai, India) is a popular Indian film music composer. ...


Religion

About 90% of the population of Tamil Nadu are Hindu. Christians and Muslims account for 5% each. Most of the Christians are Roman Catholics. About one-third of the Muslim population speak Urdu and two-thirds speak Tamil. Tamil Jains number only a few thousand now.[71] Tamil Hinduism, like other regional varieties of Hinduism, has many peculiarities. The most popular deity is Murugan, who is probably same as Karthikeya, the son of Siva, but who may in origin have been a different deity, and has taken on a distinctly local character.[72] The worship of Amman, also called Mariamman, thought to have been derived from an ancient mother goddess, also is very common.[73] Kan̲n̲agi, the heroine of the Cilappatikār̲am, is worshipped as Paṭṭin̲i by many Tamils, particularly in Sri Lanka.[74] There are also many followers of Ayyavazhi in Tamil Nadu, mainly in the southern districts.[75] In addition, there are many temples and devotees of Vishnu, Siva, Ganapathi, and the other common Hindu deities. Tamil Jains or Samanar are native to Tamil Nadu. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Murugan (also Murugan) (Tamil: ) is a popular Hindu deity amongst Tamil Hindus. ... In Hinduism, Kartikeya (also Murugan, Subrahmanya, Skanda, Kumaran, Swaminanda) is a deity born out of a magical spark created by Shiva. ... Shiva (also spelled Siva; Sanskrit ) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism. ... Amman is the rural South Indian mother goddess (predominantly in Tamil Nadu). ... Mariamman This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... It has been suggested that Mother (neopaganism) be merged into this article or section. ... Kannagi, a mythological Tamil woman, is the central character of the South Indian epic Silapathikaram. ... Cilappatikaram (Tamil: சிலப்பதிகாரம் IPA tʃɪlÊŒppʌθɪkɑːɹʌm),[1] is one of the five great epics of ancient Tamil Literature. ... Kannagi, a legendary Tamil woman, is the central character of the South Indian epic Silapathikaram. ... Ayyavazhi (IPA: )(Tamil:அய்யாவழி [1] -Path of the father) is a dharmic belief system[2] that originated in South India in the 19th century. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being or Ultimate Reality for Vaishnavas and a manifestation of Brahman in the Advaita or Smarta traditions. ... Shiva (also spelled Siva; Sanskrit ) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism. ... Popular image of Ganesh In Hinduism, Ganesha (Gaṇeśa, lord of the hosts, also spelled Ganesa and sometimes referred to as Ganesh in Hindi, Bengali and other Indian vernaculars) is the god of wisdom, intelligence, education and prudence. ...


The most important Tamil festivals are Pongal, a harvest festival that occurs in mid-January, and Varudapirappu, the Tamil New Year, which occurs around mid-April. Both are celebrated by almost all Tamils, regardless of religion. The Hindu festival Deepavali is celebrated with fanfare; other local Hindu festivals include Thaipusam, Panguni Uttiram, and Adipperukku. While Adiperukku is celebrated with more pomp in the Cauvery region than in others, the Ayyavazhi Festival, Ayya Vaikunda Avataram, is predominantly celebrated in the southern districts of Kanyakumari, Tirunelveli, and Thoothukudi.[76] This article is about the Pongal festival. ... In Britain, thanks have been given for successful harvests since pagan times. ... The New Year is an event that happens when a culture celebrates the end of one year and the beginning of the next year. ... A Hindu ( , Devanagari: हिन्दु), as per modern definition, is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, and the religious, philosophical and cultural system that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Diwali, also called Deepavali, is a major Indian festival that is very significant in Hinduism, Sikhism and Jainism. ... A Hindu ( , Devanagari: हिन्दु), as per modern definition, is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, and the religious, philosophical and cultural system that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... It has been suggested that Thai Poosam Kavady be merged into this article or section. ... Adiperukku is a unique Tamil festival celebrated on the 18th day of the Tamil month of Adi (mid July). ... The Vaikunda Avataram is celebrated on the 20th day of the Tamil Month of Masi, the date at which Lord Vaikundar arose from the sea of Thiruchendur as the son of Mummorthies to destroy the evil spirit of Káli, not the Hindu deity, present in this Kali Yuga and... , Tirunelveli district [8] is the penultimate southern most district of Tamilnadu in India. ... Thoothukudi (தூத்துக்குடி in Tamil) also known as Tuticorin, is a city and a municipality in Thoothukudi district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ...

Local deities Vandimalaisaami and Vandimalaichchiamman in Ettayapuram
Local deities Vandimalaisaami and Vandimalaichchiamman in Ettayapuram

In rural Tamil Nadu, many local deities, called aiyyan̲ārs, are thought to be the spirits of local heroes who protect the village from harm. Their worship often centers around nadukkal, stones erected in memory of heroes who died in battle. This form of worship is mentioned frequently in classical literature and appears to be the surviving remnants of an ancient Tamil tradition.[77] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1280x1024, 303 KB) Summary Vandimalaiyasaamy (male) and Vandimalaichchiamman (female) are local gods in Thoothukudi, Tirunelveli, and neighbouring districts of Tamil Nadu, India. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1280x1024, 303 KB) Summary Vandimalaiyasaamy (male) and Vandimalaichchiamman (female) are local gods in Thoothukudi, Tirunelveli, and neighbouring districts of Tamil Nadu, India. ... The house in Ettayapuram where Bharathiar was born Ettayapuram (எட்டையாபுரம் in Tamil) is a village in Thoothukudi (a. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Ayyanar (Tamil: or அய்யனார்) is a regional Tamil male deity who is popular among the rural social groups of South India, specifically Tamil Nadu. ...


Saivism is particularly strong, although most of its bases are in the North. The Alvars and Nayanars, who were predominantly Tamils, played a key role in the renaissance of Bhakti tradition in South India. In the 10th century, the philosopher Ramanuja, who propagated the theory of Visishtadvaitam, brought many changes to worshiping practices, creating new regulations on temple worship, and accepted lower-caste Hindus as his prime disciples.[78] Shaivism, also Saivism, is a branch of Hinduism that worships Siva as the Supreme God. ... The Alvars are Hindu saints, followers of Lord Vishnu. ... The Nayanars were the sincere and ardent devotees of Lord Siva. ... Bhakti - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... South India is a linguistic-cultural region of India that comprises the four states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu and the two Union Territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry, whose inhabitants are collectively referred to as South Indians. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... Ramanuja Tamil: ,  [?] (traditionally 1017–1137) was a theologian, philosopher, and scriptural exegete. ... VishishtAdvaita Vedanta (IAST ;Sanskrit: विशिष्टाद्वैत)) is a sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy, the other major sub-schools of Vedānta being Advaita and Dvaita. ...


Christianity is believed to have come to Tamil Nadu with the arrival of St. Thomas the apostle, but the number of Tamil Christians grew during the colonial period. Many Tamils are Catholic, Protestant, and Syrian Orthodox. Tamil muslims are mostly either Sunni or Sufi. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world. ... Mamak, Ankara is a district of Ankara, Turkey. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ...


Cuisine

Main article: Tamil cuisine

Tamil cuisine is one of the oldest vegetarian culinary heritages in the world. Rice, the major staple food in most of Tamil, is usually steamed and served with about two to six accompanying items, which typically include sambar, dry curry, rasam, kootu, and thayir (curd) or moru (whey or buttermilk). Tamil cuisine is one of the oldest vegetarian culinary heritages in the world. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The South Indian staple breakfast item of Idly, Sambhar and Vada served on a banana leaf. ... Information in this article or section has not been verified against sources and may not be reliable. ... Rasam is also an Iranian male name. ... Kootu is a Tamil dish, common in Tamil Nadu and South India. ... Curd is a dairy product obtained by curdling (coagulating) milk with rennet or an edible acidic substance such as lemon juice or vinegar and then draining off the liquid portion (called whey). ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Percentages are relative to US RDI values for adults. ...


Tiffin or Light meals usually include one or more of Pongal, Dosai, idli, Vadai along with sambar, Chutney is often served as either breakfast or as an evening snack. Ghee Clarified butter called neyyi in Tamil, is used to flavor the rice when eaten with dhal or sambar, but not with curds or buttermilk. Morkulambu, a dish which can be spiced with moru, is also popular with steamed rice. Tiffin is an Indian and British term for a light meal eaten during the day. ... This article is about the Pongal festival. ... For the term as used in Ayurveda, see Dosha. ... The idli, also romanized idly or iddly and pronounced e-dli (rhyming with Italy), is made by steaming batter — traditionally made from pulses (specifically black lentils) and rice — into patties, usually two to three inches in diameter, using a mold. ... Vada (or Wada or Vade) is a popular Indian snack. ... The South Indian staple breakfast item of Idly, Sambhar and Vada served on a banana leaf. ... A chutney (British spelling), chatni (Urdu or Hindi transliteration) or catni (archaic transliteration) is a term for a variety of sweet and spicy condiments, originally from South Asia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ghee in a jar Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on Ghee Ghee (Hindi घी from Sanskrit ghṛta घृत sprinkled ) is a type of clarified butter important in Indian cuisine. ... Neyyi is the Tamil and Telugu name for clarified butter (Ghee)(Hindi). ... The South Indian staple breakfast item of Idly, Sambhar and Vada served on a banana leaf. ...


Each geographical area where Tamils live has developed its own distinct variant of the common dishes plus a few dishes distinctly native to itself. The Chettinad region, comprising of Karaikudi and adjoining areas, is known for both traditional vegetarian dishes, like appam, uthappam, paal paniyaram, and non-vegetarian dishes, made primarily using chicken. Chettinad is a region of southern Tamil Nadu state, India. ... Karaikudi is a city and a municipality in Sivaganga District in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... Some dishware Dishware is a general term for objects—dishes—from which people eat or serve food, such as plates and bowls. ... Appam is a dish made from rice powder. ... Uthappam and dosa are popular south india dishes. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Martial arts

Various martial arts including Kuttu Varisai, Varma Kalai, Silambam Nillaikalakki, Maankombukkalai (Madhu) and Kalarippayattu, are practised in Tamil Nadu and Kerala[citation needed]. The weapons used include Silambam, Maankombukkalai, Yeratthai Mulangkol (double stick), Surul Pattai (spring sword), Val Vitchi (single sword), and Yeretthai Val (double sword)[citation needed]. // [edit] List of Dravidian Martial Arts by state or province [edit] Kerala Kalarippayattu (ക്അലരിപ്പയത്തു) Marma Adi (മര്മ അദി) [edit] Tamil Nadu & Northeast Sri Lanka Adithada (அடிதட) Kuttu Varisai (குத்துவரிசை) Malyutham (மல்யுதம்) Varma Kalai (வர்மக்கலை) [edit] See also Tamil Martial Arts Categories: | ... Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... Kuttu Varisai (Empty Hand Combat) (Tamil: ) is a Tamil Indian martial art practiced in Tamil Nadu, South India and in Northeastern Sri Lanka, formerly known as Thamizhakkam. ... Varma Kalai Varma Kalai (also spelled Varmakalai or Varmakkalai) is an ancient martial art which has its origins in the southern part of India, more specifically, around Tamil Nadu state. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Kalarippayattu (IPA: [kaÉ­aɾipːajatɨ̆], Malayalam: കളരിപയറ്റ്) is an Indian martial art practised in Kerala and contiguous parts of neighboring Tamil Nadu. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ...


The ancient Tamil art of unarmed bullfighting, popular amongst warriors in the classical period[79][80], has also survived in parts of Tamil Nadu, notably Alanganallur near Madurai, where it is known as Jallikaṭṭu or mañcuviraṭṭu and is held once a year around the time of the Pongal festival. Also in northern part of tamilnadu the celebrate as erudhu vidum viza This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Alanganallur is a panchayat town in Madurai district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. ... , Madurai   (Tamil: , IPA: ) is a city and a municipal corporation with a population of 1. ... Jallikattu is a South Indian celebration involving bull taming, somewhat similar to the Spanish running of the bulls. ... This article is about the Pongal festival. ...


Institutions

The global spread of the Tamil diaspora has hindered the formation of formal pan-Tamil institutions. The most important national institutions for Tamils have been the governments of the states where they live, particularly the government of Tamil Nadu and the government of Sri Lanka, which have collaborated in developing technical and scientific terminology in Tamil and promoting its use since the 1950s. The Tamil diaspora is a term used to denote people of Tamil Nadu and Sri Lankan Tamil origin who have settled in many parts of the rest of India and Sri Lanka, or in other regions, particularly Malaysia, Singapore, the Middle East, Reunion, South Africa, Mauritius, Fiji, Guyana, Trinidad and... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Politics of Sri Lanka takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Sri Lanka is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ...


Politics in Tamil Nadu is dominated by the Self-respect movement (also called the Dravidian movement), founded by E.V. Ramasami, popularly known as Periyar, to promote self-respect and rationalism, and to fight casteism and the oppression of the lowest castes. Every major political party in Tamil Nadu bases its ideology on the Self-respect Movement, and the national political parties play a very small role in Tamil politics. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In psychology, self-esteem or self-worth is a persons self-image at an emotional level; circumventing reason and logic. ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social restriction and social stratification, enforced by law or common practice, based on endogamy, occupation, economic status, race, ethnicity, etc. ...

The Tamil flag adopted by the World Tamil Confederation to represent Tamil people everywhere.

In Sri Lanka, Tamil politics was dominated by the federalist movements, led by the Federal Party (later the Tamil United Liberation Front), until the early 1980s. In the 1980s, the political movement was largely succeeded by a violent military campaign conducted by several militant groups. The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam emerged as the most important force amongst these groups in the 1990s, and is currently negotiating a final settlement with the government. The LTTE controls portions of Sri Lanka, and has attempted to establish its own government there, which it calls the government of Tamil Eelam. LTTE has been banned by the European Union on account of alleged terrorism. It has also been banned in India following the assassination of former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi.[81][82][83] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... TULF Election Symbol The Tamil United Liberation Front (in Sinhala: Tamil Vimuktasi Peramuna) is a political group in Sri Lanka, which seeks autonomy or independence for the Tamil-populated areas of Sri Lanka, which they call Tamil Eelam. ... This is a list that documents the numerous groups of Sri Lankan Tamil militant groups that were formed to fight the state of Sri Lanka to create an independent Tamil Eelam. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Anthem: Political status      Unrecognized de facto quasi-independent state Languages      Tamil (de facto official) English Capital Trincomalee President Velupillai Prabhakaran[1] Independence (from Sri Lanka) No official declaration   Area           19,509 km² claimed[2] 6,600–9,750 km² administered (40–50% of claimed area) Population (of claimed area) 3... The Prime Minister of India is, in practice, the most powerful person in the government of India. ... Rājiv Ratna GāndhÄ« (DevanāgarÄ«: राजीव रत्न गान्धी, IPA: ) (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the 9th Prime Minister of India (and the 3rd from the Gandhi family) from his mothers death on 31 October 1984 until his resignation on December...


In the 1960s, the government of Tamil Nadu held a World Tamil Conference, and have continued to meet periodically since then. In 1999, a World Tamil Confederation was established to protect and foster Tamil culture and further a sense of togetherness amongst Tamils in different countries. The Confederation has since adopted a Tamil flag and Tamil song[84] to act as trans-national symbols for the Tamil people; the words on the flag quote the opening line of a poem by the classical poet Kanian Poongundranaar, and means "Everyone is our kin; Everyplace is our home". Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ...


See also

Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... The ancient Tamil music was the music of the ancient Tamil people. ... Tamil Jains or Samanar are native to Tamil Nadu. ... Languages Dravidian languages Religions Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Traditional religions Related ethnic groups Brahui people Gondi people Kannadigas Kodava Malayalis Tamils Telugus Tuluvas Dravidian people, Dravidian race or Dravidians are terms that are some times given to people of mainly Southern India, Northeastern Sri Lanka, and parts of Pakistan, Bangladesh and... The ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka is an ongoing conflict between the Government of Sri Lanka and a minority terrorist group consisting of Ethnic Sri Lankan Tamils on the island-nation of Sri Lanka. ... The Indian Tamils, Hill-country Tamils, Up-country Tamils or Indian origin Tamils are descended from indentured labourers sent from South India to Sri Lanka in the 19th and 20th centuries to work in coffee plantations there (and, after the collapse of coffee planting in Sri Lanka, in tea and... Sri Lankan Tamils also known as Eelam Tamils, Ceylonese or Ceylon Tamils and Jaffna Tamils are today a trans-national minority, and are Tamil people from Sri Lanka. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... // Pre-historic period c. ... This is a list of famous and notable Tamil people. ... Empty Hand Combat Adithada (Kickboxing) - அடிதட Kuttu Varisai (Hand and Foot Combat) - குத்துவரிசை Malyutham (Grappling) - மல்யுத்தம் Varma Kalai (Pressure Point Attacks) - வர்மக்கலை Weapons Based Arts Silambam (Long Staff) - சிலம்பம் Muchaan (Short Staff) - முச்சான் Iretthai Mulonggol (Double Stick) - இரெத்தை முலொன்க்கொல் Iretthai Vaal (Double Swords) - இரட்டை வாள் Vaal (Single Sword) - வாள் Vaal/Kedeyam (Sword/ Shield) - வாள்/கேடயம் Vettarival (Machete) - வெத்தரிவல் Kattari (Small Dagger) - கத்தரி Peetchuva (Double Edged...

Notes

  1. ^ Top 30 Languages by Number of Native Speakers: sourced from Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 15th ed. (2005). Vistawide - World Languages & Cultures. Retrieved on 2007-04-03.
  2. ^ a b c d Ethnologue report for language code tam. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Retrieved on 2007-07-31.
  3. ^ M. B. Emeneau (Jan-Mar 1956). "India as a Lingustic Area" (in English). Language 32 (1): 5. Retrieved on 2007-05-03. “Of the four literary Dravidian languages, Tamil has voluminous records dating back at least two millennia” 
  4. ^ Burton Stein (Nov 1977). "Circulation and the Historical Geography of Tamil Country" (in English). The Journal of Asian Studies 37 (1): 7–26. Retrieved on 2007-05-03. “Tamil is one of the two longest-surviving classical languages in India.” 
  5. ^ Gadgil et.al, Peopling of India, The Indian/Sri Lankan Human Heritage
  6. ^ K. De B. Codrington (October 1930). "Indian Cairn- and Urn-Burials" (in English). Man 30: 190–196. Retrieved on 2007-05-03. “...at Perambair & Pallavaram a second type of burial exists in legged urns...” 
  7. ^ a b Comparative excavations carried out in Adichanallur in Thirunelveli district and in Northern India have provided evidence of a southward migration of the Megalithic culture - K.A.N. Sastri, A History of South India, pp49–51
  8. ^ K. De B. Codrington (October 1930). "Indian Cairn- and Urn-Burials" (in English). Man 30: 194. Retrieved on 2007-05-03. “It is necessary to draw attention to certain passages in early Tamil literature which throw a great deal of light upon this strange burial ceremonial...” 
  9. ^ Sumathi Ramaswamy (August 2000). "History at Land's End: Lemuria in Tamil Spatial Fables" (in English). The Journal of Asian Studies 59 (3): 575–602. Retrieved on 2007-05-03. 
  10. ^ a b c K. Sivathamby (December 1974). "Early South Indian Society and Economy: The Tinai Concept" (in English). Social Scientist 3 (5): 20–37. Retrieved on 2007-05-03. “Those who ruled over small territories were called Kurunilamannar. The area ruled by such a small ruler usually corresponded to a geographical unit. In Purananuru a number of such chieftains are mentioned;..” 
  11. ^ a b de Silva, C.R. (1987, 2nd ed. 1997). Sri Lanka - A History, pp.30–32. New Delhi, Vikas Publishing House. ISBN 81-259-0461-1
  12. ^ a b Mendis, G.C. (1957, 3rd ed. 1995). Ceylon Today and Yesterday, pp.24–25. Colombo, Lake House. ISBN 955-552-069-8
  13. ^ Grand Anaicut. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved on 2006-05-03..
  14. ^ a b M. G. S. Narayanan (September 1988). "The Role of Peasants in the Early History of Tamilakam in South India" (in English). Social Scientist 16 (9): 17–34. Retrieved on 2007-05-03. 
  15. ^ Pandya Dynasty. Encyclopedia Brittanica. Retrieved on 2007-05-03.
  16. ^ Archaeologists Uncover Ancient Maritime Spice Route Between India, Egypt. Veluppillai, Prof. A.,. dickran.net. Retrieved on 2006-11-15.
  17. ^ The term Periplus refers to the region of the eastern seaboard of South India as Damirica - The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean by a Merchant of the First Century. Ancient History source book..
  18. ^ a b (1941) The Indian Geographical Journal. Indian Geographical Society, 69. “These Kalabhras were thrown out by the powerful Pallava dynasty in the fourth century AD ... this period is aptly known as "Dark Ages" of Tamil Nadu. ...” 
  19. ^ 'Kalabhraas were denounced as 'evil kings' (kaliararar) - K.A.N. Sastri, A History of South India, pp 130
  20. ^ K.A.N. Sastri, A History of South India
  21. ^ Marilyn Hirsh (1987). "Mahendravarman I Pallava: Artist and Patron of Mamallapuram" (in English). Artibus Asiae 48 (1/2). Retrieved on 2007-05-03. 
  22. ^ a b c d e Smith, Vincent Arthur (1904). The Early History of India. The Clarendon press, 336–358. 
  23. ^ V., Venkayya (1907). Annual Report 1906–7, Archaeological Survey of India. Delhi: reprint Swati Publications, 217–243. 
  24. ^ Chandra, Satish (1997). Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals (1206–1526) - I. Har-Anand Publications, 250. ISBN 8124110646. “...Starting from the Tamil lands under the Pallava kings, bhakti spread to different parts of south India...” 
  25. ^ Srivastava, Balram (1973). Rajendra Chola. National Book Trust, India, 80. “The mission which Rajendra sent to China was essentially a trade mission,...” 
  26. ^ D. Curtin, Philip (1984). Cross-Cultural Trade in World History. Cambridge University Press, 101. ISBN 0521269318. 
  27. ^ K.A.N. Sastri, Srinivasachari, Advanced History of India, pp 296–297
  28. ^ "Malayalam first appeared in writing in the vazhappalli inscription which dates from about 830 AD." Writing Systems and Languages of the world. Omniglot. Omniglot.com. Retrieved on 2006-11-15.
  29. ^ NALLUR SWAMI S. GNANA PRAKASAR O.M.I.. Beginnings of tamil rule in ceylon. lankalibrary.com. Retrieved on 2006-12-05.
  30. ^ de Silva, C.R. (1987, 2nd ed. 1997). Sri Lanka - A History, p.46, 48, 75. New Delhi, Vikas Publishing House. ISBN 81-259-0461-1
  31. ^ Mendis, G.C. (1957, 3rd ed. 1995). Ceylon Today and Yesterday, pp.30–31. Colombo, Lake House. ISBN 955-552-069-8
  32. ^ Smith, V.A. (1958). The Oxford History of India, p.224. Oxford, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195612973
  33. ^ de Silva, C.R. (1987, 2nd ed. 1997). Sri Lanka - A History, p.76. New Delhi, Vikas Publishing House. ISBN 81-259-0461-1
  34. ^ de Silva, C.R. (1987, 2nd ed. 1997). Sri Lanka - A History, pp.100–102. New Delhi, Vikas Publishing House. ISBN 81-259-0461-1
  35. ^ de Silva, C.R. (1987, 2nd ed. 1997). Sri Lanka - A History, pp.102–104. New Delhi, Vikas Publishing House. ISBN 81-259-0461-1
  36. ^ de Silva, C.R. (1987, 2nd ed. 1997). Sri Lanka - A History, pp.103. New Delhi, Vikas Publishing House. ISBN 81-259-0461-1
  37. ^ de Silva, C.R. (1987, 2nd ed. 1997). Sri Lanka - A History, pp.104. New Delhi, Vikas Publishing House. ISBN 81-259-0461-1
  38. ^ Vinoj Kumar, P.C.. "Tamil Nadu at the Crossroads", www.tehelka.com. Retrieved on 2006-12-02. 
  39. ^ de Silva, C.R. (1987, 2nd ed. 1997). Sri Lanka - A History, pp.177, 181. New Delhi, Vikas Publishing House. ISBN 81-259-0461-1
  40. ^ Department of Census and Statistics of Sri Lanka. Population by Ethnicity according to District and Sector. statistics.gov.lk. Retrieved on 2007-05-03.
  41. ^ Lanka. Missed Opportunities and the Loss of Democracy. uthr.org. Retrieved on 2007-05-03.
  42. ^ de Silva, C.R. (1987, 2nd ed. 1997). Sri Lanka - A History, p.262. New Delhi, Vikas Publishing House. ISBN 81-259-0461-1
  43. ^ Suryanarayan, V. (2001). "In search of a new identity", Frontline 18(2).
  44. ^ de Silva, C.R. (1987, 2nd ed. 1997). Sri Lanka - A History, p.262. New Delhi, Vikas Publishing House. ISBN 81-259-0461-1
  45. ^ de Silva, C.R. (1987, 2nd ed. 1997). Sri Lanka - A History, pp.3–5, 9. New Delhi, Vikas Publishing House. ISBN 81-259-0461-1
  46. ^ Department of Census and Statistics of Sri Lanka. Population by Ethnicity according to District and Sector. statistics.gov.lk. Retrieved on 2007-05-03.
  47. ^ Christophe Z Guilmoto. The Tamil Migration Cycle 1830–1950. Tamilnation.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  48. ^ TAMIL DIASPORA - A TRANS STATE NATION. Tamilnation.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  49. ^ McDowell, Chris. A Tamil Asylum Diaspora: Sri Lankan Migration, Settlement and Politics in Switzerland. New York: Berghahn Books. ISBN 1571819177. 
  50. ^ Tamil Studies - History. Tamil Studies at the University of Toronto. The University of Toronto. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  51. ^ See Sumathi Ramasamy, Passions of the Toungue, 'Feminising language: Tamil as Goddess, Mother, Maiden' Chapter 3.
  52. ^ (Ramaswamy 1998)
  53. ^ Tamil - A historical and linguistic perspective. Tamilar.org. Tamilar.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  54. ^ See Hart, The Poems of Ancient Tamil: Their Milieu and their Sanskrit Counterparts (1975)
  55. ^ Coomaraswamy, A.K., Figures of Speech or Figures of Thought
  56. ^ Tanjore - Painting. tanjore.net. Tanjore.net. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  57. ^ Tamil Mural Paintings - a History. Temple Mural Paintings of Tamilnadu, India. Nayaka Painting Archival Project. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  58. ^ SHILPAIC LITERATURE OF THE TAMILS. V. Ganapathi. INTAMM. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  59. ^ Aschwin Lippe (December 1971). "Divine Images in Stone and Bronze: South India, Chola Dynasty (c. 850–1280)" (in English). Metropolitan Museum Journal 4: 29–79. Retrieved on 2007-05-03. “The bronze icons of Early Chola period are one of India's greatest contribution to world art...” 
  60. ^ Heaven sent: Michael Wood explores the art of the Chola dynasty. Royal Academy, UK. Retrieved on 2007-04-26.
  61. ^ Berkson, Carmel (2000). "II The Life of Form pp29–65", The Life of Form in Indian Sculpture. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 8170173760. 
  62. ^ Sivaram 1994
  63. ^ Tamil Art & Architecture. Dr.T.V.Mahalingam, Second International Conference Seminar of Tamil Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, January 1968. Tamilnation.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-07.
  64. ^ a b c Nirmala Ramachandran. Bharata Natyam - Classical Dance of the Ancient Tamils. paper presented at First International Conference Seminar of Tamil Studies, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 1966. Tamilnation.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-05.
  65. ^ History of Music - OIGINS. carnatica.net. Retrieved on 2006-12-07.
  66. ^ Sharma, Manorama (2004). Folk India: A Comprehensive Study of Indian Folk Music and Culture, Vol. 11
  67. ^ Tamil Art History. eelavar.com. Retrieved on 2006-12-05.
  68. ^ Striving hard to revive and refine ethnic dance form. hindu.com. Retrieved on 2006-12-05.
  69. ^ Bhagavata mela. The Hindu, Apr 30, 2004. hindu.com. Retrieved on 2006-12-05.
  70. ^ The states they're in. Guardian, November 26, 2006. guardian.com. Retrieved on 2006-12-05.
  71. ^ Total number of Jains Tamil Nadu is 88,000 in 2001. Directorate of Census Operations - Tamil Nadu. Census. Retrieved on 2006-12-05.
  72. ^ M. Shanmugam Pillai. Murukan in Cankam Literature: Veriyattu Tribal Worship. First International Conference Seminar on Skanda-Murukan in Chennai, Dec. 28–30, 1998. This article first appeared in the September 1999 issue of The Journal of the Institute of Asian Studies. Retrieved on 2006-12-06.
  73. ^ Principles and Practice of Hindu Religion. Hindu Heritage Study Program. Retrieved on 2006-12-05.
  74. ^ PK Balachandran. Tracing the Sri Lanka-Kerala link. Hindustan Times March 23, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-12-05.
  75. ^ Dr. R.Ponnu's, Sri Vaikunda Swamigal and the Struggle for Social Equality in South India, (Madurai Kamaraj University) Ram Publishers, Page 98.
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  83. ^ Adam, Ruxandra. Tamil Tigers Banned by the European Union. Softpedia News, 30 May 2006. Retrieved 30 November 2006.
  84. ^ World Tamil Confederation. Wrold Tamils National Song. Retrieved 30 November 2006.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4th redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4th redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4th redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4th redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4th redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4th redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4th redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 6 is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

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Iravatham Mahadevan is an Indian epigraphist, National Fellow of the Indian Council of Historical Research, an expert on the Indus script and Early Tamil epigraphy and the Dravidian substrate in Vedic Sanskrit. ...

Population data

All population data has been taken from Ethnologue, with the exception of the data for Sri Lanka, which was taken from the CIA World Factbook's Sri Lanka page. World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ...


External links

  • Tamils - An Ancient People
  • Information about Tamil people and culture
  • Thamizhar Martial Arts
  • Tamil Diaspora - a Trans State Nation
  • History of Tamil Diaspora
  • Singapore Tamils
  • Australian Tamils (Sydney)
  • Australian Tamils (Brisbane)
  • Civilians' plight in Sri Lanka
  • Civil war haunts Sri Lanka again
  • Indictment Against Sri Lanka


  Results from FactBites:
 
Tamil Nadu Information (255 words)
As is the case with most of the early history of the state, it is impossible to pin-point the exact period, when the great ‘Tamil Sangam (Academy) flourished, though it can he said with some certainty that two Sangams were held well before the Christian era and the third between 100 and 250 AD.
The Tamil Sangam, which marks the Golden Age of Tamil literature, is the one major source of knowledge about the administration, art, architecture and economic conditions that existed then.
This collection of poems is the earliest record of its kind as far as the history of the Tamils is concerned.
Tamilar - Online Entertaniment portal for TamilNadu, India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore, Food, Cusine, Holidays, ... (988 words)
Tamil is the language spoken by the people of Tamil Nadu.
If culture is the distilled essence of the way of life of a people, then, in the case of the Tamil people, the distillation process has covered a time span of more than ten thousand years.
The external manifestations of Tamil culture may be found in the songs and dances, in the cuisine and dress forms, in the customs and rituals of the Tamil people.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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