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Encyclopedia > Tamil militants

Sri Lankan Tamil militant groups began appearing in the 1970s to fight the state of Sri Lanka to create an independent Tamil Eelam. see Sri Lankan Tamils ... Map of the districts of Sri Lanka claimed by LTTE as parts of Tamil Eelam Tamil Eelam (Tamil: தமிழ் ஈழம், tamiḻ īḻam) is the name given by the LTTE and All Tamil population of Sri Lanka to the independent state which they demand in the Northern and Eastern portions of the island. ...



These groups arose due to the failure of the traditional non-violent political protest of the Tamil elites to secure fair settlement from the national government for the alleged grievances of the Tamil minority and the increasing racist vehemence and violence of the Sri Lankan state against its minority Tamil people. Tamil militants in general were referred as potiyal (our boys) or puliyal (tigers) by the local Tamils. The Sri Lankan state has always referred to them in the Sinhala language as Thrasdavadi or extremists or terrorists. Nonviolence (or non-violence) is a set of assumptions about morality, power and conflict that leads its proponents to reject the use of violence in efforts to attain social or political goals. ... Alternative meaning: Elite (computer game) In sociology as in general usage, the elite (the elect; sometimes the French form élite is used) refers to a relatively small dominant group within a larger society, which enjoys privileged status and, almost invariantly, exploits individuals of lower social status. ... The definition of a minority group can vary, depending on specific context, but generally refers to either a sociological sub-group that does not form either a majority or a plurality of the total population, or a group that, while not necessarily a numerical minority, is disadvantaged or otherwise has... The Tamil people are an ethnic group from South Asia with a recorded history going back more than two millennia. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Terrorism refers to the use of violence for the purpose of achieving a political, religious, or ideological goal. ...

Distinguishing characteristics

The distinguishing characteristics were the sheer number of groupings formed essentially within the Jaffna peninsula which prior to 1983 had just over a million people. Many, but not all, were Marxist in orientation. Most were seen by neighboring powers such as India as a means to control the foreign policy initiatives of then pro-western Sri Lankan government. Hence the numerous groups were easy pickings for foreign intelligence agencies to infiltrate and control, most notably India's Research and Analysis Wing (RAW). Nallur Kandaswamy Kovil, Jaffna Jaffna (யாழ்ப்பாணம் in Tamil meaning யாழ்=harp, பாணம்=town of harper, යාපනය in Sinhala) the capital city of the Northern Province, Sri Lanka. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... The term Western world or the West can have multiple meanings depending on its context. ... The Cabinet Secretariats Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW) is Indias premier external intelligence body. ...

Many of the groups were backed primarily by members of a particular caste. The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, for instance, drew largely from the Karaiyar caste, while the PLOTE drew from the dominant Vellala caste. The fighting between the groups that later emerged can be considered a form of caste violence. The system of Caste in Sri Lanka is a division of society into strata, differing somewhat from the classic Varnas of North India but is similar in nature to the Jati system found in South India . ... Tamil Tigers emblem The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), also known as the Tamil Tigers, is a military and political organization that has waged a violent secessionist campaign against the Sri Lankan Government since the 1970s in order to secure independence for the Tamil portions of Sri Lanka. ... ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into vellalar. ...

Internecine conflicts

Even at an early stage, one could notice the efforts by the leadership of the largest group, the LTTE, to deploy violence and murder to control the mushrooming of groups. This culminated in bloody internal warfare in the mid-1980s. The LTTE deployed extreme violence against many of the other groups, decimating them. By the mid-1990s, the LTTE was left as the only non state actor fighting on behalf of the Sri Lankan Tamil people. It had to deal with reduced manpower, and the enmity of many Tamils who had supported the other groups, some of whom allied themselves with the Sinhalese-dominated government.

Some of the groups have remained active as democratic political parties. Some of these have joined the Tamil nationalist TNA. Others are allied with the Sri Lankan government either as paramilitaries or as minor political parties. Formed in November of 2001 in preparation for the December election, the Tamil National Alliance (TNA) is an extreme nationalistic grouping of parties consisting of the Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF), the All Ceylon Tamil Congress (ACTC), the Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization (TELO) and the Eelam Peoples Revolutionary Liberation... A paramilitary is a group of civilians trained and organized in a military fashion. ...

Student organizations

  • TSL – Tamil Students League [Tamil Manavar Peravai] (1970), founded by Ponnuthurai Satyaseelan. See also, TYL.
  • TYL – Tamil Youth League [Tamil Ilaignar Peravai] (1973), the progenitor of Eelam Tamil militancy.
  • GUES – General Union of Eelam Students, part of EROS and forerunner of EPRLF.


Major groups

  • LTTE Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam - Only remaining armed Tamil nationalist group.
  • EPRLF Eelam People's Liberation Front - Part of TNA.
  • EPDP Eelam People's Democratic Party - Pro-government group and a political party accused of being a paramilitary.[1]
  • TELO Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization - Once decimated by the LTTE, part of TNA.
  • PLOTE People's Liberation Organisation of Tamil Eelam - Minor standalone political party accused of being a paramilitary. PLOTE, unlike others, vehemently denies this.
  • ENDP Eelam National Democratic Front - Created with the help IPKF now active in India in refugee settlements in Orissa.
  • EROS Eelam Revolutionary Organization - Part of LTTE.
  • TMVP LTTE splinter group, pro-government group accused of being a para-military.
  • ICMM - Indo Ceylon Merger Movement (Inththiya Ilanggai Innaippu Iyakkam). (1971-1980)
  • TNT - Tamil New Tigers (Puthiya Thamil Pulikal). (1972-1978) part of LTTE
  • TLO - Tamil Liberation Organization. (1974-1978)

LTTE is an acronym or initialism for: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Known for their guerilla warfare forcibly killing every other independent groups aiming for seperate state. ... Tamil nationalism is a strong aspiration by some Tamils to establish traditional Tamil home lands in India and Sri Lanka as separate nations. ... The Eelam Peoples Revolutionary Liberation Front was a Tamil separatist group in Sri Lanka. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization is a political party in Sri Lanka. ... PLOTE stands for Peoples Liberation Organisation of Tamil Eelam. ... Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF), was the Indian military unit peforming a peacekeeping operation that was formed to oversee the peace accord signed between India and Sri Lanka in 1987. ... Orissa (Hindi: ) (2001 provisional pop. ... Eros, a god in Greek mythology Eros can also refer to: The Greek word Eros, which means sexual love 433 Eros, an asteroid EROS, the Extremely Reliable Operating System Pjur Eros, a premium latex-safe personal lubricant Eros, the life instinct postulated by Freudian psychology, standing in opposition to Thanatos... தமிழீழ மக்கள் விடுதலைப்புலிகள், Tamileela Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal or in English Tamileela Peoples Liberation Tigers, a political party and Para-military group formed in 2004 by break-away LTTE Military Head of Batticaloa district V. Muralitharan (Colonel Karuna). ... TNT is a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings, including: // Chemicals Trinitrotoluene, the chemical explosive usually known as TNT. Alkyl nitrites, TNT is a UK brand for this medicinal and recreational drug. ... TLO, or Turun linja-autoilijain osakeyhtiö (Finnish for Turku Bus Operators Ltd) is a group of bus companies and the main operator of the regional public transport in the region of Turku, Finland. ...

Militant fronts

The Upsurging Peoples Force (Tamil பொங்கி எழும் மக்கள் படை) is a Tamil militant group in Sri Lanka. ... Ellaalan( c. ... A dipiction of Ravana, Hindu Demon King of Lanka In Hindu mythology, Ravana (Devanagari: रावण, IAST Rāvaṇa; sometimes transliterated Raavana and as Ravan) is the principal antagonist of the Hindu epic, the Ramayana. ...

Political front parties

  • TSK – Tamilar Suya-Aadchi Kazhakam (1969), of V. Navaratnam; a splinter group of ITAK.
  • ETOM – Eela Thamilar Ottrumai Munnani (1960), of C.Suntheralingam; a one-person band, which became a minor constituent of the TULF.
  • DPLF – Democratic People's Liberation Front, the political wing of PLOTE, of D.Siddarthan.
  • PFLT – People's Front of Liberation Tigers (1989), now defunct political party of the LTTE.
  • ENLF – Eelam National Liberation Front (1985-1986), a short-lived union of the LTTE, EROS, TELO and EPRLF. LTTE wiggled out of this union.
  • TELF – Tamil Eelam Liberation Front (1982), of S.C. Chandrahasan, M.K. Eelaventhan, journalist Kovai Mahesan and Dr. S.A. Tharmalingam; a splinter group of the TULF.
  • ENDLF – Eelam National Democratic Liberation Front (1987), a group created by RAW from PLOTE, EPRLF and TELO.

TULF Election Symbol The Tamil United Liberation Front (in Tamil: தமிழர் ஐக்கிய விடுதலை முன்னணி, in Sinhala: Dravida Eksath Vimukthi Peramuna) is a political party in Sri Lanka, which seeks autonomy or independence for the Tamil-populated areas of Sri Lanka, which they call Tamil Eelam. ...

Minor groups

  • ELDF – Eelam Liberation Defence Front.
  • ELO – Eelam Liberation Organisation (1975).
  • ELT – Eelam Liberation Tigers.
  • EM – Eagle Movement, of Gnanavel.
  • ERCP – Eelam Revolutionary Communist Party.
  • GATE – Guerrilla Army of Tamil Eelam.
  • NLFTE – National Liberation Front of Tamil Eelam, which according to Taraki, was a small but influential Maoist group based largely in Jaffna, which "drove down the road to perdition by splitting hairs over the question of whether it should first build an armed wing or a mass political movement."
  • PLFT – People's Liberation Front of Tamil Eelam, a splinter group of NLFTE.
  • PLA – People's Liberation Army, the military wing of EPRLF, Led by current EPDP leader Douglas Devananda. Important achievement of the PLA was the 1984 kidnapping of American couple Stanley and Mary Allen from Columbus, Ohio, in Jaffna.
  • PLP – People's Liberation Party.
  • RCG – Red Crescent Guerrillas.
  • RELO – Revolutionary Eelam Liberation Organisation.
  • RFTE – Red Front of Tamil Eelamists. (1984)
  • RW – Revolutionary Warriors.
  • SRSL – Socialist Revolutionary Social Liberation
  • TEA – Tamil Eelam Army (1983), of Panagoda Maheswaran.
  • TEC – Tamil Eelam Commando.
  • TEDF – Tamil Eelam Defence Front.
  • TEEF – Tamil Eelam Eagles Front.
  • TELA – Tamil Eelam Liberation Army (1982) of Oberoi Thevan; a splinter group of TELO. After the assassination of Thevan in 1983 by the LTTE, TELA was absorbed by PLOTE.
  • TELC – Tamil Eelam Liberation Cobras (1983), a short-lived Batticaloa-based group. As per Taraki, "It was widely known as the Cobra Army (Naaha Padai)".
  • TELE – Tamil Eelam Liberation Extremists, which Taraki identified as "led by one 'TELE Jegan.' He was shot dead by the LTTE.
  • TELG – Tamil Eelam Liberation Guerrillas.
  • TENA – Tamil Eelam National Army (1983), of Amirthalingam Baheerathan.
  • TERO – Tamil Eelam Revolutionary Organisation, of Sudan Ramesh; a splinter group of TELO.
  • TERPLA – Tamil Eelam Revolutionary People's Liberation Army, of Thangarasa.
  • TESS – Tamil Eelam Security Service.
  • TLO – Tamil Liberation Organisation (1969), the progenitor of TELO.
  • TNC – Tamil National Council (1989).
  • TNT – Tamil New Tigers (1972-1976); renamed the LTTE.
  • TPCU – Tamil People's Command Unit.
  • TPDF – Tamil People's Democratic Front.
  • TPSF – Tamil People's Security Front.
  • TPSO – Tamil People's Security Organisation.
  • TEBM – Tamil Eelam Blood Movement.

Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (Chinese: 毛澤東思想, pinyin: Máo Zédōng Sīxiǎng), also called Marxism-Leninism–Mao Zedong Thought or Marxism-Leninism-Maoism (MLM), is a variant of communism derived from the teachings of Mao Zedong (1893–1976). ... The Tamil Eelam Army is a Tamil separatist group in Sri Lanka. ... ...

See also

Black July is the commonly used name of the genocidal pogroms starting in Sri Lanka on July 23, 1983. ... The Sri Lankan civil war is an ongoing conflict on the island-nation of Sri Lanka. ...


External links



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