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Encyclopedia > Tamil Eelam
Tamil Eelam
தமிழ் ஈழம்  / tamiḻ īḻam
Area of Sri Lanka claimed for "Tamil Eelam"
Area of Sri Lanka claimed for "Tamil Eelam"
Political status Unrecognized state
Languages

     Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links en: Territorial claims of the unrecognized de facto state of Tamil Eelam on the island of Sri Lanka. ... As far as Political status is concerned, three categories are usually recognized in international law: independent countries e. ... The list of unrecognized countries enumerates those geo-political entities which lack general diplomatic recognition, but wish to be recognized as sovereign states. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Tamil (de facto official)
English
Capital Trincomalee[1][2] (claimed)
Kilinochchi (effective)
Independence
(from Sri Lanka)
No official declaration
 
Area
19,509 km² claimed[3]
Population
(of claimed area)
3,162,254 (2001)[4]
Currency Sri Lankan Rupee (LKR)
Time zone UTC +5:30
Calling Code +873

Tamil Eelam (Tamil: தமிழ் ஈழம், tamiḻ īḻam) is the name given by Tamils in Sri Lanka to the state which they aspire to create in the Northern and Eastern portions of Sri Lanka. One such group, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) currently administers some of the land claimed for Tamil Eelam. This includes the district of Kilinochchi, most of the district of Mullaitivu and parts of the district of Mannar and Vavuniya. However a majority of the land, including the claimed districts of Jaffna, Ampara, Trincomalee, Batticaloa and Puttlam, is controlled by the government of Sri Lanka. Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Trincomalee District Map Trincomalee (Tamil: (Thirukonamalai, hist: Sirigonakanda); Sinhala: (Thirikunamalaya)) is a port city on the northeast coast of Sri Lanka, about 110 miles northeast of Kandy. ... Kilinochchi District. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... This article is about the year. ... ISO 4217 Code LKR User(s) Sri Lanka Inflation rate 11. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... UTC redirects here. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Languages Tamil Religions Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism Related ethnic groups Dravidian people Brahui people Kannadigas Malayalis Tamils Telugus Tuluvas Gonds The Tamil people are a multi-ethnic group from the Indian subcontinent with a recorded history going back more than two millennia. ... Northern Province is a province of Sri Lanka. ... Eastern Province is a province of Sri Lanka. ... LTTE redirects here. ... Local government areas called districts are used, or have been used, in several countries. ... Kilinochchi District. ... This article is about the district in Sri Lanka. ... Mannar District. ... This article is about the district in Sri Lanka. ... Jaffna is one of the 25 districts of Sri Lanka and is located in the Northern tip of Sri Lanka. ... This article is about the district in Sri Lanka. ... This article is about the district in Sri Lanka. ... This article is about the district in Sri Lanka. ... Puttalam is a district of Sri Lanka. ...

Contents

Central issue

The concept of Eelam or homeland is a central issue in the Sri Lankan conflict that has been under way for more than five decades. It was first proposed by the Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF) in 1976.[citation needed] The TULF was a coalition of Tamil parties who campaigned in the 1977 elections for an independent state for Tamils in Sri Lanka. In the 1977 elections the TULF was elected to parliament from the northern and eastern provinces. In order to counter separatist tendencies, the government added a new clause to the constitution in 1978 requiring all MPs to pledge allegiance to the unity of the state, which resulted in the boycott of the parliament by the TULF. A number of militant groups then emerged fighting for an independent state. Combatants Military of Sri Lanka Indian Peace Keeping Force Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Commanders Junius Richard Jayawardene (1983-89) Ranasinghe Premadasa (1989-93) Dingiri Banda Wijetunge (1993-94) Chandrika Kumaratunga (1994-2005) Mahinda Rajapaksa (2005-present) Velupillai Prabhakaran (1983-present) Strength 111,000[1] 11,000[1] The Sri... TULF Election Symbol The Tamil United Liberation Front (in Sinhala: Tamil Vimuktasi Peramuna) is a political group in Sri Lanka, which seeks autonomy or independence for the Tamil-populated areas of Sri Lanka, which they call Tamil Eelam. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ...


As used by both the TULF and the militant groups, Tamil Eelam has only referred to the northeasterly portions of Sri Lanka (principally, the districts of Jaffna, Kilinochchi and Mullaitivu, claimed by Tamils as being their traditional homeland. Some of the early militant groups such as the EPRLF, however, adhered to a wider concept of Eelam, by which they meant all parts of the island of Sri Lanka with a Tamil majority, including the upcountry districts with an estate Tamil majority, traditionally part of the Sinhalese heartland. The Eelam Peoples Revolutionary Liberation Front was a Tamil separatist group in Sri Lanka. ... For other usage of this term see the disambiguation page Sri Lanka Tamils The Sri Lanka Tamils of Indian origin or Hill Country Tamils, Up-country Tamils or Indian Tamils are descended from indentured workers sent from South India to Sri Lanka in the 19th and 20th centuries to work... Language(s) Sinhala Religion(s) Theravada Buddhism, Christianity, small groups of atheists, agnostics, Muslims, others Related ethnic groups Indo-Aryans, Dravidians, Veddahs, Bengalis The Sinhalese are the main ethnic group of Sri Lanka. ...


For all practical purposes today, though, the demand for an independent state is limited to the northern and eastern provinces.


From 1948 to 2002 there have been approximately 38 militant groups who have at one time or another fought for Tamil Eelam's independence. This number includes the better known groups such as the LTTE (Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, also known as the Tamil Tigers), Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization (TELO), Eelam People's Revolutionary Liberation Front (EPRLF), People's Liberation Organisation of Tamil Eelam (PLOTE), Eelam Revolutionary Organisation of Students (EROS), and also lesser-known groups such as Tamil Eelam Army (TEA), Ilankai Freedom Tamil Army (FTA), and Socialist Revolutionary Social Liberation (SRSL). Sri Lankan Tamil militant groups rose to prominence in the 1970s to fight the state of Sri Lanka to create an independent Tamil Eelam. ... LTTE redirects here. ... The Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization is a political party in Sri Lanka. ... The Eelam Peoples Revolutionary Liberation Front is a political party in Sri Lanka. ... PLOTE stands for Peoples Liberation Organisation of Tamil Eelam. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Tamil Eelam Army is a Tamil separatist group in Sri Lanka. ...


Governance

A "stamp" issued by a militant group in 1983.
A "stamp" issued by a militant group in 1983.

The portion of Northern and Eastern Sri Lanka under the control of the LTTE is run as a de facto quasi-independent state, with its own law court,[5] police force,[6][7][5] army, navy (the Sea Tigers), air force,[8] and a bank,[9] although these institutions are not formally recognized by any international government. It is dependent on electricity and commodity supplies from the government held area through the A9 and A15 highways. It does not have its own currency and uses the Sri Lankan Rupee. It has several airports from where it operates its air force. Despite the government bombing a long modern tarmac airfield, it still continues to function. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (733x946, 182 KB) Summary A design used on some of the self-proclaimed independent state of Tamil Eelam. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (733x946, 182 KB) Summary A design used on some of the self-proclaimed independent state of Tamil Eelam. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... This article is about courts of law. ... For other uses, see Army (disambiguation). ... Naval redirects here. ... LTTE Sea Tiger head, Colonel Soosai on a Sea Tiger vessel off Mullaitivu Sea Tigers is the naval part of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, founded in 1984 [1]. The Sea Tigers have a number of small, but very effective suicide-bomber vessels [2]. During its existence it has... For a particular Air Force, see List of air forces. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... The A9 Highway connects the Sri Lankan cities of Kandy(Mahanuwara) and Jaffna. ... ISO 4217 Code LKR User(s) Sri Lanka Inflation rate 11. ...


See also

Rules guide on use of Tamil Eelam National flag published in TamilNet, November 26, 2005 21:45 GMT (quoted below). ... Eelam or Eela Naadu is a Tamil name for Sri Lanka. ... Self-determination is a principle in international law that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. ... Location of Sri Lanka Black July is the commonly used name of the pogroms starting in Sri Lanka on July 23, 1983. ... Combatants Military of Sri Lanka Indian Peace Keeping Force Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Commanders Junius Richard Jayawardene (1983-89) Ranasinghe Premadasa (1989-93) Dingiri Banda Wijetunge (1993-94) Chandrika Kumaratunga (1994-2005) Mahinda Rajapaksa (2005-present) Velupillai Prabhakaran (1983-present) Strength 111,000[1] 11,000[1] The Sri... Sri Lankan Tamil militant groups rose to prominence in the 1970s to fight the state of Sri Lanka to create an independent Tamil Eelam. ...

References

  1. ^ TamilCanadian, [1]
  2. ^ "A",[2]
  3. ^ Area calculated from statoids.com, including all districts of North Eastern Province and Puttalam District in North Western Province.
  4. ^ According to the 2001 Sri Lankan census, for all districts of North Eastern Province and Puttalam District in North Western Province.
  5. ^ a b Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). South Asia Terrorism Portal. Retrieved on 2007-03-28.
  6. ^ Pirapaharan opens Tamil Eelam Police HQ
  7. ^ "Tamil Eelam police", Sri Lanka Monitor, 2002. Retrieved on 2007-03-28. 
  8. ^ Rowland Buerk. Tamil Tigers unveil latest tactic. BBC News. Retrieved on 2007-03-28.
  9. ^ Tiger bank roars ahead
Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Tamil Eelam (603 words)
As a nation, Tamils have the inalienable right to self-determination, a universal principle enshrined in the U.N. Charter that guarantees the right of a people to political independence.
Apart from the right to self determination, the Tamil Eelam may also be justified in terms of international law under the concept of reversion of sovereignty and the concept of effectiveness.
In 1977, the Tamil United Liberation Front resolved in its Vaddukoddai Resolution to campaign for political independence on the basis of the Tamil nation's right to self- determination.
Tamil Eelam (154 words)
Tamil Eelam is an area consisting of the northern and eastern part of Sri Lanka in which Tamil nationalists want to form an independent state.
The concept of Eelam or homeland was proposed by the Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF) in 1976.
TULF was a coalition of Tamil parties who campaigned in the 1977 elections for an independent state for Tamils in Sri Lanka.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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