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Encyclopedia > Tambov rebellion
Tambov Rebellion
Part of Russian Civil War
Date 1919-1921
Location Tambov Governorate, Soviet Russia
Result Decisive Red Army victory
Combatants
peasant rebels Red army
Strength
50,000 100,000
Casualties
N/A N/A

The Tambov Rebellion of 19191921 was one of the largest and well organized peasant rebellions against the Bolshevik regime during the Russian Civil War[1][2]. The uprising took place in the territories of the modern Tambov Oblast and a part of Voronezh Oblast, less than 300 miles southeast of Moscow. One of rebellion leaders was a former official of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party, Alexander Antonov, and therefore in Soviet history it was named the Antonovschina (Анто́новщина). Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 November 7, 1917 December 12, 1991 (dissolution) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Merge-arrows. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Tambov Rebellion. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ... Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist... Tambov Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Voronezh Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Socialist-Revolutionary election poster, 1917. ... Alexander Stepanovich Antonov (1888-1922) (Алекса́ндр Степа́нович Анто́нов) was the leader of the Tambov Rebellion during the Russian Civil War. ... The History of the Soviet Union begins with the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Tambov Rebellion. ...


The rebellion was caused by the forceful confiscation of grain by the Bolshevik authorities (policy known as prodrazvyorstka). In 1920 the requisitions were increased from 18 million to 27 million poods in the region, whereas peasants reduced the grain production knowing that anything they did not consume themselves will be immediately confiscated. To fill the state quotas meant a death by starvation [2]. The revolt began on 19 August 1920 in a small town of Khitrovo where a military requisitioning detachment looted everything on its path and "beat up old men of seventy in full view of the public" [2]. For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ... Prodrazvyorstka (prodovolstvennaya razvyorstka) (Продразвёрстка, продовольственная развёрстка in Russian, or food apportionment) was... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pood (Пуд in Russian) or pud is a unit of mass equal to 40 funt (фунт, Russian pounds). ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


As a distinctive feature of this rebellion among the many of these times, it was led by a political organization, the Union of Working Peasants (Soyuz Trudovogo Krestyanstva). A congress of Tambov rebels abolished Soviet power and decided to create a Constituent Assembly under equal voting, and to return all land to the peasants.[1]


In October 1920 the peasant army numbered more than 50,000 fighters, joined by numerous deserters from Red Army. The rebel militia was highly effective and infiltrated even the Tambov Cheka [2]. In January 1921 peasant revolts spread to Samara, Saratov, Tsaritsyn, Astrakhan, and Siberia. Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... For the reggaeton aritst, see Cheka (artist). ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Samara (Russian: ) (from 1935 to 1991—Kuybyshev ()) is the sixth-largest city in Russia. ... Saratov (Russian: ) is a major city in Russia. ... Rodina Mat (Motherland), statue on the Mamayev Kurgan, Volgograd Volgograd (Волгогра́д) (population: 1,012,000), formerly called Tsaritsyn (Цари́цын) (1598 - 1925) and Stalingrad (Сталингра́&#1076... For other uses, see Astrakhan (fur). ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ...


The seriousness of the uprising called for the creation of the "Plenipotentiary Commission of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of the Bolshevik party for liquidation of banditry in the Tambov Gubernia". The rebellion was crushed by Red Army units headed by Mikhail Tukhachevsky. The political guidance of the anti-revolt operations was effected by Vladimir Antonov-Ovseenko. The famous Soviet Marshal Georgy Zhukov received his first Soviet decoration while fighting rebels here [citation needed]. For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky (Russian: ; Polish: ) (February 16 [O.S. February 4] 1893 â€“ June 12, 1937), was a Soviet military commander, chief of the Red Army (1925–1928), and one of the most prominent victims of Stalins Great Purge of the late 1930s. ... Vladimir Antonov-Ovseenko Vladimir Alexandrovich Antonov-Ovseenko (real lastname Ovseenko) (Russian: , Ukrainian: ) (March 9, 1883 - February 10, 1939), was a prominent Soviet Bolshevik leader and later Soviet diplomat. ... The rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union (Russian: Marshal Sovietskovo Soyuza [Маршал Советского Союза]) was in practice the highest military rank of the Soviet Union. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov, GCB (Russian: ) (December 1, 1896 [O.S. November 19]–June 18, 1974), was a Soviet military commander who, in the course of World War II, led the Red Army to liberate the Soviet Union from the Nazi occupation, to overrun...


The uprising was so great that nearly 100,000 soldiers were sent in, including special Cheka detachments.[2] The army used heavy artillery and armored trains to fight peasant rebels. The Red Army under Tukhachevsky used to take and execute without trial, civilian hostages. For the reggaeton aritst, see Cheka (artist). ... Armoured train is a train protected with armour. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Mikhail Tukhachevsky Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky (also spelled Tukhachevski, Tukhachevskii, Russian: Михаил Николаевич Тухачевский) (February 16, 1893 - June 12, 1937), Soviet military...


Tukhachevsky and Vladimir Antonov-Ovseenko signed an order, dated June 12 1921, that stipulated: "The forests where the bandits are hiding are to be cleared by the use of poison gas. This must be carefully calculated, so that the layer of gas penetrates the forests and kills everyone hiding there." [2] Chemical weapons were used "from end of June 1921 until apparently the fall of 1921", by direct order from leadership of Red Army and Communist party [3] Publications in local Communist newspapers openly glorified liquidations of "bandits" with the poison gas [3]. Marshal of the Soviet Union Mikhail Tukhachevsky Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky (also spelled Tukhachevski, Tukhachevskii, Russian: Михаил Николаевич Тухачевский) (February 16, 1893 - June 12, 1937), Soviet military... Vladimir Antonov-Ovseenko Vladimir Alexandrovich Antonov-Ovseenko (real lastname Ovseenko) (Russian: , Ukrainian: ) (March 9, 1883 - February 10, 1939), was a prominent Soviet Bolshevik leader and later Soviet diplomat. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Early detection of chemical agents Sociopolitical climate of chemical warfare While the study of chemicals and their military uses was widespread in China, the use of toxic materials has historically been viewed with mixed emotions and some disdain in the West (especially when the enemy were doing it). ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ...


Seven Concentration camps were set up. At least 50,000 people were interned, mostly women, children, and elderly, some of them were sent there as hostages. The mortality rate in the camps was 15-20 percent a month.[2] It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Hostage (disambiguation). ...


The uprising was gradually quelled in 1921. Antonov was killed in 1922 during an attempt to arrest him. Total losses among the population of Tambov region in 1920-1922 resulting from the war, executions, and imprisonment in concentration camps were estimated as at least 240,000 [3]. Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Notes

  1. ^ a b Robert Conquest, The Harvest of Sorrow: Soviet Collectivization and the Terror-Famine Oxford University Press New York (1986) ISBN 0-195-04054-6
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Nicolas Werth, Karel Bartošek, Jean-Louis Panné, Jean-Louis Margolin, Andrzej Paczkowski, Stéphane Courtois, The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression, Harvard University Press, 1999, hardcover, 858 pages, ISBN 0-674-07608-7
  3. ^ a b c B.V.Sennikov. Tambov rebellion and liquidation of peasants in Russia, Publisher: Posev, 2004, ISBN 5-85824-152-2 Full text in Russian

Dr. George Robert Ackworth Conquest (born July 15, 1917), British historian, became one of the best-known writers on the Soviet Union with the publication, in 1968, of his account of Stalins purges of the 1930s, The Great Terror. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Stéphane Courtois is a French historian, currently employed as research director (i. ... The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression is a book authored by several European academics and senior researchers from CNRS, and edited by Dr. Stéphane Courtois. ... The Harvard University Press is a publishing house, a division of Harvard University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Tukhachvsky role in the Tambov revolt, including the text of commands given to the red army concerning the use of war gases, taking and executing hostages, deporting of peasant families to Concentration camps.
  • Programme of Union of Toiling Peasants
  • (in Russian) Antonovshchina: a wealth of historical documents, including the documents from the rebel side
  • An illustrated article about Tambov revolt from Gulag website (Russian)

See also


 
 

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