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Encyclopedia > Talmud
Rabbinic Literature

Talmudic literature
Rabbinic literature, in the broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of Judaisms rabbinic writing/s throughout history. ...


MishnahTosefta
Jerusalem TalmudBabylonian Talmud
Minor tractates
The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... The Tosefta is a secondary compilation of the Jewish oral law from the period of the Mishnah. ... The Jerusalem Talmud (In Hebrew Talmud Yerushalmi, in short known as the Yerushalmi), also known as the Palestinian Talmud, like its Babylonian counterpart (see Babylonian Talmud), is a collection of Rabbinic discussions elaborating on the Mishnah. ... The Minor Tractates are essays from the tannaitic period or later dealing with topics about which no formal tractate exists in the Mishnah. ...


Halakhic Midrash
This article needs to be wikified. ...


Mekhilta de-Rabbi Yishmael (Exodus)
Mekhilta de-Rabbi Shimon (Exodus)
Sifra (Leviticus)
Sifre (Numbers & Deuteronomy)
Sifre Zutta (Numbers)
Mekhilta le-Sefer Devarim (Deuteronomy)
Baraita of Rabbi Ishmael
Mekilta, Mekhilta // [edit] First Mention The halakic midrash to Exodus. ... The Mekhilta de-Rabbi Shimon (Hebrew: מכילתא דרבי שמעון בר יוחאי) is a Halakic midrash on Exodus from the school of R. Akiba, the Rabbi Shimon in question being Shimon bar Yochai. ... Sifra (Aramaic: סִפְרָא) is a Halakic midrash to Leviticus. ... Sifre (סִפְרֵי siphrēy, Sifre, Sifrei) is a Midrash halakhah originated from Devarim and Shmot. ... Sifre Zutta (Hebrew: ספרי זוטא) is a peculiar midrash to Book of Numbers, of especial interest for the study of the Halakah. ... The Mekhilta le-Sefer Devarim (Hebrew: מכילתא לספר דברים) is a halakic midrash to Deuteronomy from the school of Rabbi Ishmael which is no longer extant. ... The Baraita of Rabbi Ishmael (Hebrew: ברייתא דרבי ישמאל) is a baraita which explains the 13 rules of R. Ishmael, and their application, by means of illustrations from the Bible. ...


Aggadic Midrash
Aggadah (Aramaic אגדה: tales, lore; pl. ...


—— Tannaitic ——
Seder Olam Rabbah
Alphabet of Akiba ben Joseph
Baraita of the Forty-nine Rules
Baraita on the Thirty-two Rules
Baraita on Tabernacle Construction
—— 400–600 ——
Genesis RabbahEichah Rabbah
Pesikta de-Rav Kahana
Esther Rabbah • Midrash Iyyov
Leviticus RabbahSeder Olam Zutta
Midrash TanhumaMegillat Antiochus
—— 650–900 ——
Avot of Rabbi Natan
Pirkei de-Rabbi Eliezer
Tanna Devei Eliyahu
Alphabet of Ben-Sira
Kohelet Rabbah • Canticles Rabbah
Devarim Rabbah • Devarim Zutta
Pesikta Rabbati • Midrash Samuel
Midrash ProverbsRuth Rabbah
Baraita of Samuel • Targum sheni
—— 900–1000 ——
Ruth Zuta • Eichah Zuta
Midrash Tehillim • Midrash Hashkem
Exodus Rabbah • Canticles Zutta
—— 1000–1200 ——
Midrash TadsheSefer ha-Yashar
—— Later ——
Yalkut Shimoni • Yalkut Makiri
Midrash Jonah • Ein Yaakov
Midrash ha-Gadol • Numbers Rabbah
Smaller midrashim Seder Olam Rabbah (Hebrew: סדר עולם רבה) is the earliest post-exilic chronicle preserved in the Hebrew language. ... Alphabet of Akiba ben Joseph, or Otiot (Midrash, Aggadah) de-Rabbi Akiba (Hebrew: אותיות דרבי עקיבא), is the title of a Midrash on the names of the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. ... The Baraita of the Forty-nine Rules (Hebrew: ברייתא מט מדות) is a work of rabbinical literature which is no longer extent except in references by later authorities. ... The Baraita on the Thirty-two Rules or Baraita of R. Eliezer ben Jose ha-Gelili is a baraita giving the 32 hermeneutic rules according to which the Bible is interpreted. ... Baraita on the Erection of the Tabernacle is a Baraita cited several times by Hai Gaon, by Nathan ben Jehiel in the Aruk, as well as in Rashi, Yalḳut, and Maimonides. ... Genesis Rabba, (Breshit Rabba in Hebrew), is a religious text holy to classical Judaism. ... The Midrash on Lamentations or Ekah (Lamentations) Rabbah (Hebrew: מדרש איכה רבה), like Bereshit Rabbah and the Pesiḳta ascribed to Rab Kahana, belongs to the oldest works of the Midrashic literature. ... Pesikta de-Rab Kahana (Hebrew: פסיקתא דרב כהנא) is a collection of Aggadic midrash which exists in only one edition, that of Solomon Buber (Lyck, 1868). ... Esther Rabbah (Hebrew: אסתר רבה) is the midrash to the Book of Esther in the current Midrash editions. ... Midrash Iyyob (Hebrew: מדרש איוב) or Midrash to Job is an aggadic midrash that is no longer extent. ... Leviticus Rabbah, Vayikrah Rabbah, or Wayikra Rabbah is a homiletic midrash to the Biblical book of Leviticus (Vayikrah in Hebrew). ... Seder Olam Zutta (Hebrew: סדר עולם זוטא) is an anonymous chronicle, called Zuṭa (= smaller, or younger) to distinguish it from the older Seder Olam Rabbah. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ... Megillat Antiochus (מגילת אנטיוכוס - Hebrew : The Scroll of Antiochus; also Megillat HaHasmonaim, or Megillat Hanukkah) is a work recounting the story of Hannukah and the history of the victory of the Maccabees (Hasmoneans) over the Seleucid Empire. ... Avot de-Rabbi Nathan (Hebrew: אבות דרבי נתן), usually printed together with the minor tractates of the Talmud, is a Jewish aggadic work probably compiled in the geonic era (c. ... Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer (Hebrew: פרקי דרבי אליעזר) is a haggadic-midrashic work on Genesis, part of Exodus, and a few sentences of Numbers, ascribed to R. Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, and composed in Italy shortly after 833 CE. It is quoted immediately before the end of the 12th century under the following titles... Tanna Devei Eliyahu (Hebrew: תנא דבי אליהו) is the composite name of a midrash, consisting of two parts, whose final redaction took place at the end of the 10th century CE. The first part is called Seder Eliyahu Rabbah (31 chapters); the second, Seder Eliyahu Zuṭa (15 chapters). ... The Alphabet of Ben-Sira (Alphabetum Siracidis, Othijoth ben Sira) is an anonymous medieval text, attributed to Ben Sira (Sirach), the author of Ecclesiasticus. ... Haggadic commentary on Ecclesiastes, included in the collection of the Rabbot. ... Shir ha-Shirim Rabbah (Hebrew: שיר השירים רבה) is a Haggadic midrash on Canticles, quoted by Rashi under the title Midrash Shir ha-Shirim (commentary on Cant. ... Deuteronomy Rabbah (Hebrew: דברים רבה) is a aggadic midrash or homiletic commentary on the Book of Deuteronomy. ... Pesikta Rabbati (Hebrew: פסיקתא רבתי) is a collection of Aggadic Midrash (homilies) on the Pentateuchal and prophetic lessons, the special Sabbaths, etc. ... Midrash Samuel (Hebrew: מדרש שמואל), a haggadic midrash on the books of Samuel, is quoted for the first time by Rashi in his commentary on I Sam. ... Midrash Tehillim (Hebrew: מדרש תהילים) is Haggadic-midrash, known since the 11th century, when it was quoted by Nathan of Rome in his Aruk (s. ... Ruth Rabbah (Hebrew: רות רבה) is an haggadic and homiletic interpretation of the Book of Ruth, which, like that of the four other scrolls (megillot), is included in the Midrash Rabbot. ... A Baraita of Samuel (Hebrew: בריתא דרבי שמואל) was known to Jewish scholars from Shabbethai Donolo in the 10th century to Simon Duran in the 15th century, and citations from it were made by them. ... Targum Sheni (second translation; date about 800) on Megillat Esther contains material not directly germane to the Esther story. ... Midrash Tehillim (Hebrew: מדרש תהילים) is Haggadic-midrash, known since the 11th century, when it was quoted by Nathan of Rome in his Aruk (s. ... Midrash Hashkem, also known as Midrash ve-Hizhir is a purely haggadic midrash on the Pentateuch. ... Exodus Rabbah (Hebrew: שמות רבה) is the midrash to Exodus, containing in the printed editions 52 parashiyyot. ... Shir ha-Shirim Zutta (Hebrew: שיר השירים‏ ‏זוטא) is a midrash, or, rather, homiletic commentary, on Canticles; referred to in the various Yalḳuṭim and by the ancient Biblical commentators as Midrash Shir ha-Shirim, or Agadat Shir ha-Shirim. ... Midrash Tadshe (Hebrew: מדרש תדשא) is a small midrash which begins with an interpretation of Gen. ... Sefer haYashar (midrash), a Hebrew midrash known in English translation mostly as The Book of Jasher. ... The Yalkut Shimoni (Hebrew: ילקוט שמעוני) or simply Yalkut is a haggadic compilation on the books of the Old Testament. ... Machir ben Abba Mari (Hebrew: מכיר בן אבא מרי) was the author of a work entitled Yalkut ha-Makiri (ילקוט המכירי), but about whom not even the country or the period in which he lived is definitively known. ... Midrash Jonah is the midrash to the Book of Jonah, read on the Day of Atonement as hafṭarah during the Minḥah prayer, and containing a haggadic version of this prophetical book. ... Ein Yaakov is a compilation of all the Aggadic material in the Talmud together with commentaries. ... Midrash ha-Gadol or The Great Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש הגדול) is an anonymous late compilation of aggadic midrashim on the Pentateuch taken from the two Talmuds and earlier Midrashim. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ... A number of midrashim exist which are smaller in size, and generally later in date, than those dealt with in the articles Midrash Haggadah and Midrash Halakah. ...


Rabbinic Targum
A targum (plural: targumim) is an Aramaic translation of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) written or compiled in the Land of Israel or in Babylonia from the Second Temple period until the early Middle Ages (late first millennium). ...


—— Torah ——
Targum Onkelos
Targum Pseudo-Jonathan
Fragment Targum • Targum Neofiti
Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... Categories: Judaism-related stubs | Jewish texts ... Targum Pseudo-Jonathan is a western, i. ...


—— Nevi'im ——
Targum Jonathan
Neviim [נביאים] (Heb: Prophets) is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), following the Torah and preceding Ketuvim (writings). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Targum Pseudo-Jonathan. ...


—— Ketuvim ——
Targum Tehillim • Targum Mishlei
Targum Iyyov
Targum to the Five Megillot
Targum Sheni to Esther
Targum to Chronicles Ketuvim is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ... Targum Sheni (second translation; date about 800) on Megillat Esther contains material not directly germane to the Esther story. ...

The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs, and history. It is a central text of Judaism, second only to the Hebrew Bible in importance. Hebrew redirects here. ... For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה ; alternate transliterations include Halocho and Halacha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions. ... // Jewish ethics stands at the intersection of Judaism and the Western philosophical tradition of ethics. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ...


The Talmud has two components: the Mishnah (c. 200 CE), the first written compendium of Judaism's Oral Law; and the Gemara (c. 500 CE), a discussion of the Mishnah and related Tannaitic writings that often ventures onto other subjects and expounds broadly on the Tanakh. The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... BCE redirects here. ... The Gemara (also Gemora) (גמרא - from gamar: Aramaic [to] study) is the part of the Talmud that contains rabbinical commentaries and analysis of its predecessor, the Mishnah. ... The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, Repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ...


The terms Talmud and Gemara are often used interchangeably. The Gemara is the basis for all codes of rabbinic law and is much quoted in other rabbinic literature. The whole Talmud is also traditionally referred to as Shas (ש"ס), a Hebrew abbreviation of shisha sedarim, the "six orders" of the Mishnah. Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה ; alternate transliterations include Halocho and Halacha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions. ... Rabbinic literature, in the broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of Judaisms rabbinic writing/s throughout history. ... Hebrew redirects here. ...

Contents

History

Oral law

Main article: Oral Torah
The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a.
The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a.

Originally, Jewish scholarship was oral. Rabbis expounded and debated the law (that is, the Hebrew Bible) and discussed the Tanakh without the benefit of written works (other than the Biblical books themselves), though some may have made private notes (megillot setarim), for example of court decisions. This situation changed drastically, however, mainly as the result of the destruction of the Jewish commonwealth in the year 70 C.E. and the consequent upheaval of Jewish social and legal norms. As the Rabbis were required to face a new reality—mainly Judaism without a Temple (to serve as the center of teaching and study) and Judea without autonomy—there was a flurry of legal discourse and the old system of oral scholarship could not be maintained. It is during this period that Rabbinic discourse began to be recorded in writing.[1][2] The earliest recorded oral law may have been of the midrashic form, in which halakhic discussion is structured as exegetical commentary on the Pentateuch. But an alternative form, organized by subject matter instead of by biblical verse, became dominant about the year 200 C.E., when Rabbi Judah haNasi redacted the Mishnah (משנה). When Moses received all of the laws that would define the Jewish tradition, he also received the explanation of these laws. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (572x808, 163 KB) This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (572x808, 163 KB) This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less. ... Vilnius Old Town Vilnius (sometimes Vilna; Polish Wilno, Belarusian Вільня, Russian Вильнюс, see also Cities alternative names) is the capital city of Lithuania. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה ; alternate transliterations include Halocho and Halacha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions. ... Exegesis (from the Greek to lead out) involves an extensive and critical interpretation of an authoritative text, especially of a holy scripture, such as of the Old and New Testaments of the Bible, the Talmud, the Midrash, the Quran, etc. ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... Judah haNasi, or more accurately in Hebrew, Yehudah HaNasi, was a key leader of the Jewish community of Judea under the Roman empire, toward the end of the 2nd century CE. He was reputedly from the Davidic line of the royal line from King David, hence his title Prince (Nasi... The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ...


The Oral Law was far from monolithic, but varied among various schools. The most famous two were the School of Shammai and the School of Hillel. In general, all opinions, even the non-normative ones, were recorded in the Talmud. Shammai (50 BCE–30 CE) was a Jewish scholar of the 1st century, and an important figure in Judaisms core work of rabbinic literature, the Mishnah. ... Hillel (הלל) (born Babylon 1st Century BCE - died ?Jerusalem, 1st Century CE) was a famous Jewish religious leader, one of the most important figures in Jewish history. ...


Mishnah

Main article: Mishnah

The Mishnah is a compilation of legal opinions and debates. Statements in the Mishnah are typically terse, recording brief opinions of the rabbis debating a subject; or recording only an unattributed ruling, apparently representing a consensus view. The rabbis recorded in the Mishnah are known as Tannaim. The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, Repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ...


Since it sequences its laws by subject matter instead of by biblical context, the Mishnah discusses individual subjects more thoroughly than the Midrash, and it includes a much broader selection of halakhic subjects than the Midrash. The Mishna's topical organization thus became the framework of the Talmud as a whole. But not every tractate in the Mishnah has a corresponding Gemara. Also, the order of the tractates in the Talmud differs in some cases from that in the Mishnah (see the discussion on each order).

  The Six Orders of the Mishnah (ששה סדרי משנה)
v  d  e
Zeraim (זרעים) Moed (מועד) Nashim (נשים) Nezikin (נזיקין) Kodashim (קדשים) Tohorot (טהרות)
Berakhot · Pe'ah · Demai · Kil'ayim · Shevi'it · Terumot · Ma'aserot · Ma'aser Sheni · Hallah · Orlah · Bikkurim Shabbat · Eruvin · Pesahim · Shekalim · Yoma · Sukkah · Beitzah · Rosh Hashanah · Ta'anit · Megillah · Mo'ed Katan · Hagigah Yevamot · Ketubot · Nedarim · Nazir · Sotah · Gittin · Kiddushin Bava Kamma · Bava Metzia · Bava Batra · Sanhedrin · Makkot · Shevu'ot · Eduyot · Avodah Zarah · Avot · Horayot Zevahim · Menahot · Hullin · Bekhorot · Arakhin · Temurah · Keritot · Me'ilah · Tamid · Middot · Kinnim Keilim · Oholot · Nega'im · Parah · Tohorot · Mikva'ot · Niddah · Makhshirin · Zavim · Tevul Yom · Yadayim · Uktzim

The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... Zeraim (זרעים) is the first Order of the Mishnah (and Tosefta and Talmud). ... Moed (Festivals) is the second Order of the Mishnah (also the Tosefta and Talmud), Of the six orders of the Mishna, Moed is the third shortest. ... Nashim (Women or Wives) is the third order of the Mishnah (also of the Tosefta and Talmud), containing the laws related to women and family life. ... Nezikin (Hebrew: סדר נזיקין, The Order of Damages) is the fourth order of Mishna (also the Tosefta and Talmud). ... Kodashim or Kodshim (Hebrew קדשים, Holy Things) is the fifth Order in the Mishna (also the Tosefta and Talmud). ... Tohorot (The Order of Purities) is the sixth order of the Mishnah (also the Tosefta and Talmud). ... Berakhot (Hebrew: ברכות, Benedictions) is the first masekhet (tractate) of Seder Zeraim (Order of Seeds) of the Mishnah, the first major text of Jewish law. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Kilayim (Hebrew: כלאים, lit. ... Sheviit (Hebrew: שביעית, lit. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Hallah (Hebrew: חלה, lit. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Bikkurim (Hebrew: ביכורים, lit. ... Moed (Festivals) is the second Order of the Mishnah (also the Tosefta and Talmud), Of the six orders of the Mishna, Moed is the third shortest. ... Moed (Festivals) is the second Order of the Mishnah (also the Tosefta and Talmud), Of the six orders of the Mishna, Moed is the third shortest. ... Moed (Festivals) is the second Order of the Mishnah (also the Tosefta and Talmud), Of the six orders of the Mishna, Moed is the third shortest. ... Moed (Festivals) is the second Order of the Mishnah (also the Tosefta and Talmud), Of the six orders of the Mishna, Moed is the third shortest. ... Moed (Festivals) is the second Order of the Mishnah (also the Tosefta and Talmud), Of the six orders of the Mishna, Moed is the third shortest. ... Sukkah (Hebrew: סוכה, hut) is a book of the Mishnah and Talmud. ... Moed (Festivals) is the second Order of the Mishnah (also the Tosefta and Talmud), Of the six orders of the Mishna, Moed is the third shortest. ... Rosh Ha Shanah is the name of a treatise in the Talmud. ... Taanit or Taanis is a volume (or tractate) of the Mishnah, Tosefta, and both Talmuds. ... Moed (Festivals) is the second Order of the Mishnah (also the Tosefta and Talmud), Of the six orders of the Mishna, Moed is the third shortest. ... Moed (Festivals) is the second Order of the Mishnah (also the Tosefta and Talmud), Of the six orders of the Mishna, Moed is the third shortest. ... Moed (Festivals) is the second Order of the Mishnah (also the Tosefta and Talmud), Of the six orders of the Mishna, Moed is the third shortest. ... Nashim (Women or Wives) is the third order of the Mishnah (also of the Tosefta and Talmud), containing the laws related to women and family life. ... Nashim (Women or Wives) is the third order of the Mishnah (also of the Tosefta and Talmud), containing the laws related to women and family life. ... Nashim (Women) is the third order of the Mishnah (also of the Tosefta and Talmud), containing the laws related to women and family life. ... Nazir (Hebrew: נזיר) is a treatise of the Mishnah and the Tosefta and in both Talmuds, devoted chiefly to a discussion of the laws of the Nazirite laid down in Numbers 6:1-21. ... Nashim (Women) is the third order of the Mishnah (also of the Tosefta and Talmud), containing the laws related to women and family life. ... Nashim (Women) is the third order of the Mishnah (also of the Tosefta and Talmud), containing the laws related to women and family life. ... Nashim (Women or Wives) is the third order of the Mishnah (also of the Tosefta and Talmud), containing the laws related to women and family life. ... Bava Kamma (Aramaic: בבא קמא, The First Gate; often transliterated Baḇa Ḳamma) is the first of a series of three Talmudic tractates in the order Nezikin (Damages) that deal with civil matters such as damages and torts. ... Category: ... Bava Batra is the third of the three tractates in the Talmud in the order Nezikin; it deals with a persons responsibilities and rights as the owner of property. ... Sanhedrin (סנהדרין) is one of ten tractates of the Nezikin (a section of the Talmud that deals with damages, ie. ... Nezikin (Hebrew: סדר נזיקין, The Order of Damages) is the fourth order of Mishna (also the Tosefta and Talmud). ... Shevuot or Shevuot (Hebrew: שבועות, oaths) is a book of the Mishnah and Talmud. ... Nezikin (Hebrew: סדר נזיקין, The Order of Damages) is the fourth order of Mishna (also the Tosefta and Talmud). ... Avodah Zarah (meaning idolatry - lit. ... Pirkei Avoth (Hebrew: Chapters of the Fathers, פרקי אבות ) or simply Avoth is a tractate of the Mishna composed of ethical maxims of the Rabbis of the Mishnaic period. ... Nezikin (Hebrew: סדר נזיקין, The Order of Damages) is the fourth order of Mishna (also the Tosefta and Talmud). ... Kodshim (קדשים, Holy Things in Hebrew) is the fifth order in the Mishna (also the Tosefta and Talmud). ... Kodshim (קדשים, Holy Things in Hebrew) is the fifth order in the Mishna (also the Tosefta and Talmud). ... Kodshim (קדשים, Holy Things in Hebrew) is the fifth order in the Mishna (also the Tosefta and Talmud). ... Kodshim (קדשים, Holy Things in Hebrew) is the fifth order in the Mishna (also the Tosefta and Talmud). ... Kodshim (קדשים, Holy Things in Hebrew) is the fifth order in the Mishna (also the Tosefta and Talmud). ... Temurah ( Hebrew: תמורה) in Halakha is the prohibition against attempting to switch the sanctity of an animal that has been sanctified for the Temple. ... Kodshim (קדשים, Holy Things in Hebrew) is the fifth order in the Mishna (also the Tosefta and Talmud). ... Kodshim (קדשים, Holy Things in Hebrew) is the fifth order in the Mishna (also the Tosefta and Talmud). ... Kodshim (קדשים, Holy Things in Hebrew) is the fifth order in the Mishna (also the Tosefta and Talmud). ... Kodashim or Kodoshim (Hebrew קדשים, Holy Things) is the fifth Order in the Mishna (also the Tosefta and Talmud). ... Kinnim is a tractate in the Mishna and Talmud. ... Keilim (כלים, literally Vessels) is the first tractate in the Order of Tohorot in the Mishnah. ... Oholot (אוהלות, literally Tents) is the second tractate of the Order of Tohorot in the Mishnah. ... Negaim (נגעים, literally Blemishes) is the third tractate of the order of Tohorot in the Mishnah. ... Tohorot (Hebrew: טהורת literally Purities) is the sixth order of the Mishnah (also the Tosefta and Talmud). ... Tohorot (Hebrew: טהורת literally Purities) is the sixth order of the Mishnah (also the Tosefta and Talmud). ... Tractate Mikvaot (Hebrew: מקואות, lit. ... Niddah (or nidah, nidda, nida; Hebrew:נִדָּה) is a Hebrew term which literally means separation, generally considered to refer to separation from ritual impurity[1]; Ibn Ezra argues that it is related to the term menaddekem, meaning cast you out[2]. The term niddah appears in the biblical description of the... Tohorot (Hebrew: טהורת literally Purities) is the sixth order of the Mishnah (also the Tosefta and Talmud). ... Tohorot (Hebrew: טהורת literally Purities) is the sixth order of the Mishnah (also the Tosefta and Talmud). ... Tohorot (Hebrew: טהורת literally Purities) is the sixth order of the Mishnah (also the Tosefta and Talmud). ... Tohorot (Hebrew: טהורת literally Purities) is the sixth order of the Mishnah (also the Tosefta and Talmud). ... Uktzim (Hebrew: עוקצים, stems) is the last volume (or tractate) of the Order of Tohorot in the Mishnah. ...

Baraita

In addition to the Mishnah, other tannaitic works were recorded at about the same time or shortly thereafter. The Gemara frequently refers to these tannaitic statements in order to compare them to those contained in the Mishnah and to support or refute the propositions of Amoraim. All such non-Mishnaic tannaitic sources are termed baraitot (lit. outside material, "Works external to the Mishnah"; sing. baraita ברייתא). The baraitot cited in the Gemara are often quotations from the Tosefta (a tannaitic compendium of halakha parallel to the Mishnah) and the Halakhic Midrashim (specifically Mekhilta, Sifra and Sifre). Some baraitot, however, are known only through traditions cited in the Gemara, and are not part of any other collection. Amora, plural Amoraim, (from the Hebrew root amar to say or tell over), were renowned Jewish scholars who said or told over the teachings of the Oral law, from about 200 to 500 CE in Babylonia and Palestine. ... Baraita (Aramaic ברייתא: external, outside; pl. ... The Tosefta is a secondary compilation of the Jewish oral law from the period of the Mishnah. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה ; alternate transliterations include Halocho and Halacha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions. ... Midrash halakha was the ancient rabbinic Jewish method of verifying the traditionally received laws by identifying their sources in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), and by interpreting these passages as proofs of the laws authenticity. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ...


Gemara

Main article: Gemara

In the three centuries following the redaction of the Mishnah, rabbis throughout Israel and Babylonia analyzed, debated and discussed that work. These discussions form the Gemara (גמרא). Gemara means “completion” (from the Hebrew gamar גמר: "to complete") or "learning"( from the Aramaic: "to study"). The Gemara mainly focuses on elucidating and elaborating the opinions of the Tannaim. The rabbis of the Gemara are known as Amoraim (sing. Amora אמורא). The Gemara (also Gemora) (גמרא - from gamar: Aramaic [to] study) is the part of the Talmud that contains rabbinical commentaries and analysis of its predecessor, the Mishnah. ... The Gemara (also Gemora) (גמרא - from gamar: Aramaic [to] study) is the part of the Talmud that contains rabbinical commentaries and analysis of its predecessor, the Mishnah. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... Amora, plural Amoraim, (from the Hebrew root amar to say or tell over), were renowned Jewish scholars who said or told over the teachings of the Oral law, from about 200 to 500 CE in Babylonia and Palestine. ...


Much of the Gemara consists of legal analysis. The starting point for the analysis is usually a legal statement found in a Mishnah. The statement is then analyzed and compared with other statements in a dialectical exchange between two (frequently anonymous and sometimes metaphorical) disputants, termed the makshan (questioner) and tartzan (answerer). Another important function of Gemara is to identify the correct Biblical basis for a given law presented in the Mishnah and the logical process connecting one with the other: this activity was known as talmud long before the existence of the "Talmud" as a text. In classical philosophy, dialectic (Greek: διαλεκτική) is controversy, Viz. ...


These exchanges form the "building-blocks" of the Gemara; the name for a passage of gemara is a sugya (סוגיא; plural sugyot). A Sugya will typically comprise a detailed proof-based elaboration of a Mishnaic statement. The Gemara (also Gemora) (גמרא - from gamar: Aramaic [to] study) is the part of the Talmud that contains rabbinical commentaries and analysis of its predecessor, the Mishnah. ...


In a given sugya, scriptural, Tannaic and Amoraic statements are brought to support the various opinions. In so doing, the Gemara will bring semantic disagreements between Tannaim and Amoraim (often ascribing a view to an earlier authority as to how he may have answered a question), and compare the Mishnaic views with passages from the Baraita. Rarely are debates formally closed; in many instances, the final word determines the practical law, although there are many exceptions to this principle. Semantics (Ancient σημαντικός semantikos significant, from semainein to signify, mean, from sema sign, token), is the study of meaning in communication. ... Baraita (Aramaic ברייתא: external, outside; pl. ...


Halakha and Aggadah

The Talmud contains a vast amount of material and touches on a great many subjects. Traditionally Talmudic statements can be classified into two broad categories, Halakhic and Aggadic statements. Halakhic statements are those which directly relate to questions of Jewish law and practice (Halakha). Aggadic statements are those which are not legally related, but rather are exegetical, homiletical, ethical or historical in nature. See Aggadah for further discussion. Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה ; alternate transliterations include Halocho and Halacha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions. ... Aggadah (Aramaic אגדה: tales, lore; pl. ...


Bavli and Yerushalmi

The process of "Gemara" proceeded in the two major centers of Jewish scholarship, the Land of Israel and Babylonia. Correspondingly, two bodies of analysis developed, and two works of Talmud were created. The older compilation is called the Jerusalem Talmud or the Talmud Yerushalmi. It was compiled sometime during the fourth century in Israel. The Babylonian Talmud was compiled about the year 500 C.E., although it continued to be edited later. The word "Talmud", when used without qualification, usually refers to the Babylonian Talmud. Satellite image of the Land of Israel in January 2003. ... Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ...


Talmud Yerushalmi (Jerusalem Talmud)

Main article: Jerusalem Talmud
A page of a medieval Jerusalem Talmud manuscript, from the Cairo Genizah.
A page of a medieval Jerusalem Talmud manuscript, from the Cairo Genizah.

The Jerusalem Talmud, also known as the Palestinian Talmud, was one of the two compilations of Jewish religious teachings and commentary that was transmitted orally for centuries prior to its compilation by Jewish scholars in Palestine.[3] It is a compilation of teachings of the schools of Tiberias, Sepphoris and Caesarea. It is written largely in a western Aramaic dialect that differs from its Babylonian counterpart. The Jerusalem Talmud (In Hebrew Talmud Yerushalmi, in short known as the Yerushalmi), also known as the Palestinian Talmud, like its Babylonian counterpart (see Babylonian Talmud), is a collection of Rabbinic discussions elaborating on the Mishnah. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Cairo Geniza is an accumulation of Jewish manuscripts written from about 870 to as late as 1880 CE, that were found in the geniza of the synagogue of Fustat (Old Cairo), Egypt (built 882), the Busatin cemetery east of Old Cairo, and a number of old documents that were... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ...


This Talmud is a synopsis of the analysis of the Mishnah that was developed over the course of nearly 200 years by the Academies in Israel (principally those of Tiberias and Caesaria.) Because of their location, the sages of these Academies devoted considerable attention to analysis of the agricultural laws of the Land of Israel. Traditionally, this Talmud was thought to have been redacted in about the year 350 C.E. by Rav Muna and Rav Yossi in the Land of Israel. It is traditionally known as the Talmud Yerushalmi ("Jerusalem Talmud"), but the name is a misnomer, as it was not prepared in Jerusalem. It has more accurately been called the The Talmud of the Land of Israel[citation needed]. It has also often been referred to as the Palestinian Talmud, especially in sources that predate the Israeli-Palestine conflict. Hebrew טבריה (Standard) Teverya Arabic طبرية Government City District North Population 39 900 (a) Jurisdiction 10 000 dunams (10 km²) Tiberias (British English: ; American English: ; Hebrew: , Tverya; Arabic: , abariyyah) is a town on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee, Lower Galilee, Israel. ... Caesarea is the name of several Roman cities and towns, including: Caesarea Antiochia in Turkey Caesarea Mauretania (Cherchell) in Algeria Caesarea Mazaca (Kaisarieh) in Turkey Caesarea Palaestina (Qesarriya) in Israel Caesarea Philippi in the Golan Heights This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might...


Its final redaction probably belongs to the end of the fourth century, but the individual scholars who brought it to its present form cannot be fixed with assurance. By this time Christianity had become the state religion of the Roman Empire and Jerusalem the holy city of Christendom. In 325 CE Constantine, the first Christian emperor, said “let us have nothing in common with this odious people”. This policy made a Jew an outcast and pauper. The compilers of the Jerusalem Talmud consequently lacked the time to produce a work of the quality they had intended. The text is evidently incomplete and is not easy to follow. Any further work on the Jerusalem Talmud probably came to an abrupt end in 425 C.E., when Theodosius II suppressed the Patriarchate and put an end to the practice of formal scholarly ordination. Theodosius II Flavius Theodosius II (April, 401 - July 28, 450 ). The eldest son of Eudoxia and Arcadius who at the age of 7 became the Roman Emperor of the East. ... Nāśī’ (נָשִׂיא) is a Hebrew term meaning, roughly, Prince. In classical times it was the title given to the head of the Sanhedrin, the supreme court and legislative body of ancient Israel. ... Semicha (Hebrew: ‎, leaning [of the hands]), also semichut (Hebrew: ‎, ordination), or semicha lerabbanut (Hebrew: ‎, rabbinical ordination) is derived from a Hebrew word which means to rely on or to be authorized. It generally refers to the ordination of a rabbi within Judaism. ...


Despite this, the Jerusalem Talmud remains an indispensable source of knowledge of the development of the Jewish Law in the Holy Land. It was also an important resource in the study of the Babylonian Talmud by the Kairouan school of Hananel ben Hushiel and Nissim Gaon, with the result that opinions ultimately based on the Jerusalem Talmud found their way into both the Tosafot and the Mishneh Torah of Maimonides. Kairouan (Arabic القيروان) (also known as Kairwan, Kayrawan, Al Qayrawan) is a muslim holy city which ranks after Mecca and Medina as a place of pilgrimage. ... Chananel Ben Chushiel (or Rabbeinu Chananel), 990-1053) was a rabbi and one of the last Geonim. ... Rabbi Nissim Ben Jacob (Rav Nissim Gaon, 990-1062) is best known today for his Talmudic commentary HaMafteach. ... Tosafists were medieval rabbis who collected commentaries on the Talmud, and appear in virtually every edition since it was first printed. ... The Mishneh Torah or Yad ha-Chazaka is a code of Jewish law by one of the most important Jewish authorities, Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, better known as Maimonides or by the Hebrew abbreviation RaMBaM (usually written Rambam in English). ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ...


There are traditions that hold that in the Messianic Age the Jerusalem Talmud will have priority over the Babylonian. This may be interpreted as meaning that, following the restoration of the Sanhedrin and the line of ordained scholars, the work will be completed and "out of Zion shall go the Law, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem". For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ... Semicha (Hebrew: ‎, leaning [of the hands]), also semichut (Hebrew: ‎, ordination), or semicha lerabbanut (Hebrew: ‎, rabbinical ordination) is derived from a Hebrew word which means to rely on or to be authorized. It generally refers to the ordination of a rabbi within Judaism. ...


Talmud Bavli (Babylonian Talmud)

The Talmud Bavli was transmitted orally for centuries prior to its compilation by Jewish scholars in Babylon about the 5th century AD.[4]

A full set of the Babylonian Talmud.
A full set of the Babylonian Talmud.

Since the Exile to Babylonia in 586 BCE, there had been Jewish communities living in Babylonia as well as in Judea, as many of the captives never returned home. From then till the Talmudic period the Babylonian Jewish population increased through natural growth as well as migration. The most important of the Jewish centres were Nehardea, Nisibis, Mahoza, Pumbeditha and Sura. It was no longer necessary for scholars to travel regularly to Israel to gather authentic traditions. Nehardea or Nehardeah was a city of Babylonia, situated at or near the junction of the Euphrates with the Nahr Malka; one of the earliest centers of Babylonian Judaism. ... The newly excavated Church of Saint Jacob in Nisibis. ... Location of Al-Madain, Iraq Great arch of Taq-i Kisra, 1921 Al-Madain (Arabic المدائن Two cities, also known under the Aramaic name Mahoze, or as Madayn) is the name of an ancient urban complex along the Tigris, in present-day Iraq, that was the site of the... Pumbedita (sometimes Pumbeditha, Pumbeditha, Pumpedita) was the name of a city in ancient Babylonia that was a major center of Talmud scholarship, that together with the city of Sura, gave rise to the Babylonian Talmud. ... Sura (sometimes spelt Surah , plural Suwar ) is an Arabic term literally meaning something enclosed or surrounded by a fence or wall. ...


Talmud Bavli (the "Babylonian Talmud") comprises the Mishnah and the Babylonian Gemara, the latter representing the culmination of more than 300 years of analysis of the Mishnah in the Babylonian Academies. The foundations of this process of analysis were laid by Rab, a disciple of Rabbi Judah ha-Nasi. Tradition ascribes the compilation of the Babylonian Talmud in its present form to two Babylonian sages, Rav Ashi and Ravina. Ashi was president of the Sura Academy from 375 to 427 CE. The work begun by Ashi was completed by Ravina, who is traditionally regarded as the final Amoraic expounder. Accordingly, traditionalists argue that Ravina’s death in 499 CE is the latest possible date for the completion of the redaction of the Talmud. However, even on the most traditional view a few passages are regarded as the work of a group of rabbis who edited the Talmud after the end of the Amoraic period, known as the Saboraim or Rabbanan Savora'e (meaning "reasoners" or "considerers"). The Talmudic Academies in Babylonia were the center for Jewish scholarship and the development of Jewish law in Mesopotamia and had a great and lasting impact on the development of world Jewry. ... Abba Arika, the name of the Babylonian amora of the 3rd century, who established at Sura the systematic study of the Rabbinic traditions which, using the Mishnah as text, led to the compilation of the Talmud. ... Ashi, known as Rav Ashi (Rabbi Ashi), (352–427) was a celebrated Jewish religious scholar, aBabylonian amora, who reestablished the academy at Sura and was first editor of the Babylonian Talmud. ... Ravina II was a rabbi of the Talmud who, in 475 CE, together with his teacher Rav Ashi, collected and commented upon the Gemara of what would henceforth be known as the Babylonian Talmud. ... A savora (Aramaic: סבורא, plural savoraim, saboraim, סבוראים) is a term used in Jewish law and history to signify the leading rabbis living from the end of period of the Amoraim (around 500 CE) to the beginning of the Geonim (around 700 CE). ...


The question as to when the Gemara was finally put into its present form is not settled among modern scholars. Some, like Louis Jacobs, argue that the main body of the Gemara is not simple reportage of conversations, as it purports to be, but a highly elaborate structure contrived by the Saboraim, who must therefore be regarded as the real authors. On this view the text did not reach its final form until around 700. Some modern scholars use the term Stammaim (from the Hebrew Stam, meaning "closed", "vague" or "unattributed") for the authors of unattributed statements in the Gemara. (See eras within Jewish law.) Louis Jacobs (born 1920) is a Masorti rabbi in England, the first leader of Masorti Judaism (also known as Conservative Judaism) in the UK, best known as the central focus of events in the early 1960s that came to be known as The Jacobs Affair. Jacobs was ordained as an... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה ; alternate transliterations include Halocho and Halacha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions. ...


Comparison of style and subject matter

There are significant differences between the two Talmud compilations. The language of the Jerusalem Talmud is a western Aramaic dialect which differs from that of the Babylonian. The Talmud Yerushalmi is often fragmentary and difficult to read, even for experienced Talmudists. The redaction of the Talmud Bavli, on the other hand, is more careful and precise. The law as laid down in the two compilations is basically similar, except in emphasis and in minor details. The Jerusalem Talmud has not received much attention from commentators, and such traditional commentaries as exist are mostly concerned with comparing its teachings to those of the Talmud Bavli.


The Jerusalem Talmud was never completed, as work on it was abruptly broken off in 425 C.E. In the Bavli, however, Gemara exists only for 37 out of the 63 tractates of the Mishnah: most laws from the Orders Zeraim (agricultural laws limited to the land of Israel) and Toharot (ritual purity laws related to the Temple and sacrificial system) had little practical relevance in Babylonia and were therefore not included. The Yerushalmi, by contrast, covers all the tractates of Zeraim.


The Babylonian Talmud records the opinions of the rabbis of Israel as well as of those of Babylonia, while the Jerusalem Talmud seldom cites Babylonian authority. The Babylonian version also contains the opinions of more generations because of its later date of completion. For these reasons it is regarded as a more comprehensive collection of the opinions available.


The influence of the Babylonian Talmud has been far greater than that of the Yerushalmi. In the main, this is because the influence and prestige of the Jewish community of Israel steadily declined in contrast with the Babylonian community in the years after the redaction of the Talmud and continuing until the Gaonic era. Furthermore, the editing of the Babylonian Talmud was superior to that of the Jerusalem version, making it more accessible and readily usable. According to Maimonides, all Jewish communities during the Gaonic era formally accepted the Babylonian Talmud as binding upon themselves, and modern Jewish practice follows the Babylonian Talmud's conclusions on all areas in which the two Talmuds are in conflict. For rabbis of different epochs bearing the Gaon title see Gaon. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ...


Language

The Babylonian Talmud, comprising both the Mishnah and the Gemara, contains large swaths of both Hebrew and Aramaic. The central portion is in Hebrew.[5] The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... The Gemara (also Gemora) (גמרא - from gamar: Aramaic [to] study) is the part of the Talmud that contains rabbinical commentaries and analysis of its predecessor, the Mishnah. ...


While Aramaic and Arabic were spoken for a long time by ancient Jews, Hebrew, in various forms and at various historical stages, was also continuously used. Hebrew was used for the writing of religious texts, poetry, and so forth, as well as for speech. Even after the introduction of Aramaic, and its influence on Late Biblical Hebrew, Hebrew continued to develop, and today scholars use terms like Mishnaic/Rabbinic Hebrew and Medieval Hebrew.[6] Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... The word Hebrew most likely means to cross over, referring to the Semitic people crossing over the Euphrates River. ...


Not only the Mishnah, but also all the Baraitas quoted and embedded in the Gemara, are in Hebrew, so that Hebrew constitutes somewhat less than half[citation needed] of the text of the Talmud. The rest, including the discussions of the Amoraim and the overall framework, is in a characteristic dialect of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic. There are occasional quotations from older works in other dialects of Aramaic, such as Megillat Taanit. Talmudic Aramaic literally refers to the Aramaic language as found in the Talmud. ... Megillat Taanit (Hebrew: מגילת תענית) is chronicle which enumerates 35 eventful days on which the Jewish nation either performed glorious deeds or witnessed joyful events. ...


Printing

The first complete edition of the Babylonian Talmud was printed in Italy by Daniel Bomberg during the 16th century. In addition to the Mishnah and Gemara, Bomberg's edition contained the commentaries of Rashi and Tosafot. Almost all printings since Bomberg have followed the same pagination. The edition of the Talmud published by the Szapira brothers in Slavuta in 1795 is particularly prized by many hasidic rebbes. In 1835, after an acrimonious dispute with the Szapira family, a new edition of the Talmud was printed by Menachem Romm of Vilna. Known as the Vilna Shas. This edition (and later ones printed by his widow and sons) has been used in the production of more recent editions of Talmud Bavli. For other uses, see Print. ... Daniel Bomberg (d. ... A 16th-century depiction of Rashi Note: For the astrological concept, see Rashi - the signs. ... Tosafists were medieval rabbis who collected commentaries on the Talmud, and appear in virtually every edition since it was first printed. ... Slavuta (Ukrainian: Славута, Polish: Sławuta) is a town in Ukraine, located in Khmelnytskyi Oblast at 50º18 26º52, 80 km from Khmelnytskyi. ... Hasidic Judaism (Hebrew: Chasidut חסידות) is a Haredi Jewish religious movement. ... For the tanna, see Judah HaNasi. ... By far the most common edition of the Talmud is the Vilna Edition. ...


A page number in the Talmud refers to a double-sided page, known as a daf; each daf has two amudim labeled א and ב, sides A and B. The referencing by daf is relatively recent and dates from the early Talmud printings of the 17th century. Earlier rabbinic literature generally only refers to the tractate or chapters within a tractate. Nowadays, reference is made in format [Tractate daf a/b] (e.g. Berachot 23b). In the Vilna edition of the Talmud there are 5,894 folio pages. Rabbinic literature, in the broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of Judaisms rabbinic writing/s throughout history. ...


The text of the Vilna editions is considered by scholars not to be uniformly reliable. In the early twentieth century Nathan Rabinowitz published a series of volumes called Dikduke Soferim showing textual variants from early manuscripts and printings, and in recent decades the Institute for the Complete Israeli Talmud has started a similar project under the name of Gemara Shelemah. There have been critical editions of particular tractates (e.g. Henry Malter's edition of Ta'anit), but there is no modern critical edition of the whole Talmud. The most recent edition is by the Oz ve-Hadar institute: this is basically an updated version of the Vilna edition, but cites variant texts in footnotes. Henry Malter (born at Zabno, Galicia, March 23, 1867, died 1925) was an American rabbi and scholar. ...


Commentary and study

From the time of its completion, the Talmud became integral to Jewish scholarship. This section outlines some of the major areas of Talmudic study.


The Geonim

The earliest Talmud commentaries were written by the Geonim (approximately 800-1000, C.E.) in Babylonia. Although some direct commentaries on particular treatises are extant, our main knowledge of Gaonic era Talmud scholarship comes from statements embedded in Geonic responsa which shed light on Talmudic passages. After the death of Hai Gaon, however, the center of Talmud scholarship shifts to Europe and North Africa. Geonim (also Gaonim) (גאונים) (Singular: Gaon [גאון] meaning pride in Biblical Hebrew and genius in modern Hebrew) were the rabbis who were the Jewish Talmudic sages who were the generally accepted spiritual leaders of the Jewish community in the early medieval era, in contrast to the Resh Galuta/ Exilarch who wielded secular... Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Rabbi (or Rav) Hai Gaon (969-1038) was one of the last geonim (rabbinic authorities of the early Middle Ages). ...


Halakhic and Aggadic Extractions

One area of Talmudic scholarship developed out of the need to ascertain the Halakha. Early commentators such as Rabbi Isaac Alfasi (North Africa, 1013-1103) attempted to extract and determine the binding legal opinions from the vast corpus of the Talmud. Alfasi's work was highly influential and later served as a basis for the creation of halakhic codes. Another influential medieval Halakhic commentary was that of Rabbi Asher ben Yechiel (d. 1327). Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה ; alternate transliterations include Halocho and Halacha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions. ... Rabbi Isaac ben Jacob Alfasi (1013 - 1103) - also Isaac Hakohen, Alfasi or the Rif (ריף) - was a Talmudist and posek (decisor in matters of halakha - Jewish law). ... Asher ben Jehiel (or Rabeinu Osher ben Yechiel) (1250? 1259?-1328), an eminent rabbi and Talmudist often known by his Hebrew acronym the ROSH (literally Head), was born in western Germany and died in Toledo, Spain. ...


A fifteenth century Spanish rabbi, Jacob ibn Habib (d. 1516), composed the Ein Yaakov. Ein Yaakov (or Ein Ya'aqob) extracts nearly all the Aggadic material from the Talmud. It was intended to familiarize the public with the ethical parts of the Talmud and to dispute many of the accusations surrounding its contents. Jacob ben Solomon ibn Habib (ca. ... Ein Yaakov is a compilation of all the Aggadic material in the Talmud together with commentaries. ... Aggadah (Aramaic אגדה: tales, lore; pl. ...


Commentaries

Main article: Rabbinic literature

The Talmud is often cryptic and difficult to understand. Its language contains many Greek and Persian words which over time became obscure. A major area of Talmudic scholarship developed in order to explain these passages and words. Some early commentators such as Rabbenu Gershom of Mainz (10th c.) and Rabbenu Hananel (early 11th c.) produced running commentaries to various tractates. These commentaries could be read with the text of the Talmud and would help explain the meaning of the text. Another important work is the Sefer ha-Mafteach (Book of the Key) by Nissim Gaon, which contains a preface explaining the different forms of Talmudic argumentation and then explains abbreviated passages in the Talmud by cross-referring to parallel passages where the same thought is expressed in full. Using a different style, Rabbi Nathan b. Jechiel created a lexicon called the Arukh in the 11th century in order to translate difficult words. Rabbinic literature, in the broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of Judaisms rabbinic writing/s throughout history. ... Gershom ben Judah best known as Rabbeinu Gershom (in Hebrew: Our teacher Gershom) (c. ... Chananel Ben Chushiel (or Rabbeinu Chananel), 990-1053) was a rabbi and one of the last Geonim. ... Rabbi Nissim Ben Jacob (Rav Nissim Gaon, 990-1062) is best known today for his Talmudic commentary HaMafteach. ... Nathan ben Jehiel of Rome (Hebrew: נתן בן יחיאל מרומי) (ca. ...


By far the best known commentary on the Babylonian Talmud is that of Rashi (Rabbi Solomon ben Isaac, 1040-1105). The commentary is comprehensive, covering almost the entire Talmud. Written as a running commentary, it provides a full explanation of the words, and explains the logical structure of each Talmudic passage. It is considered indispensable to students of the Talmud. A 16th-century depiction of Rashi Note: For the astrological concept, see Rashi - the signs. ...


Medieval Ashkenazic Jewry produced another major commentary known as Tosafot ("additions" or "supplements"). The Tosafot are collected commentaries by various medieval Ashkenazic Rabbis on the Talmud (known as Tosafists). One of the main goals of the Tosafot is to explain and interpret contradictory statements in the Talmud. Unlike Rashi, the Tosafot is not a running commentary, but rather comments on selected matters. Often the explanations of Tosafot differ from those of Rashi. Tosafists were medieval rabbis who collected commentaries on the Talmud, and appear in virtually every edition since it was first printed. ... Tosafists were medieval rabbis who created critical and explanatory glosses on the Talmud. ...


Among the founders of the Tosafist school were Rabbi Jacob b. Meir (known as Rabbeinu Tam), who was a grandson of Rashi, and, Rabbenu Tam's nephew, Rabbi Isaac ben Samuel. The Tosafot commentaries were collected in different editions in the various schools. The benchmark collection of Tosafot for Northern France was that of R. Eliezer of Touques. The standard collection for Spain was that of Rabbenu Asher ("Tosafot Harosh"). The Tosafot that are printed in the standard Vilna edition of the Talmud are an edited version of one or another of the medieval collections.[7] Rabbeinu Tam (רבינו תם) (real name Rabbeinu Yaakov, or Jacob in English) was the son of Rabbeinu Meir and his wife Yochebed. ... Isaac ben Samuel the Elder of Dampierre (Hebrew: יצחק הזקן בן שמואל) , known as the or Ri (רי הזקן) was a French tosafist and Biblical commentator. ... Asher ben Jehiel (or Rabeinu Osher ben Yechiel) (1250? 1259?-1328), an eminent rabbi and Talmudist often known by his Hebrew acronym the ROSH (literally Head), was born in western Germany and died in Toledo, Spain. ...


Over time, the approach of the Tosafists spread to other Jewish communities, particularly those in Spain. This led to the composition of many other commentaries in similar styles. Among these are the commentaries of Ramban, Rashba, Ritva and Ran. A comprehensive anthology consisting of extracts from all these is the Shittah Mekubbetzet of Bezalel Ashkenazi. Nahmanides is the common name for Moshe ben Nahman Gerondi; the name is a Greek translation of the Hebrew Ben Nahman, meaning Son of Nahman. He is also commomly known as Ramban, being an acronym of his Hebrew name and title, Rabbi Moshe ben Nahman, and by his Catalan name... Shlomo ben Aderet (or Solomon son of Aderet) (1235-1310), universally known to scholars of Judaism as the Rashba (the acronym for his Hebrew name), was a Medieval rabbi, Halakhist, and famous Talmudist. ... Yom Tov Asevilli or Yom Tov ben Avraham Asevilli (or Yom Tov the son of Abraham Asevilli), (1250-1330), who is commonly known to scholars of Judaism as the Ritva (an acronym of his Hebrew name), was a Medieval rabbi and Halakhist famous for his commentary on the Talmud. ... Rabbi Nissim ben Reuven (1320 - 1380) of Girona was an influential talmudist and authority in Jewish law. ... Bezalel Ashkenazi was a rabbi and scholar of the Talmud during the 16th century in Israel. ...


There were other commentaries produced in Spain and Provence which were not influenced by the Tosafist style. Two of the most significant of these are the Yad Ramah by Rabbi Meir Abulafia (uncle of the mystic Abraham Abulafia) and Bet Habechirah by Rabbi Menahem haMeiri, commonly referred to as "Meiri". While the Bet Habechirah is extant for all of Talmud, we only have the Yad Ramah for Tractates Sanhedrin, Baba Batra and Gittin. Meir ben Todros HaLevi Abulafia (ca. ... “Abulafia” redirects here. ... Rabbi Menachem Meiri (1249-c. ...


In later centuries, focus partially shifted from direct Talmudic interpretation to the analysis of previously written Talmudic commentaries. These later commentaries include "Maharshal" (Solomon Luria), "Maharam" (Meir Lublin) and "Maharsha" (Samuel Edels) Rabbi Solomon Luria (1510-1574), was one of the great Ashkenazic poskim (decisors of Jewish law) and teachers of his time. ... Rabbi Meir Lublin, Meir ben Gedalia (1558-1616), was a Polish rabbi, Talmudist and Posek - decisor of Jewish law. ... Samuel Edels (1555–1631), was a renowned rabbi and Talmudist famous for his commentary on the Talmud, Chiddushei Halachot. ...


Pilpul

During the 15th and 16th centuries, a new intensive form of Talmud study arose. Complicated logical arguments were used to explain minor points of contradiction within the Talmud. The term pilpul (related to the Hebrew word pilpel, meaning "spice" or "pepper"[8] ) was applied to this type of study. Usage of pilpul in this sense (that of "sharp analysis") harks back to the Talmudic era and refers to the intellectual sharpness this method demanded. Pilpul (Hebrew: פילפול, loosely meaning sharp analysis) refers to a method of studying the Talmud through intense textual analysis in attempts to either explain conceptual differences between various halakhic rulings or to reconcile any apparent contradictions presented from various readings of different texts. ...


Pilpul practitioners posited that the Talmud could contain no redundancy or contradiction whatsoever. New categories and distinctions (hillukim) were therefore created, resolving seeming contradictions within the Talmud by novel logical means.


Among Sephardi and Italian Jews some authorities sought to apply the methods of Aristotelian logic, as reformulated by Averroes.[9] This method was first recorded, though without explicit reference to Aristotle, by Isaac Campanton (d. Spain, 1463) in his Darkhei ha-Talmud ("The Ways of the Talmud"), and is also found in the works of Moses Chaim Luzzatto. Language(s) Hebrew, Ladino, Judæo-Portuguese, Catalanic, Shuadit, local languages Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions, Arabs, Spaniards, Portuguese. ... // Under the Roman Empire See also: Jewish-Roman wars The first definite appearance of Jews in the history of Italy was that of the embassy sent by Simon Maccabeus to Rome to strengthen the alliance with the Romans against the Syrians. ... Aristotelian logic, also known as syllogistic logic, is the particular type of logic created by Aristotle, primarily in his works Prior Analytics and De Interpretatione. ... Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes (1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ... Isaac ben Jacob Campanton (1360-1463) (Hebrew: יצחק קנפנטון) was a Spanish rabbi. ... Tsiyun of the Ramhal in Tiberias, ir haqodesh ttbba, Israel. ...


In the Ashkenazi world the founders of pilpul are generally considered to be Jacob Pollak (1460-1541) and Shalom Shachna. This kind of study reached its height in the 16th and 17th centuries when expertise in pilpulistic analysis was considered an art form and became a goal in and of itself within the yeshivot of Poland and Lithuania. But the popular new method of Talmud study was not without critics; already in the 15th century, the ethical tract Orhot Zaddikim ("Lights of the Righteous" in Hebrew) criticized pilpul for an overemphasis on intellectual acuity. Many 16th- and 17th-century rabbis were also critical of pilpul. Among them may be noted Judah Loew b. Bezalel (the Maharal), Isaiah Horowitz, and Jair Hayyim Bacharach. Language(s) Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian, English Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia Jacob Pollak was the founder of the Polish method of halakic and Talmudic study known as the Pilpul; born about 1460; died at Lublin 1541. ... Rabbi Shalom Shachna (? - 1558), was a Talmudist well known as the Rosh Yeshiva of several great Rishonim including Moses Isserles, who was also his son in law. ... Judah Low ben Bezalel (1525 — 1609) was a Jewish scholar and rabbi, most of his life in Prague. ... Isaiah Horowitz (c. ... Yair Chayim Bacharach (1639—1702), German rabbi, was the author of Havvot Yair (a collection of Responsa) and other works. ...


By the 18th century, pilpul study waned. Other styles of learning such as that of the school of Elijah b. Solomon, the Vilna Gaon, became popular. The term "pilpul" was increasingly applied derogatorily to novellae deemed casuistic and hairsplitting. Authors referred to their own commentaries as "al derekh ha-peshat" (by the simple method) to contrast them with pilpul.[10] Elijah Ben Solomon, the Vilna Gaon The Vilna Gaon (April 23, 1720 – October 9, 1797) was a prominent Jewish rabbi, Talmud scholar, and Kabbalist. ...


Brisker method

In the late nineteenth century another trend in Talmud study arose. Rabbi Hayyim Soloveitchik (1853-1918) of Brisk (Brest-Litovsk) developed and refined this style of study. Brisker method involves the analysis of rabbinic arguments within the Talmud or among the Rishonim, explaining the differing opinions by placing them within a categorical structure. The Brisker method is highly analytical and is often criticized as being a modern-day version of Pilpul. Nevertheless, the influence of the Brisker method is great. Most modern day Yeshivot study the Talmud using the Brisker method in some form. One feature of this method is the use of Maimonides' Mishneh Torah as a guide to Talmudic interpretation, as distinct from its use as a source of practical halakha. Chaim (Halevi) Soloveitchik (חיים סולובייציק) (also known as Reb Chaim Brisker), (1853-July 30, 1918) was a rabbi and Talmudic scholar credited as the founder of the Brisk yeshivas and of an approach to Talmudic study within Judaism. ... The Brisk yeshivas and methods refers to the movement and to the adoption of the Brisker method of Talmudic study, originated by the Soloveitchik dynasty of rabbinic scholars and their students. ... Rishonim (ראשונים Hebrew - sing. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... The Mishneh Torah or Yad ha-Chazaka is a code of Jewish law by one of the most important Jewish authorities, Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, better known as Maimonides or by the Hebrew abbreviation RaMBaM (usually written Rambam in English). ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה ; alternate transliterations include Halocho and Halacha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions. ...


Rival methods were those of the Mir and Telz yeshivas. Not to be confused with Mir yeshiva (Brooklyn). ... Telshe yeshiva (Rabbinical College of Telshe) or Telshe or Telz, was one of many great Lithuanian yeshivas that were founded before the epochs that made them famous. ...


Critical method

As a result of emancipation from the ghetto (1789), Judaism underwent enormous upheaval and transformation during the nineteenth century, (see Reform Judaism, Haskala). Modern methods of textual and historical analysis were applied to the Talmud. Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia Haskalah (from the Hebrew word sekhel, meaning intellect) was the movement among European Jews in the late 18th century that advocated adopting enlightenment values, pressing for better integration into European society, and increasing secular knowledge, Hebrew language, and...


Textual emendations

The text of the Talmud has been subject to some level of critical scrutiny throughout its history. [11]


The emendations of R. Solomon Luria and R. Yoel Sirkis are included in all standard editions of the Talmud. The Vilna Gaon emended many texts by genius alone. Many of the Gaon's emendations were later verified by the discovery of the Cairo Genizah. (See Solomon Schechter, Studies in Judaism.) Rabbi Solomon Luria (1510-1574), was one of the great Ashkenazic poskim (decisors of Jewish law) and teachers of his time. ... Yoel Sirkis (1561-1640) was a rabbi and halakhist (Authority on Jewish law) known to scholars of Judaism. ... Elijah Ben Solomon, the Vilna Gaon The Vilna Gaon (April 23, 1720 – October 9, 1797) was a prominent Jewish rabbi, Talmud scholar, and Kabbalist. ... The Cairo Geniza is an accumulation of Jewish manuscripts written from about 870 to as late as 1880 CE, that were found in the geniza of the synagogue of Fustat (Old Cairo), Egypt (built 882), the Busatin cemetery east of Old Cairo, and a number of old documents that were...


In the nineteenth century R. Raphael Nathan Nota Rabinovicz published a multi-volume work entitled Dikdukei Soferim, showing textual variants from the Munich and other early manuscripts of the Talmud, and further variants are recorded in the Gemara Shelemah and Oz ve-Hadar editions (see Printing, above).


Historical analysis

During the early 19th century, leaders of the Reform movement, such as Abraham Geiger and Samuel Holdheim, subjected the Talmud to severe scrutiny as part of an effort to break with traditional rabbinic Judaism. They insisted that the Talmud was entirely a work of evolution and development. The proponents of the more moderate tendency known as "positive-historical Judaism", notably Nachman Krochmal and Zacharias Frankel, developed a new understanding of the Oral Torah. They described the Oral Torah as the result of a historical and exegetical process, emerging over time, through the application of authorized exegetical techniques, and more importantly, the subjective dispositions and personalities and current historical conditions, by learned sages. This position was known as the Historical-Critical school. This was later developed more fully in the five volume work Dor Dor ve-Dorshav by Isaac Hirsch Weiss. (See Jay Harris Guiding the Perplexed in the Modern Age Ch. 5) This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Samuel Holdheim (1806–1860) was a German rabbi and author; leader of the extreme wing of the early Reform Judaism movement. ... Nachman Kohen Krochmal (born in Brody, Galicia, on February 17, 1785; died at Tarnopol on July 31, 1840) was an Austrian philosopher, theologian, and historian. ... Zecharias Frankel was a Bohemian-German rabbi and a historian who studied the historical development of Judaism. ... Portrait of Isaac Hirsch Weiss, from 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia. ...


Another aspect of this movement is reflected in Graetz's History of the Jews. Graetz attempts to deduce the personality of the Pharisees based on the laws or aggadot that they cite, and show that their personalities influenced the laws they expounded. This is only a valid method if one looks upon the Pharisees as independent exegetes rather than as transmitters of the Oral Law. Heinrich Graetz ( October 31, 1817 - September 7, 1891) was the first historian in the modern times who wrote a comprehensive history of the Jewish people from a Jewish perspective. ... For the followers of the Vilna Gaon, see Perushim. ...


This clashes with the traditional understanding of the nature of the Oral Law. The traditional understanding is that in addition to the written law (the Bible), God communicated to Moses additional amplifications and explanations that were passed down orally until written in the Talmud. According to this belief, any attempt to trace a historical "evolution of Halacha" (with the exception of several later enactments) would be erroneous.


See Rashi to Leviticus Ch. 25 V. 1 (quoting a Sifra): A 16th-century depiction of Rashi Note: For the astrological concept, see Rashi - the signs. ... Sifra (Aramaic: סִפְרָא) is a Halakic midrash to Leviticus. ...

"However, this teaches us that just as the Sabbatical year, its general principles and its finer details were all stated at Sinai, likewise, all of the laws were stated, their general principles together with their finer details were stated at Sinai"

Because the modern method of historical study had its origins in the era of religious reform, the method was immediately controversial within the Orthodox world. In reaction, some Orthodox leaders such as Moses Sofer (the Chatam Sofer) became exquisitely sensitive to any change and rejected modern critical methods of Talmud study. Rabbi Moses ben Samuel Sofer or Schreiber, also known by his main work Hatam Sofer or the Chasam Soifer (שות חתם סופר - Responsa the Seal of the Scribe), was one of the leading rabbis of European Jewry in the first half of the nineteenth century. ...


The leader of Orthodox Jewry in Germany Samson Raphael Hirsch, while not rejecting the methods of scholarship in principle, hotly contested the findings of the Historical-Critical method. In a series of articles in his magazine Jeschurun (reprinted in Collected Writings Vol. 5) Hirsch reiterated the traditional view and pointed out numerous errors in the works of Graetz, Frankel and Geiger. Rabbi S.R. Hirsch Rabbi Dr. Samson Raphael Hirsch (June 20, 1808 – December 31, 1888) was the intellectual founder of the Torah im Derech Eretz school of contemporary Orthodox Judaism. ...


On the other hand, many of the nineteenth century's strongest critics of Reform, including strictly orthodox Rabbis such as Zvi Hirsch Chajes, utilized this new scientific method. The Orthodox Rabbinical seminary of Azriel Hildesheimer was founded on the idea of creating a "harmony between Judaism and science". Another Orthodox pioneer of scientific Talmud study was David Zvi Hoffman. Zvi Hirsch Chajes (November 20, 1805 – October 12, 1855) was one of the foremost Galician talmudic scholars. ... Israel Azriel Hildesheimer (May 20, 1820 – July 12, 1899) was a German rabbi and leader of Orthodox Judaism. ... Rabbi David Zvi Hoffman lived from 1843- 1921 He was the leading authority on traditional Jewish Law (halacha) in Germany in his lifetime and was also well known for his efforts to disproof the Documentary Hypothesis as expressed by the Graf-Welhausen theory. ...


Contemporary scholarship

Some trends within contemporary Talmud scholarship are listed below.

  • Orthodox Judaism maintains that the oral law was revealed together with the written law. As such, Orthodox Judaism has resisted any effort to apply the historical method to the Talmud. It also resists imputing motives to the authors of the Talmud.
  • Some non-Orthodox scholars hold that there has been extensive editorial reshaping of the stories and statements within the Talmud. Lacking outside confirming texts, they hold that we cannot confirm the origin or date of most statements and laws, and that we can say little for certain about their authorship. In this view, the questions above are impossible to answer. See, for example, the works of Louis Jacobs and Shaye J.D. Cohen.
  • Some scholars hold that the Talmud has been extensively shaped by later editorial redaction, but that it contains sources which we can identify and describe with some level of reliability. In this view, sources can be identified by tracing the history and analyzing the geographical regions of origin. See, for example, the works of Lee I. Levine and David C. Kraemer.
  • Some scholars hold that many or most the statements and events described in the Talmud usually occurred more or less as described, and that they can be used as serious sources of historical study. In this view, historians do their best to tease out later editorial additions (itself a very difficult task) and skeptically view accounts of miracles, leaving behind a reliable historical text. See, for example, the works of Saul Lieberman, David Weiss Halivni, and Avraham Goldberg.

Modern academic study attempts to separate the different "strata" within the text, to try to interpret each level on its own, and to identify the correlations between parallel versions of the same tradition. Louis Jacobs (born 1920) is a Masorti rabbi in England, the first leader of Masorti Judaism (also known as Conservative Judaism) in the UK, best known as the central focus of events in the early 1960s that came to be known as The Jacobs Affair. Jacobs was ordained as an... Shaye J. D. Cohen is the Littauer Professor of Hebrew Literature and Philosophy in the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations of Harvard University. ... Lee I. Levine is a Talmud scholar and historian of classical Judaism. ... Saul Lieberman (1898-1983), also known as The Grash (Gaon Rabbeinu Shaul), was a rabbi and a scholar of Talmud. ... Rabbi David Weiss Halivni is a scholar of Talmud and a Holocaust survivor, originally of Sighet, Romania. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In recent years, the work of R. David Weiss Halivni and Dr. Shamma Friedman has resulted in a paradigm shift in the understanding of the Talmud. (Encyclopedia Judaica 2nd ed. entry Talmud,Babylonian) The traditional understanding was to view the Talmud as a unified homogeneous work. While other scholars had also treated the Talmud as a multi-layered work, Dr. Halivni's innovation (primarily in the second volume of his Mekorot u-Mesorot) was to differentiate between the Amoraic statements which are generally brief Halachic decisions or inquiries, and the writings of the later "Stammaitic" (or Saboraic) authors which are characterised by a much longer analysis often consisting of lengthy dialectic discussion. It has been noted that the Jerusalem Talmud is in fact very similar to the Babylonian Talmud minus Stammaitic activity (Encyclopaedia Judaica (2nd ed.), entry "Jerusalem Talmud"). Rabbi David Weiss Halivni is a scholar of Talmud and a Holocaust survivor, originally of Sighet, Romania. ...


Shamma Y. Friedman's Talmud Aruch on the sixth chapter of Bava Metzia (1996) is the first example of a complete analysis of a Talmudic text using this method. S. Wald has followed with works on Pesachim ch. 3 (2000) and Shabbat ch. 7 (2006).


Role of the Talmud in Judaism

The Talmud is the written record of an oral tradition. It became the basis for many rabbinic legal codes and customs, of which the most important are the Mishneh Torah and the Shulchan Aruch. Orthodox and, to a lesser extent, Conservative Judaism accept the Talmud as authoritative, while Reconstructionist and Reform Judaism do not. This section briefly outlines past and current movements and their view of the Talmud's role. The Mishneh Torah or Yad ha-Chazaka is a code of Jewish law by one of the most important Jewish authorities, Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, better known as Maimonides or by the Hebrew abbreviation RaMBaM (usually written Rambam in English). ... The Shulkhan Arukh (Hebrew: Prepared Table), by Rabbi Yosef Karo is considered the most authoritative compilation of Jewish law since the Talmud. ...


Sadducees

The Sadducees were a Jewish sect which flourished during the Second Temple period. One of their main arguments with the Pharisees (later known as Rabbinic Judaism) was over their rejection of an Oral Law as well as denying a resurrection after death. The disagreement was not strictly speaking about the Talmud, as this had not been written at the time. The sect of the Sadducees - possibly from Hebrew Tsdoki צדוקי [], whence Zadokites or other variants - was founded in the 2nd century BCE, possibly as a political party, and ceased to exist sometime after the 1st century CE. The Hebrew name, Tsdoki, indicates their claim that they are the followers of the... For the followers of the Vilna Gaon, see Perushim. ...


Karaism

Another movement which rejected the oral law was Karaism. It arose within two centuries of the completion of the Talmud. Karaism developed as a reaction against the Talmudic Judaism of Babylonia. The central concept of Karaism is the rejection of the Oral Torah, as embodied in the Talmud, in favor of a strict adherence to the Written Law only. This opposes the fundamental Rabbinic concept that the Oral Law was given to Moses on Mount Sinai together with the Written Law. Karaism has virtually disappeared, declining from a high of nearly 10% of the Jewish population to a current estimated 0.2%. Karaite Judaism or Karaism is a Jewish movement characterized by the sole reliance on the Tanakh as scripture, and the rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmud) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... When Moses received all of the laws that would define the Jewish tradition, he also received the explanation of these laws. ... Rabbinic Judaism (or in Hebrew Yahadut Rabanit - יהדות רבנית) is a Jewish denomination characterized by reliance on the written Torah as well as the Oral Law (the Mishnah, Talmuds and subsequent rabbinic decisions) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... For the Biblical Mount Sinai, and a discussion of its possible locations, see Biblical Mount Sinai. ...


Reform Judaism

With the rise of Reform Judaism, during the nineteenth century, the authority of the Talmud was again questioned. The Talmud was seen by Reform Jews as a product of late antiquity having relevance merely as a historical document. In some cases a similar view was taken of the written law as well, while others appeared to adopt a neo-Karaite "back to the Bible" approach, though often with greater emphasis on the prophetic than on the legal books. Karaite Judaism or Karaism is a Jewish movement characterized by the sole reliance on the Tanakh as scripture, and the rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmud) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ...


Present day

See also Halakha: How Halakha is viewed today and Halakha: The sources and process of Halakha.

Orthodox Judaism continues to stress the importance of Talmud study and it is a central component of Yeshiva curriculum, in particular for those training to be Rabbis. This is so even though Halakha is generally studied from the medieval codes and not directly from the Talmud. Talmudic study among the Jewish laity was not widespread prior to the 20th century, but changes in education and leisure, the publication of study editions with translations and accessible commentaries in recent decades, and particularly the rise of Yeshiva and Jewish day school education among the Jewish laity, have made reading the Talmud more widespread in Orthodox Judaism, with daily or weekly Talmud study particularly common in Haredi Judaism and with Talmud study a central part of the curriculum in Orthodox Yeshivas and day schools. The regular study of Talmud among laymen has been popularized by the Daf Yomi, a daily course of Talmud study initiated by Rabbi Meir Shapiro in 1923; its 12th cycle of study began on March 2, 2005. See also: Orthodox beliefs about Jewish law and tradition. Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה ; alternate transliterations include Halocho and Halacha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה ; alternate transliterations include Halocho and Halacha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions. ... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... This article is about the Jewish male educational system. ... This article is about the Jewish male educational system. ... A Jewish day school is a modern Jewish educational institution that is designed to provide Jewish children with both a Jewish and a secular education in one school on a full time basis, hence its name of day school meaning a school that the students attend for an entire... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... Haredi or chareidi Judaism is the most theologically conservative form of Orthodox Judaism. ... Daf Yomi (Heb. ... Yehuda Meir Shapiro, (March 3, 1887 - October 27, 1933), a major Orthodox Judaism Rabbi and the creator of the Daf Yomi, a seven year cycle of the learning of a page of Talmud a day, in 1922. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ...


Conservative Judaism similarly emphasizes the study of Talmud within its religious and rabbinic education. Generally, however, the Talmud is studied as a historical source-text for Halakha. The Conservative approach to legal decision-making emphasizes placing classic texts and prior decisions in historical and cultural context, and examining the historical development of Halakha. This approach has resulted in greater practical flexibility than that of the Orthodox. Talmud study is part of the curriculum of Conservative parochial education at many Conservative day schools and an increase in Conservative day school enrollments has resulted in an increase in Talmud study as part of Conservative Jewish education among a minority of Conservative Jews. See also: The Conservative Jewish view of the Halakha. This article is about Conservative (Masorti) Judaism in the United States. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה ; alternate transliterations include Halocho and Halacha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה ; alternate transliterations include Halocho and Halacha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions. ... The Solomon Schechter Day School Association is an organization associated with Conservative Judaism. ... This article is about Conservative (Masorti) Judaism in the United States. ...


Reform Judaism does not emphasize the study of Talmud to the same degree in their Hebrew schools, but they do teach it in their rabbinical seminaries; the world view of liberal Judaism rejects the idea of binding Jewish law, and uses the Talmud as a source of inspiration and moral instruction. Ownership and reading of the Talmud is not widespread among Reform and Reconstructionist Jews, who usually place more emphasis on the study of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh. See also: The Reform Jewish view of the Halakha and view of the Talmud. Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה ; alternate transliterations include Halocho and Halacha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... Reconstructionist Judaism is a denomination of Judaism characterized by: The belief that an individuals personal autonomy generally overrides traditional Jewish law and custom, yet also holding that ones practices must take into account communal consensus. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ...


External accusations

Accusations against the Talmud, either in medieval Christian or in contemporary anti-Semitic sources, tend to fall into the following categories:[12] The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ...

  1. Anti-Christian or anti-Gentile content
  2. Insults against Jesus or the Virgin Mary
  3. Absurd or sexually immoral content
  4. Falsification of scripture

Such accusations often shade into attacks on Jews or Judaism generally, and should be distinguished from criticisms of the Talmud (including some criticism by Jews) on grounds such as excessive legalism, strained reasoning, unhistoric content and superstitious beliefs.


Middle ages

The history of the Talmud reflects in part the history of Judaism persisting in a world of hostility and persecution. Almost at the very time that the Babylonian savoraim put the finishing touches to the redaction of the Talmud, the emperor Justinian issued his edict against the abolition of the Greek translation of the Bible in the service of the Synagogue. Since the Old Testament of the Bible is the Hebrew Bible, Justinian I's edict essentially banned Jews from using their own Hebrew Bible in their synagogues, at least in a commonly-understood language. This edict, dictated by Christian zeal and anti-Jewish feeling, was the prelude to attacks on the Talmud, conceived in the same spirit, and beginning in the thirteenth century in France, where Talmudic study was then flourishing. This article is about the Roman emperor. ...


The charge against the Talmud brought by the convert Nicholas Donin led to the first public disputation between Jews and Christians and to the first burning of copies of the Talmud (Paris, Place de Grève, 1242). The Talmud was likewise the subject of a disputation at Barcelona in 1263 between Nahmanides (Rabbi Moses ben Nahman) and Pablo Christiani. This same Pablo Christiani made an attack on the Talmud which resulted in a papal bull against the Talmud and in the first censorship, which was undertaken at Barcelona by a commission of Dominicans, who ordered the cancellation of passages deemed objectionable from a Christian perspective (1264). Censorship of many topics by the Church was widespread during these centuries, such as Catholic censorship of the findings of Galileo. This article is about the capital of France. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... Nahmanides (1194 - c. ... Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ... Galileo can refer to: Galileo Galilei, astronomer, philosopher, and physicist (1564 - 1642) the Galileo spacecraft, a NASA space probe that visited Jupiter and its moons the Galileo positioning system Life of Galileo, a play by Bertolt Brecht Galileo (1975) - screen adaptation of the play Life of Galileo by Bertolt Brecht...


At the disputation of Tortosa in 1413, Geronimo de Santa Fé brought forward a number of accusations, including the fateful assertion that the condemnations of "pagans," "heathens," and "apostates" found in the Talmud were in reality veiled references to Christians. These assertion were denied by the Jewish community and its scholars, who contended that Judaic thought made a sharp distinction between those classified as heathen or pagan, being polytheistic, and those who acknowledge one true God (such as the Christians) even while worshipping the true monotheistic God incorrectly. Thus, Jews viewed Christians as misguided and in error, but not among the "heathens" or "pagans" discussed in the Talmud. Nevertheless, in the anti-semitic climate of the age, accusations against Jews were widely accepted without the need for proof. A view of Tortosa Tortosa (Latin Dertusa, Arabic طرطوشة Ṭurá¹­Å«Å¡ah) is the capital of the comarca of Baix Ebre, in the province of Tarragona, in Catalonia, Spain, located at 12 metres above the sea, by the Ebre river. ...


Both Pablo Christiani and Geronimo de Santa Fé, in addition to criticizing the Talmud, also regarded it as a source of authentic traditions some of which could be used as arguments in favour of Christianity. Examples of such traditions were statements that the Messiah was born around the time of the destruction of the Temple, and that the Messiah sat at the right hand of God.[13]


In like manner, references in the Talmud to various historical figures were said to be coded references to Jesus, despite Jewish insistence that the Talmud refers to other, actual persons. A prominent example is Balaam Son of Beor, a pagan prophet who lived approximately 1000 years before Jesus, whose actions are portrayed in the Bible, in Numbers 22 through 31. The Talmud's harsh words against Balaam echo the Bible's own condemnation in Deuteronomy 23 and Nehemiah 13. Yet, these references were said to be secretly about Jesus.


Two years later, Pope Martin V, who had convened this disputation, issued a bull (which was destined, however, to remain inoperative) forbidding the Jews to read the Talmud, and ordering the destruction of all copies of it. Far more important were the charges made in the early part of the sixteenth century by the convert Johannes Pfefferkorn, the agent of the Dominicans. The result of these accusations was a struggle in which the emperor and the pope acted as judges, the advocate of the Jews being Johann Reuchlin, who was opposed by the obscurantists; and this controversy, which was carried on for the most part by means of pamphlets, became the precursor of the Reformation[citation needed]. Martin V, né Oddone Colonna or Odo Colonna (1368 – February 20, 1431), Pope from 1417 to 1431, was elected on St. ... Johannes (Josef) Pfefferkorn (1469-1523) was a German Christian theologian writer who converted from Judaism and actively preached against the Jews. ... Johann Reuchlin (January 29, 1455 - 1522) was a German humanist and Hebrew scholar. ... Reformation redirects here. ...


An unexpected result of this affair was the complete printed edition of the Babylonian Talmud issued in 1520 by Daniel Bomberg at Venice, under the protection of a papal privilege. Three years later, in 1523, Bomberg published the first edition of the Jerusalem Talmud. After thirty years the Vatican, which had first permitted the Talmud to appear in print, undertook a campaign of destruction against it. On the New Year (September 9, 1553) the copies of the Talmud which had been confiscated in compliance with a decree of the Inquisition were burned at Rome; and similar burnings took place in other Italian cities, as at Cremona in 1559. The Censorship of the Talmud and other Hebrew works was introduced by a papal bull issued in 1554; five years later the Talmud was included in the first Index Expurgatorius; and Pope Pius IV commanded, in 1565, that the Talmud be deprived of its very name. Daniel Bomberg (d. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events June 26 - Christs Hospital in London gets a Royal Charter July 6 - Edward VI of England dies July 10 - Lady Jane Grey is proclaimed Queen of England - for the next nine days July 18 - Lord Mayor of London proclaims Queen Mary as the rightful Queen - Lady Jane Grey... This article is about the Inquisition by the Roman Catholic Church. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Cremona is a city in northern Italy, situated in Lombardy, on the left shore of the Po river in the middle of the Pianura padana (Po valley). ... The Index Librorum Prohibitorum (Index of Prohibited Books)—also called Index Expurgatorius—is a list of publications which Roman Catholics were banned from reading, pernicious books, and also the rules of the Church relating to books. ... Pius IV, né Giovanni Angelo Medici (March 31, 1499 – December 9, 1565), pope from 1559 to 1565, was born of humble parentage in Milan, unrelated with the Medicis of Florence. ...


The first edition of the expurgated Talmud, on which most subsequent editions were based, appeared at Basel (1578-1581) with the omission of the entire treatise of 'Abodah Zarah and of passages considered inimical to Christianity, together with modifications of certain phrases. A fresh attack on the Talmud was decreed by Pope Gregory XIII (1575-85), and in 1593 Clement VIII renewed the old interdiction against reading or owning it. The increasing study of the Talmud in Poland led to the issue of a complete edition (Kraków, 1602-5), with a restoration of the original text; an edition containing, so far as known, only two treatises had previously been published at Lublin (1559-76). In 1707 some copies of the Talmud were confiscated in the province of Brandenburg, but were restored to their owners by command of Frederick, the first king of Prussia. The last attack on the Talmud took place in Poland in 1757, when Bishop Dembowski, at the instigation of the Frankists, convened a public disputation at Kamenets-Podolsk, and ordered all copies of the work found in his bishopric to be confiscated and burned by the hangman. For other uses, see Basel (disambiguation). ... Pope Gregory XIII (January 7, 1502 – April 10, 1585), born Ugo Boncompagni, was Pope from 1572 to 1585. ... Pope Clement VIII (Fano, Italy, February 24, 1536 – March 3, 1605 in Rome), born Ippolito Aldobrandini, was Pope from January 30, 1592 to March 3, 1605. ... For other uses, see Krakow (disambiguation). ... Panorama of Lublin form Trynitarska Tower Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina Lublin Established before 12th century City Rights 1317 Government  - Mayor Adam Wasilewski Area  - City 147. ... For the similarly spelled Brandenberg, see Brandenberg (Austria) or Brandenburg (disambiguation) Location Coordinates , , Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE4 Capital Potsdam Minister-President Matthias Platzeck (SPD) Governing parties SPD / CDU Votes in Bundesrat 4 (of 69) Basic statistics Area  29,479 km² (11,382... Friedrich I of Prussia. ... Jacob Frank (יעקב פרנק Yaakov Frank, Jakob Frank) (1726-1791) was a Jewish merchant who claimed to be the Jewish messiah. ...


The external history of the Talmud includes also the literary attacks made upon it by Christian theologians after the Reformation, since these onslaughts on Judaism were directed primarily against that work, even though it was made a subject of study by the Christian theologians of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. In 1830, during a debate in the French Chamber of Peers regarding state recognition of the Jewish faith, Admiral Verhuell declared himself unable to forgive the Jews whom he had met during his travels throughout the world either for their refusal to recognize Jesus as the Messiah or for their possession of the Talmud. In the same year the Abbé Chiarini published at Paris a voluminous work entitled "Théorie du Judaïsme," in which he announced a translation of the Talmud, advocating for the first time a version which should make the work generally accessible, and thus serve for attacks on Judaism. In a like spirit nineteenth century anti-Semitic agitators often urged that a translation be made; and this demand was even brought before legislative bodies, as in Vienna. The Talmud and the "Talmud Jew" thus became objects of anti-Semitic attacks, for example in August Rohling's Der Talmudjude, although, on the other hand, they were defended by many Christian students of the Talmud. This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oil on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ... August Rohling (born in 1839 at Neuenkirchen, province of Hanover, Prussia; died 1931) was a German Catholic theologian, scholar of Hebrew archeology, and polemical author. ...


Despite the numerous mentions of Edom which may refer to Christendom, the Talmud makes little mention of Jesus directly or the early Christians. There are a number of quotes about one or more individuals designated "Yeshu" that once existed in editions of the Talmud, although details about Yeshu do not match the known facts about Jesus' trial and death. The Talmud says Yeshu was hanged, not crucified, on the eve of (before) Passover, whereas Jesus was crucified after Passover, not before. Yeshu had 5 disciples, whose names are different from the 12 apostles of Jesus, except for Matthias (a very common name). The Talmud primarily discusses the legal requirements of how to conduct a trial, and mentions the trial of Yeshu as an example of how a trial should be conducted. In giving those details, a trial that bears no resemblance to the trial of Jesus is described. Edomite redirects here. ... This article is about references to the name Yeshu in classical Jewish rabbinic literature. ...


These quotes were long ago removed from the main text due to accusations that they referred to Jesus, and are no longer used in Talmud study. However, these removed quotes were preserved through rare printings of lists of errata, known as Hashmatot Hashas ("Omissions of the Talmud"). Some modern editions of the Talmud contain some or all of this material, either at the back of the book, in the margin, or in alternate print. These passages do not necessarily refer to a single individual and many of the stories are far removed from anything written in the New Testament. This article is about the Christian scriptures. ...


Contemporary accusations

Criticism of the Talmud is widespread today by those who also attack Jews for many other reasons.


Most of the attacks on the Talmud which are widely publicized cite to books that do not actually exist or Jewish commentaries that are not part of the Talmud (written by individual Jewish scholars speaking for themselves). Many Jewish books exist which are not official, even if popular, just as many Christian epistles and gospels circulated widely among the early Christian Church, but were not accepted into the official canon of the Bible. Look up canon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ...


This is rendered controversial because some of the real books most often criticized are works of Kabbalah, such as the Zohar. Kabbalah to some Jews is an essential part of Judaism, but is rejected by other Jews as being unrelated to Judaism. Although widely followed and assigned great importance by many Jews, Kabbalah books are not in any sense part of the Talmud. This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... The Zohar (Hebrew: זהר Splendor, radiance) is widely considered the most important work of Kabbalah, Jewish mysticism. ...


When critics purport to cite the Talmud itself, frequently the alleged quote cannot actually be found in the text of the Talmud. With regard to a small number of such criticisms, the alleged statements actually do exist in a real book of the Talmud. The questions that then arise are (1) whether the meaning alleged by the critic is accurate given the context and (2) whether the passage criticised represents an authoritative view or the opinion of one individual.


Some groups and individuals consider that passages in the Talmud show that Judaism is inherently racist. In reply it is suggested that the passages do not indicate inherent racism on the part of the Talmud (and Judaism), but rather mistranslation, falsification, and selective choice of quotes out of context, on the part of those making the charges. Confusion also arises as to whether controversial ideas come from the Holy Bible itself or originate with the Talmud. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The complexity of the Talmud contributes to misunderstanding. Written like the transcript of a debate, the text often states propositions, which are then knocked down during the subsequent debate. Thus many statements in the Talmud represent ideas eventually rejected by Rabbinic thought. Moreover, the Talmud focuses on topics one at a time, and includes many statements within that discussion that are not to be taken as doctrine outside of that topic.


In one typical example, the Talmud discusses how a betrothed future husband should respond upon discovering that his future wife is not a virgin. The structure of the Talmud, however, presents separate discussions in different places about the woman's betrothed husband and punishment for her abuser. In one place, the Talmud discusses at length the different circumstances that may exist for the woman's non-virginity. Depending upon the age when a girl was abused or the active guilt of a woman in knowingly committing adultery, various responses are dictated, including the payment of money to support the woman after dissolving the betrothal. The Talmud teaches that a very young girl is not held accountable for having been abused by a male, and the abuse is ignored -- "it is nothing" -- so that the marriage may go forward. A victim who was too young to object is treated as if she were still a virgin. Betrothal is a formal state of engagement to be married. ... Betrothal is a formal state of engagement to be married. ...


However, accommodations to a female victim of sexual abuse are widely portrayed by critics as endorsing the sexual abuse. The statement "it is nothing" is said to suggest that pedophilia is acceptable in Judaism. But, in other places, the Talmud -- echoing the Old Testament / Hebrew Bible -- condemns all sex outside of marriage as adultery, condemns pedophilia, and imposes the death penalty for the girl's abuser. The fact that these two topics are separated in different parts of the Talmud obscures the distinction between the death penalty imposed upon the abuser in one part of the Talmud with what a husband should do upon discovering his bride was abused as a child.


Similarly, the Talmud discusses marriage and sexuality in the context of the system of betrothal that was nearly universal in ancient Israel. To ensure a good marriage for a son or daughter, there was strong competition among the socially "best" families. Binding plans for future marriage were commonly arranged by the parents for infants or young children. Therefore, young children might be "betrothed" but the marriage itself fulfilling the betrothal would not occur until many years later. Betrothal is a formal state of engagement to be married. ...


Similarly, the Talmud explores whether a Jew has an obligation not to lie to a gentile. The debate finds that (a) applying one part of the Tanakh lying would be permitted, but (b) applying a different analysis lying could never be permitted because it might bring shame upon the name of God. Such back-and-forth debates are typical, in which the Talmud states a proposition, and then later knocks it down. As another example, the Talmud discusses in minute detail in some places when the property of Jews or gentiles (or sometimes heathen) fall under different levels of legal protection, by exploring what the Tanakh or Holy Bible says on the subject. These intricate debates stand in contrast to general pronouncements of the Talmud elsewhere emphasizing the dignity of all humanity as God's creation. For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ...


The Anti-Defamation League's report on this topic states: The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an interest group founded in 1913 by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ...

By selectively citing various passages from the Talmud and Midrash, polemicists have sought to demonstrate that Judaism espouses hatred for non-Jews (and specifically for Christians), and promotes obscenity, sexual perversion, and other immoral behavior. To make these passages serve their purposes, these polemicists frequently mistranslate them or cite them out of context (wholesale fabrication of passages is not unknown)...
In distorting the normative meanings of rabbinic texts, anti-Talmud writers frequently remove passages from their textual and historical contexts. Even when they present their citations accurately, they judge the passages based on contemporary moral standards, ignoring the fact that the majority of these passages were composed close to two thousand years ago by people living in cultures radically different from our own. They are thus able to ignore Judaism's long history of social progress and paint it instead as a primitive and parochial religion.
Those who attack the Talmud frequently cite ancient rabbinic sources without noting subsequent developments in Jewish thought, and without making a good-faith effort to consult with contemporary Jewish authorities who can explain the role of these sources in normative Jewish thought and practice.

Rabbi Gil Student, a prolific author on the internet, refutes anti-Talmud accusations and writes: Rabbi Gil O. Student (born August 8, 1972) is an ordained but non-pulpit serving American Orthodox rabbi. ...

Anti-Talmud accusations have a long history dating back to the 13th century when the associates of the Inquisition attempted to defame Jews and their religion [see Yitzchak Baer, A History of Jews in Christian Spain, vol. I pp. 150-185]. The early material compiled by hateful preachers like Raymond Martini and Nicholas Donin remain the basis of all subsequent accusations against the Talmud. Some are true, most are false and based on quotations taken out of context, and some are total fabrications [see Baer, ch. 4 f. 54, 82 that it has been proven that Raymond Martini forged quotations]. On the Internet today we can find many of these old accusations being rehashed...

Another common attack upon the Talmud claims that Jesus condemned the Talmud. The Talmud had not yet been written at the time Jesus taught on the Earth, written 200 to 300 years later. The allegation states that Jesus' condemned the teachings of the Pharisees and that the teachings of the Pharisees are synonymous with the later Talmud. Jesus, however, in Matthew 23:1-3 taught His followers to obey the teachings of the Pharisees, and do what the Pharisees taught. Jesus then also strongly condemned the Pharisees for not obeying their own teachings. Yet since Jesus endorsed the teaching -- but not the sin and hypocrisy -- of the Pharisees, Jesus did not necessarily criticize the Talmud. Even if the teaching of the Pharisees can be found in the Talmud, Jesus taught that such teaching should be obeyed, and faulted the Pharisees for not obeying it themselves. For the followers of the Vilna Gaon, see Perushim. ... Hypocrisy is the act of condemning or calling for the condemnation of another person when the critic is guilty of the act for which he demands that the accused be condemned. ...


While Jesus gave very specific examples of teachings he found objectionable, those teachings that Jesus condemned do not appear anywhere in the Talmud.[citation needed] When selecting which teachings were considered reliable, the editors of the Talmud did not choose to include any teachings that (perhaps coincidentally) Jesus also criticized as inaccurate.


Translations

Translations of Talmud Bavli

There are five contemporary translations of the Talmud into English:

  • The Schottenstein Edition of the Talmud, Mesorah Publications. In this translation, each English page faces the Aramaic/Hebrew page. The English pages are elucidated and heavily annotated; each Aramaic/Hebrew page of Talmud typically requires three English pages of translation. See also: Mesorah Talmud site.
  • The Soncino Talmud, Isidore Epstein, Soncino Press. Notes on each page provide additional background material. This translation is published both on its own and in a parallel text edition, in which each English page faces the Aramaic/Hebrew page. It also exists on CD-ROM. See also Soncino Talmud site.
  • The Talmud of Babylonia. An American Translation, Jacob Neusner, Tzvee Zahavy, others. Atlanta: 1984-1995: Scholars Press for Brown Judaic Studies. Complete.
  • The Talmud: The Steinsaltz Edition Adin Steinsaltz, Random House (incomplete). This work is in fact a translation of Rabbi Steinsaltz' Hebrew language translation of and commentary on the entire Talmud. See also: Steinsaltz Talmud site.
  • The Babylonian Talmud, translated by Michael L. Rodkinson (incomplete). This ten volume translation (1918) is also available on the internet. http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/talmud.htm

ArtScroll is an imprint of translations, books and commentaries from an Orthodox Jewish perspective published by Mesorah Publications, Ltd. ... Title page of The Faith of Judaism: An Interpretation for Our Times, by Isidore Epstein (Soncino 1960). ... Jacob Neusner (born July 28, 1932, Hartford, Connecticut) is an academic scholar of Judaism who lives in Rhinebeck, New York. ... Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz (Hebrew: עדין שטיינזלץ) or Adin Even Yisrael (Hebrew: עדין אבן ישראל) (born 1937) is most commonly known for his popular commentary and translation of both Talmuds into Hebrew, French, Russian and Spanish. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Michael Levi Rodkinson (1845-1904) was an American-Jewish publisher, known for being the first to translate the Babylonian Talmud to English. ...

Translations of Talmud Yerushalmi

Talmud of the Land of Israel: A Preliminary Translation and Explanation Jacob Neusner, Tzvee Zahavy, others. University of Chicago Press. This translation uses a form-analytical presentation which makes the logical units of discourse easier to identify and follow. This work has received many positive reviews. However, some consider Neusner's translation methodology idiosyncratic. One volume was negatively reviewed by Saul Lieberman of the Jewish Theological Seminary. Jacob Neusner (born July 28, 1932, Hartford, Connecticut) is an academic scholar of Judaism who lives in Rhinebeck, New York. ... Saul Lieberman (1898-1983), also known as The Grash (Gaon Rabbeinu Shaul), was a rabbi and a scholar of Talmud. ...


Schottenstein Edition of the Yerushalmi Talmud Mesorah/Artscroll. This translation is the counterpart to Mesorah/Artscroll's Schottenstein Edition of the Talmud (i.e. Babylonian Talmud). Mesorah/Artscroll's website for the Schottenstein Edition of the Yerushalmi Talmud


See also

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Talmud

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... The Jerusalem Talmud (In Hebrew Talmud Yerushalmi, in short known as the Yerushalmi), also known as the Palestinian Talmud, like its Babylonian counterpart (see Babylonian Talmud), is a collection of Rabbinic discussions elaborating on the Mishnah. ... The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... The Minor Tractates are essays from the tannaitic period or later dealing with topics about which no formal tractate exists in the Mishnah. ... The Tosefta is a secondary compilation of the Jewish oral law from the period of the Mishnah. ... Baraita (Aramaic ברייתא: external, outside; pl. ... The Gemara (also Gemora) (גמרא - from gamar: Aramaic [to] study) is the part of the Talmud that contains rabbinical commentaries and analysis of its predecessor, the Mishnah. ... Ein Yaakov is a compilation of all the Aggadic material in the Talmud together with commentaries. ... Rabbinic literature, in the broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of Judaisms rabbinic writing/s throughout history. ... This article is about the Jewish male educational system. ...

Notes

  1. ^ See, Strack, Hermann, Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash, Jewish Publication Society, 1945. pp.11-12. "[The Oral Law] was handed down by word of mouth during a long period...The first attempts to write down the traditional matter, there is reason to believe, date from the first half of the second post-Christian century." Strack theorizes that the growth of a Christian canon (the New Testament) was a factor that influenced the Rabbis to record the oral law in writing.
  2. ^ The theory that the destruction of the Temple and subsequent upheaval led to the commiting of Oral Law into writing was first explained in the Epistle of Sherira Gaon and often repeated. See, for example, Grayzel, A History of the Jews, Penguin Books, 1984, p. 193.
  3. ^ "Palestinian Talmud". Encyclopædia Britannica. (2008). Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 2008-03-28. 
  4. ^ "Babylonian Talmud". Encyclopædia Britannica. (2008). Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 2008-03-28. 
  5. ^ Judaic Treasures of the Library of Congress: The Talmud. American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise.
  6. ^ Angel Sáenz-Badillos (1993). A History of the Hebrew Language. Tr. John Elwolde. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
  7. ^ For a list see Ephraim Urbach, s.v. "Tosafot," in Encyclopedia of Religion.
  8. ^ See, Pilpul, Mordechai Breuer, in Encyclopedia Judaica, Vol. 16, 2nd Ed (2007), Macmillan Reference, USA.
  9. ^ Kol Melechet Higgayon, the Hebrew translation of Averroes' epitome of Aristotle's logical works, was widely studied in northern Italy, particularly Padua.
  10. ^ On Pilpul, see Pilpul, Mordechai Breuer, Encyclopedia Judaica and H.H. Ben Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, p. 627, 717.
  11. ^ As Yonah Fraenkel shows in his book Darko Shel Rashi be-Ferusho la-Talmud ha-Bavli, one of Rashi's major accomplishments was textual emendation. Rabbenu Tam, Rashi's grandson and one of the central figures in the Tosafist academies, polemicizes against textual emendation in his less studied work Sefer ha-Yashar. However, the Tosafists, too, emended the Talmudic text (See e.g. Baba Kamma 83b s.v. af haka'ah ha'amurah or Gittin 32a s.v. mevutelet) as did many other medieval commentators (see e.g. R. Shlomo ben Aderet, Hidushei ha-Rashb"a al ha-Sha"s to Baba Kamma 83b, or Rabbenu Nissim's commentary to Alfasi on Gittin 32a).
  12. ^ Hyam Maccoby, Judaism on Trial.
  13. ^ Hyam Maccoby, op. cit.

Rav Sherira Gaon (Hebrew: רב שרירא גאון) was the head of the yeshiva in Pumbeditha. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Padua, Italy, (Italian: IPA: , Latin: Patavium, Venetian: ) is a city in the Veneto, northern Italy, the economic and communications hub of the region. ... A 16th-century depiction of Rashi Note: For the astrological concept, see Rashi - the signs. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

References

General

  • Maimonides Introduction to the Mishneh Torah (English translation)
  • Maimonides Introduction to the Commentary on the Mishnah (Hebrew Fulltext), transl. Zvi Lampel (Judaica Press, 1998). ISBN 1-880582-28-7
  • Adin Steinsaltz The Essential Talmud: Thirtieth Anniversary Edition (Basic Books, 2006). ISBN 0-465-08273-4. Read more here. See also here.
  • Adin Steinsaltz The Talmud: A Reference Guide (Random House, 1996). ISBN 0-679-77367-3
  • Zvi Hirsch Chajes "Mevo Hatalmud", transl. Jacob Shachter: The Students' Guide Through The Talmud (Yashar Books, 2005). ISBN 1-933143-05-3
  • Shmuel Hanagid Introduction to the Talmud, in Aryeh Carmell Aiding Talmud Study (Philipp Feldheim, 1986). ISBN 0-87306-428-3
  • Nathan T. Lopes Cardozo The Infinite Chain : Torah, Masorah, and Man (Philipp Feldheim, 1989). ISBN 0-944070-15-9
  • D. Landesman A Practical Guide to Torah Learning (Jason Aronson, 1995). ISBN 1-56821-320-4
  • Aaron Parry The Complete Idiot's Guide to The Talmud (Alpha Books, 2004). ISBN 1-59257-202-2
  • R. Travers Herford Christianity in Talmud and Midrash (Ktav Pub Inc, 1975). ISBN 0-87068-483-3
  • Carmell, Aryeh, Aiding Talmud Study: Feldheim, 5th ed. 1986 ISBN-10: 0873064283, ISBN-13: 978-0873064286

Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... The Mishneh Torah or Yad ha-Chazaka is a code of Jewish law by one of the most important Jewish authorities, Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, better known as Maimonides or by the Hebrew abbreviation RaMBaM (usually written Rambam in English). ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz (Hebrew: עדין שטיינזלץ) or Adin Even Yisrael (Hebrew: עדין אבן ישראל) (born 1937) is most commonly known for his popular commentary and translation of both Talmuds into Hebrew, French, Russian and Spanish. ... Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz (Hebrew: עדין שטיינזלץ) or Adin Even Yisrael (Hebrew: עדין אבן ישראל) (born 1937) is most commonly known for his popular commentary and translation of both Talmuds into Hebrew, French, Russian and Spanish. ... Zvi Hirsch Chajes (November 20, 1805 – October 12, 1855) was one of the foremost Galician talmudic scholars. ... Samuel ibn Naghrela, also Shmuel ha-Nagid, Samuel ibn Nagdela, or Samuel ha-Nagid (993-1056), lived in Spain at the time of the Moorish conquests. ... Jason Aronson is a publisher of books of jewish interest, including titles covering Jewish life, history, theology, genealogy, folklore, holidays, and Hasidic thought. ... Rabbi Aaron Parry is the author of The Complete Idiots guide to Understanding the Talmud, and The Complete Idiots Guide to Hebrew Scripture Categories: | ...

Talmudic logic and methodology

  • Samuel ha-Nagid, Mevo ha-Talmud
  • Samson of Chinon, Sefer ha-Keritut
  • anon., Meharere Nemarim
  • Isaac Campanton, Darche ha-Talmud
  • David ben Solomon ibn Abi Zimra, Kelale ha-Gemara
  • Bezalel Ashkenazi, Kelale ha-Gemara
  • Yeshu’ah b. Yosef ha-Levi, Halichot Olam
    • Joseph Caro, Kelale ha-Gemara (commentary on Halichot Olam)
    • Solomon Algazi, Yavin Shemu’ah (commentary on Halichot Olam)
  • Serillo, Samuel, Kelale Shemuel
  • Horowitz, Isaiah, Shene Luchot ha-Berit (section on Torah she-be-al-Pe)
  • Moses Chaim Luzzatto, Derech Tevunot and Sefer ha-Higgayon
  • de Oliveira, Solomon, Darche Noam
  • Malachi ha-Cohen, Yad Malachi
  • Aryeh Leib HaCohen Heller, Shev Shema'tata
  • Goitein, B., Kesef Nivhar
  • Moshe Amiel, Ha-Middot le-Heker ha-Halachah

Samuel ibn Naghrela, also Shmuel ha-Nagid, Samuel ibn Nagdela, or Samuel ha-Nagid (993-1056), lived in Spain at the time of the Moorish conquests. ... Isaac ben Jacob Campanton (1360-1463) (Hebrew: יצחק קנפנטון) was a Spanish rabbi. ... Rabbi David ben Solomon ibn Abi Zimra, also called Radbaz, was a Spanish Talmudist and cabalist. ... Bezalel Ashkenazi was a rabbi and scholar of the Talmud during the 16th century in Israel. ... Rabbi Yosef (Joseph) Karo is one of the most important leaders in the history of halakha (Jewish law). ... Isaiah Horowitz (c. ... Tsiyun of the Ramhal in Tiberias, ir haqodesh ttbba, Israel. ... Aryeh Leib Hacohen Heller (1745-1813) (Hebrew: אריה לייב בן יוסף הכהן הלר) was a Rabbi, Talmudist, and Halachist in Galicia. ... Shev Shematata (שב שמעתתא), sometimes pronounced Shev Shmaytsa, is a work on Talmudic logic and methodology by R. Aryeh Leib HaCohen Heller. ...

Modern scholarly works

  • Y. N. Epstein, Mevo-ot le-Sifrut haTalmudim
  • Hanoch Albeck, Mavo la-talmudim
  • Louis Jacobs, "How Much of the Babylonian Talmud is Pseudepigraphic?" Journal of Jewish Studies 28, No. 1 (1977), pp. 46-59
  • Saul Lieberman, Hellenism in Jewish Palestine (New York: Jewish Theological Seminary, 1950)
  • Jacob Neusner, Sources and Traditions: Types of Compositions in the Talmud of Babylonia (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1992).
  • David Weiss Halivni, Mekorot u-Mesorot: Eruvin-Pesahim (Jerusalem: Jewish Theological Seminary, 1982)
  • Yaakov Elman, "Order, Sequence, and Selection: The Mishnah’s Anthological Choices,” in David Stern, ed. The Anthology in Jewish Literature (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) 53-80
  • Strack, Herman L. and Stemberger, Gunter, Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash, tr. Markus Bockmuehl: repr. 1992, hardback ISBN-10: 0567095096, ISBN-13: 978-0567095091, paperback ISBN-10: 0800625242, ISBN-13: 978-0800625245
  • Moses Mielziner, Introduction to the Talmud: repr. 1997, hardback ISBN-10: 0819701564, ISBN-13: 978-0819701565, paperback ISBN-10: 0819700150, ISBN-13: 978-0819700155

Louis Jacobs (born 1920) is a Masorti rabbi in England, the first leader of Masorti Judaism (also known as Conservative Judaism) in the UK, best known as the central focus of events in the early 1960s that came to be known as The Jacobs Affair. Jacobs was ordained as an... Saul Lieberman (1898-1983), also known as The Grash (Gaon Rabbeinu Shaul), was a rabbi and a scholar of Talmud. ... Jacob Neusner (born July 28, 1932, Hartford, Connecticut) is an academic scholar of Judaism who lives in Rhinebeck, New York. ... Rabbi David Weiss Halivni is a scholar of Talmud and a Holocaust survivor, originally of Sighet, Romania. ... Hermann Leberecht Strack (1848-1922) was a German Protestant theologian and Orientalist; born at Berlin May 6, 1848. ... Moses Mielziner (August 12, 1828 in Czerniejewo, Poznan Province, Poland - February 18, 1903 in Cincinnati) was an American Reform rabbi and author. ...

Historical study

  • Shalom Carmy (Ed.) Modern Scholarship in the Study of Torah: Contributions and Limitations Jason Aronson, Inc.
  • Richard Kalmin Sages, Stories, Authors and Editors in Rabbinic Babylonia Brown Judaic Studies
  • David C. Kraemer, On the Reliability of Attributions in the Babylonian Talmud, Hebrew Union College Annual 60 (1989), pp. 175-90
  • Lee Levine, Ma'amad ha-Hakhamim be-Erez Yisrael (Jerusalem: Yad Yizhak Ben-Zvi, 1985), (=The Rabbinic Class of Roman Palestine in Late Antiquity)
  • Saul Lieberman Hellenism in Jewish Palestine (New York: Jewish Theological Seminary, 1950)
  • John W. McGinley " 'The Written' as the Vocation of Conceiving Jewishly". ISBN 0-595-40488-X
  • David Bigman, Finding A Home for Critical Talmud Study

Saul Lieberman (1898-1983), also known as The Grash (Gaon Rabbeinu Shaul), was a rabbi and a scholar of Talmud. ...

External links

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Full text resources

Manuscripts

Talmudic layout

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Pertaining to the "Daf Yomi" program

Refutation of allegations concerning the Talmud

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Audio

  • Shiurim on the Talmud, mp3shiur.com
  • MP3 Talmud Shiurim by Rav Nissan Kaplan of Mir Yeshiva, Jerusalem
This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Several groups, sometimes called denominations, branches, or movements, have developed among Jews of the modern era, especially Ashkenazi Jews living in anglophone countries. ... Schisms among the Jews are cultural as well as religious. ... This article discusses the relationship between the various denominations of Judaism. ... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... Haredi or chareidi Judaism is the most theologically conservative form of Orthodox Judaism. ... This article is about the Hasidic movement originating in Poland and Russia. ... 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Rabbinic Judaism (or in Hebrew Yahadut Rabanit - יהדות רבנית) is a Jewish denomination characterized by reliance on the written Torah as well as the Oral Law (the Mishnah, Talmuds and subsequent rabbinic decisions) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... Karaite Judaism or Karaism is a Jewish movement characterized by the sole reliance on the Tanakh as scripture, and the rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmud) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... For other uses, see Samaritan (disambiguation). ... Humanistic Judaism is a movement within Judaism that emphasizes Jewish culture and history - rather than belief in God - as the sources of Jewish identity. ... Jewish philosophy refers to the conjunction between serious study of philosophy and Jewish theology. ... There are a number of basic Jewish principles of faith that were formulated by medieval rabbinic authorities. ... In Judaism, chosenness is the belief that the Jews are a chosen people: chosen to be in a covenant with God. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... // Jewish ethics stands at the intersection of Judaism and the Western philosophical tradition of ethics. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה ; alternate transliterations include Halocho and Halacha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions. ... Holocaust theology refers to a body of theological and philosophical debate, soul-searching, and analysis, with the subsequent related literature, that attempts to come to grips with various conflicting views about the role of God in this human world and the dark events of the European Holocaust that occurred during... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... The circled U indicates that this product is certified as kosher by the Orthodox Union (OU). ... In Jewish messianism and eschatology, the Messiah (Hebrew: משיח; Mashiah, Mashiach, or Moshiach, anointed [one]) is a term traditionally referring to a future Jewish king from the Davidic line who will be anointed (the meaning of the Hebrew word משיח) with holy anointing oil and inducted to rule the Jewish people during... A minyan (Hebrew: plural minyanim) is traditionally a quorum of ten or more adult (over the age of Bar Mitzvah) male Jews for the purpose of communal prayer; a minyan is often held within a synagogue, but may be (and often is) held elsewhere. ... Mussar movement refers to an Jewish ethics educational and cultural movement (a Jewish Moralist Movement) that developed in 19th century Orthodox Eastern Europe, particularly among the Lithuanian Jews. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ... The Rainbow is the modern symbol of the Noahide Movement reminiscing the rainbow that appeared after the Great Flood of the Bible. ... Tzedakah (Hebrew: צדקה) in Judaism, is the Hebrew term most commonly translated as charity, though it is based on a root meaning justice .(צדק). Judaism is very tied to the concept of tzedakah, or charity, and the nature of Jewish giving has created a North American Jewish community that is very philanthropic. ... Tzniut or Tznius (also Tzeniut) (Hebrew: צניעות modesty) is a term used within Judaism and has its greatest influence as a notion within Orthodox Judaism. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... Neviim [נביאים] (Heb: Prophets) is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), following the Torah and preceding Ketuvim (writings). ... Ketuvim is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ... Arbaah Turim (ארבעה טורים), often called simply the Tur, is an important Halakhic code, composed by Yaakov ben Asher (Spain, 1270 -c. ... The Chumash Chumash (IPA: ) (Hebrew: חומש; sometimes written Humash) is one name given to the Pentateuch in Judaism. ... The Kuzari is the most famous work by the medieval Spanish Jewish writer Yehuda Halevi. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ... Mishnah Berurah (Hebrew: Clarified Teaching) is a work of halakha (Jewish law) by Rabbi Yisrael Meir Kagan, better known as The Chofetz Chaim (Poland, 1838 - 1933). ... The Mishneh Torah or Yad ha-Chazaka is a code of Jewish law by one of the most important Jewish authorities, Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, better known as Maimonides or by the Hebrew abbreviation RaMBaM (usually written Rambam in English). ... A piyyut (plural piyyutim, Hebrew פיוט, IPA [pijút] and [pijutím]) is a Jewish liturgical poem, usually designated to be sung, chanted, or recited during religious services. ... Rabbinic literature, in the broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of Judaisms rabbinic writing/s throughout history. ... The Shulkhan Arukh (Hebrew: Prepared Table), by Rabbi Yosef Karo is considered the most authoritative compilation of Jewish law since the Talmud. ... A siddur (Hebrew: סידור; plural siddurim) is a Jewish prayer book, containing a set order of daily prayers. ... The Tosefta is a secondary compilation of the Jewish oral law from the period of the Mishnah. ... The Zohar (Hebrew: זהר Splendor, radiance) is widely considered the most important work of Kabbalah, Jewish mysticism. ... Jewish leadership: Since 70 AD and the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem there has been no single body that has a leadership position over the entire Jewish community. ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... Sacrifice of Isaac, a detail from the sarcophagus of the Roman consul Junius Bassus, ca. ... This article is about Jacob in the Hebrew Bible. ... Engraving of Sarah by Hans Collaert from c. ... Rebecca by Johannes Takanen, 1877. ... This article is about the Biblical character. ... Look up Leah, לֵאָה in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... For information on the name Deborah, see Debbie For information on the nurse of Rebeccah, mentioned in Genesis, see Deborah (Genesis) Deborah or Dvora (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Bee) was a prophetess and the fourth Judge and only female Judge of pre-monarchic Israel in the Old Testament (Tanakh). ... Naomi entreating Ruth and Orpah to return to the land of Moab by William Blake, 1795 Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld: Ruth in Boazs Field, 1828 The Book of Ruth (Hebrew: מגילת רות, Megilat Rut, the Scroll of Ruth) is one of the books of the Ketuvim (Writings) of the Tanakh (the... This article is about the Biblical character . ... Elijah, 1638, by José de Ribera This article is about the prophet in the Hebrew Bible. ... Hillel (הלל) (born Babylon 1st Century BCE - died ?Jerusalem, 1st Century CE) was a famous Jewish religious leader, one of the most important figures in Jewish history. ... Shammai (50 BCE–30 CE) was a Jewish scholar of the 1st century, and an important figure in Judaisms core work of rabbinic literature, the Mishnah. ... Judah haNasi, or more accurately in Hebrew, Yehudah HaNasi, was a key leader of the Jewish community of Judea under the Roman empire, toward the end of the 2nd century CE. He was reputedly from the Davidic line of the royal line from King David, hence his title Prince (Nasi... Saadia Ben Joseph Gaon (892-942), the Hebrew name of Said al-Fayyumi, was a rabbi who was also a prominent Jewish exilarch, philosopher, and exegete. ... A 16th-century depiction of Rashi Note: For the astrological concept, see Rashi - the signs. ... Rabbi Isaac ben Jacob Alfasi (1013 - 1103) - also Isaac Hakohen, Alfasi or the Rif (ריף) - was a Talmudist and posek (decisor in matters of halakha - Jewish law). ... Rabbi Abraham Ben Meir Ibn Ezra (also known as Ibn Ezra, or Abenezra) (1092 or 1093-1167), was one of the most distinguished Jewish men of letters and writers of the Middle Ages. ... Tosafists were medieval rabbis who created critical and explanatory glosses on the Talmud. ... Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon (Hebrew: רבי משה בן מיימון; Arabic: Mussa bin Maimun ibn Abdallah al-Kurtubi al-Israili; March 30, 1135—December 13, 1204), commonly known by his Greek name Maimonides, was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher. ... Nahmanides (1194 - c. ... Asher ben Jehiel (or Rabeinu Osher ben Yechiel) (1250? 1259?-1328), an eminent rabbi and Talmudist often known by his Hebrew acronym the ROSH (literally Head), was born in western Germany and died in Toledo, Spain. ... Levi ben Gershon (Levi son of Gerson), better known as Gersonides or the Ralbag (1288-1344), was a famous rabbi, philosopher, mathematician and Talmudic commentator. ... Joseph Albo was a Spanish rabbi, and theologian of the fifteenth century, known chiefly as the author of the work on the Jewish principles of faith, Ikkarim. ... Yosef Caro (sometimes Joseph Caro) (1488 - March 24, 1575) was one of the most significant leaders in Rabbinic Judaism and the author of the Shulchan Arukh, an authoritative work on Halakhah (Jewish law). ... This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia Israel ben Eliezer Rabbi Israel (Yisroel) ben Eliezer (about 1700 Okopy Świętej Tr jcy - May 22, 1760 Międzyborz) was a Jewish Orthodox mystical rabbi who is better known to most religious Jews as the Baal Shem Tov, or... Shneur Zalman of Liadi (‎) (September 4, 1745 – December 15, 1812 O.S.), was an Orthodox Rabbi, and the founder and first Rebbe of Chabad, a branch of Hasidic Judaism, then based in Liadi, Imperial Russia. ... Elijah Ben Solomon, the Vilna Gaon The Vilna Gaon (April 23, 1720 – October 9, 1797) was a prominent Jewish rabbi, Talmud scholar, and Kabbalist. ... Leopold Zunz (1794-1886), Jewish scholar, was born at Detmold in 1794, and died in Berlin in 1886. ... Israel Jacobson (October 17, 1768, Halberstadt - September 14, 1828, Berlin) was a German philanthropist and reformer. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Yosef Chaim (1832 - 1909) was a Hakham and a Sephardic Rabbi, authority on Jewish law (Halakha) and Kabbalist. ... Rabbi Ovadia Yosef (Hebrew: עובדיה יוסף) (b. ... Rabbi Moshe Feinstein (1895-1986) Moshe Feinstein (1895 - 1986) was a Lithuanian Orthodox rabbi and scholar, who was world renowned for his expertise in halakha and was the de facto supreme rabbinic authority for Orthodox Jewry of North America. ... Elazar Menachem Man Shach (אלעזר מנחם מן שך) (or Rav Leizer Shach, at times his name is written as Eliezer Schach in English publications) (January 22, 1898 - November 2, 2001), was a leading Eastern European-born and educated Haredi rabbi who settled and lived in modern Israel. ... Rabbi M.M. Schneerson The third Rebbe of the Chabad Lubavitch dynasty was also named Menachem Mendel Schneersohn (with a h) Menachem Mendel Schneerson (April 18, 1902-June 12, 1994), referred to by Lubavitchers as The Rebbe, was a prominent Orthodox Jewish rabbi who was the seventh and last Rebbe... Who is a Jew? (‎) is a commonly considered question about Jewish identity. ... In Judaism, Bar Mitzvah (Hebrew: בר מצוה, one (m. ... Bereavement in Judaism (אבלות aveilut; mourning) is a combination of minhag (traditional custom) and mitzvot (commandments) derived from Judaisms classical Torah and rabbinic texts. ... Brit milah (Hebrew: [bÉ™rÄ«t mÄ«lā] literally: covenant of circumcision), also berit milah (Sephardi), bris milah (Ashkenazi pronunciation) or bris (Yiddish) is a religious ceremony within Judaism to welcome infant Jewish boys into a covenant between God and the Children of Israel through ritual circumcision performed by a... Look up Jew in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Judaism considers marriage to be the ideal state of existence; a man without a wife, or a woman without a husband, are considered incomplete. ... Niddah (or nidah, nidda, nida; Hebrew:נִדָּה) is a Hebrew term which literally means separation, generally considered to refer to separation from ritual impurity[1]; Ibn Ezra argues that it is related to the term menaddekem, meaning cast you out[2]. The term niddah appears in the biblical description of the... Pidyon HaBen (Hebrew: פדיון הבן) is the redemption of the first-born, a ritual in Judaism. ... Secular Jewish culture embraces several related phenomena; above all, it is the culture of secular communities of Jewish people, but it can also include the cultural contributions of individuals who identify as secular Jews, or even those of religious Jews working in cultural areas not generally considered to be connected... The Shidduch (Hebrew: שידוך, pl. ... Zeved habat (also written Zebed habat) (Hebrew זֶבֶד הַבָּת) is the mainly Sephardic naming ceremony for girls, corresponding in part to the non-circumcision part of the Brit milah ceremony for boys. ... Nineteenth century plaque, with Jerusalem occupying the upper right quadrant, Hebron beneath it, the Jordan River running top to bottom, Safed in the top left quadrant, and Tiberias beneath it. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Safed (Hebrew: צְפַת, Tiberian: , Israeli: Tsfat, Ashkenazi: Tzfas; Arabic: صفد ; KJV English: Zephath) is a city in the North District in Israel. ... Arabic الخليل Government City (from 1997) Also Spelled Al-Khalil (officially) Al-Halil (unofficially) Governorate Hebron Population 167,000 (2006) Jurisdiction  dunams Head of Municipality Mustafa Abdel Nabi , Hebron (Arabic:   al-ḪalÄ«l or al KhalÄ«l; Hebrew:  , Standard Hebrew: Ḥevron, Tiberian Hebrew: Ḥeḇrôn) is a city at the... Hebrew טבריה (Standard) Teverya Arabic طبرية Government City District North Population 39 900 (a) Jurisdiction 10 000 dunams (10 km²) Tiberias (British English: ; American English: ; Hebrew: , Tverya; Arabic: , abariyyah) is a town on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee, Lower Galilee, Israel. ... A beth din (בית דין, Hebrew: house of judgment, plural battei din) is a rabbinical court of Judaism. ... A Gabbai (Hebrew: גבאי) is a person who assists in the running of a synagogue and ensures that the needs are met, for example the Jewish prayer services run smoothly, or an assistant to a rabbi (particularly the secretary or personal assistant to a Hassidic Rebbe). ... A hazzan or chazzan (Hebrew for cantor) is a Jewish musician trained in the vocal arts who helps lead the synagogue in songful prayer. ... Cohen (disambiguation) Position of the kohens hands and fingers during the Priestly Blessing A kohen (or cohen, Hebrew כּהן, priest, pl. ... Dovber of Mezeritch (died 1772) was the primary disciple of Israel ben Eliezer, the Baal Shem Tov, the founder of Hasidic Judaism (now a form of Orthodox Judaism. ... A Rosh yeshiva (Hebrew: ראש ישיבה) (plural in Hebrew: Roshei yeshiva, but also referred to in the English form as Rosh yeshivas) is a rabbi who is the academic head, or rosh (ראש), of a yeshiva (ישיבה), a college of higher Talmudic study. ... Mikvah (or mikveh) (Hebrew: מִקְוָה, Standard Tiberian  ; plural: mikvaot or mikvot) is a specially constructed pool of water used for total immersion in a purification ceremony within Judaism. ... A mohel (מוהל also moel) is a Jewish ritual circumciser who performs a brit milah ritual circumcision on the penis of a male who is to enter the Jewish covenant. ... For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ... For the tanna, see Judah HaNasi. ... Rosh yeshiva (Hebrew: ראש ישיבה) (pl. ... The synagogue Scolanova Trani in Italy. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew:  ; The Holy House), refers to a series of structures located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... The Tabernacle is known in Hebrew as the Mishkan ( משכן Place of [Divine] dwelling). It was to be a portable central place of worship for the Hebrews from the time they left ancient Egypt following the Exodus, through the time of the Book of Judges when they were engaged in conquering... The Western Wall by night. ... Aleinu (Hebrew: ‎, our duty) is a Jewish prayer found in the siddur, the classical Jewish prayerbook. ... For other uses, see Amidah (disambiguation). ... The Four Species (note: in a kosher lulav, the aravah is placed on the left, the lulav in the center, and the hadassim on the right) The Four Species (Hebrew: ארבעה מינים) are three types of plants and one type of fruit which are held together and waved in a special ceremony... The Hasidic Gartel The Gartel is a belt used by Hasidic Jews during prayer. ... // Hallel consists of six Psalms (113-118), which are said as a unit, on joyous occasions. ... Havdalah (הבדלה) is a Jewish religious ceremony that marks the symbolic end of Shabbat and holidays, and ushers in beginning of the new week. ... This article is about the Jewish prayer. ... A kittel (Yiddish: קיתל, robe) is a white robe worn on special occasions by religious Jews. ... () Kol Nidre (ashk. ... Ma Tovu (Hebrew for O How Good or How Goodly) is a prayer in Judaism, expressing reverence and awe for synagogues and other places of worship. ... A nine branched Chanukkiyah lit during Hanukkah The Chanukkiyah or Hanukiah, (Hebrew: ) is a nine branched candelabrum lit during the eight-day holiday of hanukkah. ... Mezuzah (IPA: ) (Heb. ... Listed below are some Hebrew prayers and blessings that are part of Judaism that are recited by many Jews. ... Sefer Torah being read during weekday service. ... Jewish services (Hebrew: תפלה, tefillah ; plural תפלות, tefillot ; Yinglish: davening) are the prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ... Shema Yisrael (or Shma Yisroel or just Shema) (Hebrew: שמע ישראל; Hear, [O] Israel) are the first two words of a section of the Torah (Hebrew Bible) that is used as a centerpiece of all morning and evening Jewish prayer services and closely echoes the monotheistic message of Judaism. ... A shofar made from the horn of a kudu, in the Yemenite Jewish style. ... The tallit (Modern Hebrew: ) or tallet(h) (Sephardi Hebrew: ), also called talles (Yiddish), is a prayer shawl cloak that is worn during the morning Jewish services (the Shacharit prayers) in Judaism, during the Torah service, and on Yom Kippur. ... Tefillin (Hebrew: תפלין), also called phylacteries, are two boxes containing Biblical verses and the leather straps attached to them which are used in traditional Jewish prayer. ... Tzitzit or tzitzis (Ashkenazi) (Hebrew: Biblical ×¦×™×¦×ª Modern ×¦×™×¦×™×ª) are fringes or tassels worn by observant Jews on the corners of four-cornered garments, including the tallit (prayer shawl). ... The word yad may also refer to the Yad ha-Chazaka, another name for Maimonides Mishneh Torah. ... A yarmulke (also yarmulka, yarmelke) (Yiddish יאַרמלקע yarmlke) or Kippah (Hebrew כִּפָּה kippāh, plural kippot) is a thin, usually slightly rounded cloth cap worn by Jews. ... This article deals with Jewish views of religious pluralism. ... map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Dharmic (yellow) religions in each country. ... This article discusses the traditional views of the two religions and may not be applicable all adherents of each. ... This article on relations between Catholicism and Judaism deals with the current relationship between the Roman Catholic Church and Judaism, focusing on changes over the last fifty years, and especially during the pontificate of Pope John Paul II. // The Second Vatican Council Throughout history accusations of anti-Semitism have resounded... In recent years there has been much to note in the way of reconciliation between some Christian groups and the Jewish people. ... Jacob wrestling an angel, by Gustave Doré (1832-1883), a shared Judeo-Christian story. ... Latter-day Saints believe themselves to be either direct descendants of the House of Israel, or adopted into it. ... This article is about the historical interaction between Islam and Judaism. ... A Jewish Buddhist is a person with a Jewish ethnic and/or religious background who practices forms of Buddhist meditation and spirituality. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Alternative Judaism refers to several varieties of modern Judaism which fall outside the common Orthodox/Non-Orthodox (Reform/Conservative/Reconstructionist) classification of the four major streams of todays Judaism. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... The Judeo-Arabic languages are a collection of Arabic dialects spoken by Jews living or formerly living in Arabic-speaking countries; the term also refers to more or less classical Arabic written in the Hebrew script, particularly in the Middle Ages. ... Judæo-Aramaic is a collective term used to describe several Hebrew-influenced Aramaic and Neo-Aramaic languages. ... The Judæo-Persian languages include a number of related languages spoken throughout the formerly extensive realm of the Persian Empire, sometimes including all the Jewish Indo-Iranian languages: Dzhidi (Judæo-Persian) Bukhori (Judæo-Bukharic) Judæo-Golpaygani Judæo-Yazdi Judæo-Kermani Judæo-Shirazi Jud... Not to be confused with Ladin. ... Yiddish ( yidish or idish, literally: Jewish) is a non-territorial Germanic language, spoken throughout the world and written with the Hebrew alphabet. ... Jewish history is the history of the Jewish people, faith, and culture. ... For the pre-history of the region, see Pre-history of the Southern Levant. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew:  ; The Holy House), refers to a series of structures located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... For other uses, see Babylonian captivity (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Main article: Religious significance of Jerusalem Jerusalem has been the holiest city in Judaism and the spiritual homeland of the Jewish people since the 10th century BCE.[1] Jerusalem has long been embedded into Jewish religious consciousness. ... 1800 BCE - The Jebusites build the wall Jebus (Jerusalem). ... The Hasmoneans (Hebrew: , Hashmonaiym, Audio) were the ruling dynasty of the Hasmonean Kingdom (140 BCE–37 BCE),[1] an autonomous Jewish state in ancient Israel. ... Herod the Great. ... For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ... For the followers of the Vilna Gaon, see Perushim. ... The sect of the Sadducees (or Zadokites and other variants) - which may have originated as a Political Party - was founded in the 2nd century BC and ceased to exist sometime after the 1st century AD. Their rivals, the Pharisees, are said to have originated in the same time period, but... The Essenes were a Jewish religious group that flourished from the 2nd century BC to the 1st century AD. Many separate, but related religious groups of that era shared similar mystic, eschatological, messianic, and ascetic beliefs. ... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Iudaea Province Commanders Vespasian, Titus Simon Bar-Giora, Yohanan mi-Gush Halav (John of Gischala), Eleazar ben Simon Strength 70,000? 1,100,000? Casualties Unknown 1,100,000? (majority Jewish civilian casualties) Jewish-Roman wars First War – Kitos War – Bar Kokhba revolt The first... Bar Kokhba’s revolt (132-135 CE) against the Roman Empire, also known as The Second Jewish-Roman War or The Second Jewish Revolt, was a second major rebellion by the Jews of Iudaea. ... The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, scattered, or Galut גלות, exile, Yiddish: tfutses), the Jewish presence outside of the Land of Israel is a result of the expulsion of the Jewish people out of their land, during the destruction of the First Temple, Second Temple and after the Bar Kokhba revolt. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Excluding the region of Palestine, and omitting the accounts of Joseph and Moses as unverifiable, Jews have lived in what are now Arab and non-Arab Muslim (i. ... Not to be confused with Sabaeans, who were ancient people living in what is now Yemen. ... Haskalah (Hebrew: השכלה; enlightenment, education from sekhel intellect, mind ), the Jewish Enlightenment, was a movement among European Jews in the late 18th century that advocated adopting enlightenment values, pressing for better integration into European society, and increasing education in secular studies, Hebrew, and Jewish history. ... Dates of Jewish emancipation. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the modern State of Israel, not History of Zionism. ... Belligerents Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... Israel, with the West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is an ongoing dispute between the State of Israel and Arab Palestinians. ... Satellite image of the Land of Israel in January 2003. ... Baal teshuva movement (return [to Judaism] movement) refers to a worldwide phenomenon among the Jewish people. ... Jewish political movements refer to the organized efforts of Jews to build their own political parties or otherwise represent their interest in politics outside of the Jewish community. ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ... General Zionists were centrists within the Zionist movement. ... Religious Zionism, or the Religious Zionist Movement, a branch of which is also called Mizrachi, is an ideology that claims to combine Zionism and Judaism, to base Zionism on the principles of Jewish religion and heritage. ... Palestine (comprising todays Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza strip) and Transjordan (todays Kingdom of Jordan) were all part of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... A Bundist demonstration, 1917 The General Jewish Labour Union of Lithuania, Poland and Russia, in Yiddish the Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Lite, Poyln un Rusland (אַלגמײַנער ײדישער אַרבײטערסבונד אין ליטאַ, פוילין און רוסלאַנד), generally called The Bund (בונד) or the Jewish Labor Bund, was a Jewish political party operating in several European countries between the 1890s and the... World Agudath Israel (The World Israeli Union) was established in the early twentieth century as the political arm of Ashkenazi Torah Judaism. ... Jewish feminism is a movement that seeks to improve the religious, legal, and social status of women within Judaism and to open up new opportunities for religious experience and leadership for Jewish women. ... Politics of Israel takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Israel is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism, also known as judeophobia) is prejudice and hostility toward Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... New antisemitism is the concept of a new 21st-century form of antisemitism emanating simultaneously from the left, the far right, and radical Islam, and tending to manifest itself as opposition to Zionism and the State of Israel. ... Racial antisemitism is hatred of Jews as a racial group, rather than hatred of Judaism as a religion. ... An example of state-sponsored atheist anti-Judaism. ... Secondary antisemitism is a distinct kind of antisemitism which is said to have appeared after the end of World War II. It is often explained as being caused by —as opposed to despite of— Auschwitz, pars pro toto for the Holocaust. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Gemara (Talmud) (1288 words)
The Talmud is composed in a mixture of Hebrew and Aramaic (the latter was the spoken vernacular of Babylonian Jews).
The scholars (Rabbis) who participated in the Talmud are referred to as "Amora'im" [singular: "Amora"], from an Aramaic word that originally designated the official in the academy whose job it was to recite the scholars' teachings before the public.
Babylonia was situated in the area that is presently occupied by Iraq and was known to the ancient Greeks as "Mesopotamia" ("Between the Rivers") The agricultural and economic lives of the populace were determined by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and the intricate network of canals emanating from them.
JewishEncyclopedia.com - TALMUD (13724 words)
The word "Talmud" in all these places did not denote the study subsequently pursued by the Amoraim, but was used instead of the word "Midrash," although this did not preclude the later introduction of the term "Talmud" into tannaitic sayings, where it either entirely displaced "Midrash" or was used side by side with it.
Moreover, the Talmud was further augmented by the inclusion within it of the views which the scholars expressed in the course of their public, judicial, and other activities, as well as by the data regarding their private lives and their religious practises which were discussed and memorized in the academies.
The anonymous framework of the Talmud may be regarded as the warp resulting from the united activity of the members of the academy, and upon which the woof of the Talmud was interwoven and developed during three centuries, until its final redaction gave it definitive form.
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COMMENTARY     

MILLSAileen19
4th June 2010
That is understandable that money makes us autonomous. But how to act if somebody does not have money? The one way only is to receive the home loans or car loan.
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