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Encyclopedia > Tallgrass prairie
Prairie grasses

The tallgrass prairie is an ecosystem native to central North America, with fire as its primary periodic disturbance. In the past, tallgrass prairies covered a large portion of the American Midwest, just east of the Great Plains, and portions of the Canadian Prairies. They flourished in areas with rich loess soils and moderate rainfall of around 30 to 35 inches (760 to 890 mm) per year. To the east, where fire was infrequent and periodic blowdown represented the main source of disturbance, beech-maple forests dominated. Shortgrass prairie was typical in the western Great Plains, where rainfall is less frequent and soils are less fertile. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x800, 1627 KB) Prairie grass, Rock Springs Nature Center, OFallon, Illinois, 2006. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x800, 1627 KB) Prairie grass, Rock Springs Nature Center, OFallon, Illinois, 2006. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... The Central United States is a bridge region between the Eastern United States and Western United States. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Prairie (disambiguation). ... The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ... The Great Plains covers much of the central United States, portions of Canada and Mexico. ... Map of the Canadian Prairie provinces, which include boreal forests, taiga, and mountains as well as the prairies (proper). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Beech (disambiguation). ... Distribution Species See List of Acer species Trees or shrubs in the genus Acer are commonly called Maples. ...

Contents

Ecosystem

As the name suggests, the most obvious features of the tallgrass prairie are tall grasses such as big bluestem and indiangrass, which average between 5 and 6 feet (1.5 and 2 m) tall, with occasional stalks as high as 8 or 9 feet (2.5 or 3 m). Prairies also include a large percentage of forbs, such as lead plant, prairie dock, and coneflowers. For other uses, see Grass (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Andropogon gerardii Vitman Big Bluestem is a bunch grass that is native to much of the prairie and Great Plains regions of North America. ... Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans), also called Indian grass, is a North American prairie grass, and is the official state grass of Oklahoma. ... A forb is a flowering plant with a non-woody stem that is not a grass. ... Species See text. ... Genera See text Coneflower is a flowering plant in family Asteraceae, a member of genus Rudbeckia. ...


The tallgrass prairie biome depends upon prairie fires, a form of wildfire, for its survival and renewal.[1] Tree seedlings and intrusive alien species without fire-tolerance are eliminated by periodic fires. Such fires may either be set by humans (for example, Native Americans used fires to drive buffalo and improve hunting, travel, and visibility) or started naturally by lightning. Attempts to re-establish small sections of tallgrass prairie in arboretum fashion were unsuccessful until controlled burns were instituted. A biome is a major class of ecologically similar communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms, often referred to as ecosystems. ... For other uses, see Wildfire (disambiguation). ... Alien species are organisms outside their natural habitats who can establish themselfs and thrive. ... An arboretum is a botanical garden primarily devoted to trees and other woody plants, forming a living collection of trees intended at least partly for scientific study. ... Firing the woods in a South Carolina forest with a custom made igniter mounted on an all terrain vehicle. ...


Technically, prairies have less than 5-10% tree cover. A grass-dominated plant community with 10-49% tree cover is a savanna. “Savannah” redirects here. ...


Due to accumulation of loess and organic matter, parts of the North American tallgrass prairie had the deepest topsoil ever recorded. After the steel plow was invented by John Deere, this fertile soil became one of America's most important resources. Over 99% of the original tallgrass prairie is now farmland. Topsoil is the uppermost layer of soil, usually the top six to eight inches. ... John Deere This article is about John Deere, the inventor of the first successful steel plow. ... For other uses, see Farm (disambiguation). ...


Remnants

Bison grazing on the 39,000 acre (158 km²) Tallgrass Prairie Nature Preserve in Osage County, Oklahoma.
Bison grazing on the 39,000 acre (158 km²) Tallgrass Prairie Nature Preserve in Osage County, Oklahoma.

The tallgrass prairie survives in areas unsuited to plowing: the rocky hill country of the Flint Hills, which run north to south through east-central Kansas, the eastern fringe of the Red River Valley (Tallgrass Aspen Parkland) in Manitoba and Minnesota, the Coteau des Prairies which extends from South Dakota through Minnesota and into Iowa, and the far north portion of Oklahoma. In Oklahoma the tallgrass prairie was maintained by ranchers, who saw the hat-high grass as prime grazing area for cattle. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 546 pixelsFull resolution (1493 × 1019 pixel, file size: 104 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This is a photo of the Tallgrass Prairie Nature Preserve in Osage County, Oklahoma that I took myself that I am putting into Public Doamin. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 546 pixelsFull resolution (1493 × 1019 pixel, file size: 104 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This is a photo of the Tallgrass Prairie Nature Preserve in Osage County, Oklahoma that I took myself that I am putting into Public Doamin. ... The Flint Hills are a group of hills in eastern Kansas, extending from Marshall County in the north, to Cowley County in the south. ... Official language(s) English[2] Capital Topeka Largest city Wichita Area  Ranked 15th  - Total 82,277 sq mi (213,096 km²)  - Width 211 miles (340 km)  - Length 417 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ... The Tallgrass Aspen Parkland is a Conservation Area located in southeastern Manitoba/northwestern Minnesota. ... The Coteau des Prairies: orange arrows indicate paths of the two lobes of the glacier around either side of the formation. ... Official language(s) None Capital Oklahoma City Largest city Oklahoma City Area  Ranked 20th  - Total 69,898 sq mi (181,196 km²)  - Width 230 miles (370 km)  - Length 298 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Grazing To feed on growing herbage, attached algae, or phytoplankton. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ...


A 39,000 acre (158 km²) Tallgrass Prairie Preserve in Osage County, Oklahoma, and a somewhat smaller 10,894 acre (44 km²) Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve in Kansas, attempt to maintain this ecosystem in its natural form, and have reintroduced bison to the vast expanses of waving grass.[1] Photo of the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve. ... Osage County is the largest county in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. ... On November 12, 1996, legislation was passed creating Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve in the Flint Hills region of Kansas. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies B. b. ...


Other U.S. preserves include Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie in Illinois, Broken Kettle Preserve and Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge in Iowa, Konza Prairie in Kansas, and Prairie State Park in Missouri. The Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie is a prairie reserve operated by the United States Forest Service. ... Snow geese flying in front of the loess hills at Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge in the Missouri River bottoms near Mound City, Missouri The Loess Hills are a formation of wind-deposited loess soil in the westernmost part of Iowa and Missouri along the Missouri River. ... The Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge is a federal national wildlife refuge located in Jasper County, Iowa, United States. ... Konza in spring with herd of bison in distance The Konza Prairie Preserve is a 3487-hectare (8,616 acre, 13. ...


The main range of Tallgrass Prairie in Canada was the 6,000 square kilometre plain in the Red River Valley, southwest of Winnipeg in Manitoba (see map). While most of Manitoba's tallgrass prairie has been destroyed through agricultural development, relatively small areas persist. One of the largest blocks of remaining tallgrass prairie in Manitoba is protected by a variety of conservation partners in a conservation area called the Tallgrass Aspen Parkland. The Red River Valley is a region in central North America that is drained by the Red River of the North. ... For other uses, see Winnipeg (disambiguation). ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) BC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL YT NT NU Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard - Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation... The Tallgrass Aspen Parkland is a Conservation Area located in southeastern Manitoba/northwestern Minnesota. ...


In eastern North Dakota is Sheyenne National Grassland, the only National Grassland on the tallgrass prairie. Sheyenne National Grassland is a National Grassland located in southeastern North Dakota in the United States, comprising 70,180 acres (284 km²) of public land amid 64,769 acres (262 km²) of privately owned land in a region of sandy soils in the vicinity of the Sheyenne River in Ransom...


There is a small pocket (less than 5 square km) of Tallgrass Prairie in the southwest corner of Windsor, Ontario, protected by Ojibway Park, and Spring Garden ANSI (Area of Natural Scientific Interest), along with the inter-connected parks: Black Oak Heritage Park, Ojibway Prairie Provincial Nature Reserveand the Tallgrass Prairie Heritage Park, all operated by the City of Windsor's Parks and Recreation, aside from the Provincial Nature Reserve. Nickname: Motto: The river and the land sustain us. ... Ojibway Park is a nature reserve in Windsor, Ontario. ... The Ojibway Prairie Complex is a 350-hectare complex of parks and nature reserves on the west side of of Windsor, Ontario, Canada. ... The Ojibway Prairie Complex is a 350-hectare complex of parks and nature reserves on the west side of of Windsor, Ontario, Canada. ... The Ojibway Prairie Complex is a 350-hectare complex of parks and nature reserves on the west side of of Windsor, Ontario, Canada. ...


Restoration

The Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie, founded in 2004 near Elwood, Illinois, was as of 2006 the largest tallgrass prairie restoration area in the United States. The Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie is a prairie reserve operated by the United States Forest Service. ... Elwood is a village in Will County, Illinois, United States. ...


In Minnesota, Glacial Ridge National Wildlife Refuge was established in 2004. The core of the refuge is a preserved 5,000 acres (20 km²) tallgrass prairie remnant, and an additional 30,000 acres (121 km²) are either in the process of restoration or will be soon. According to The Nature Conservancy, so far 100 wetlands have been restored and 8,000 acres (32 km²) of land have been seeded with native plant species. [2] Glacial Ridge National Wildlife Refuge was created on October 12, 2004, the 545th National Wildlife Refuge in the United States. ... This article is about the US organization called The Nature Conservancy. ...


See also

Buffalo Commons is a proposal to restore large parts of the drier portion of the Great Plains to native prairie grazed by buffalo. ...

References

  • Manning, Richard. Grassland: The History, Biology, Politics and Promise of the American Prairie
  • Cushman, Ruth Carol. Peterson Field Guides: The North American Prairie (Peterson Guides)
  • Least Heat-Moon, William. PrairyErth (A Deep Map): An Epic History of the Tallgrass Prairie Country
  • Savage, Candace. Prairie: A Natural History
  • White, Matt. Prairie Time: A Blackland Portrait
  1. ^ a b Klinkenborg, Verlyn (April 2007), "Splendor of the Grass: The Prairie's Grip is Unbroken in the Flint Hills of Kansas", National Geographic, <http://www7.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0704/feature5/>
  2. ^ http://www.nature.org/wherewework/northamerica/states/minnesota/preserves/art6943.html

  Results from FactBites:
 
Prairie Quick Facts (421 words)
The soil underneath the prairie is a dense tangle of roots and bulbs.
Prairie fires were important to the development of the tallgrass prairie as they kept the prairie from becoming a forest.
Prairie fire is an important ingredient in the renewal of the prairie.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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