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Encyclopedia > Taliban
Taliban
طالبان
Participant in the Civil war in Afghanistan (1992-2001), the War in Afghanistan (2001-present), and the Waziristan War
Flag of Taliban
Flag flown by the Taliban.
Active September 1994–present
Ideology Islamic Fundamentalism and Pashtun Nationalism
Leaders Mullah Mohammed Omar
Mullah Obaidullah Akhund (captured)
Area of
operations
Afghanistan and Pakistan

[1] The Civil war in Afghanistan, also known as Afghan Civil War, began in 1978 and has continued since, though it has included several distinct phases. ... For other uses of War in Afghanistan, see War in Afghanistan. ... Combatants Pakistan Islamic Emirate of Waziristan, al-Qaeda, Taliban, Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan Commanders Commander XI Corps Haji Omar, Abu Faraj al-Libbi(captured), Tohir Yo‘ldosh Strength 80,000[2] 40,000[3] Casualties 700[4] - 3,000[5] Pakistan military and paramilitary killed 1,000[6] - 3,000... Image File history File links Flag_of_Taliban. ... Islamic fundamentalism is a term used to describe religious ideologies seen as advocating a return to the fundamentals of Islam: the Quran and the Sunnah. ... Mullah Mohammed Omar (Pashto: ملا محمد عمر) (born c. ... Mullah Obaidullah, the Akhund (Pashto: ‎) was the Defence minister under the Taliban government in Afghanistan and later became an insurgent commander during the war with the United States and its allies. ...

Strength 12,000 claimed by Taliban[citation needed]
Originated as Mujahideen groups in the Soviet war in Afghanistan
Allies al-Qaeda
Hezb-e-Islami Gulbuddin
Islamic Emirate of Waziristan
Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan
Opponents Flag of Iran Iran
Flag of Afghanistan Afghanistan
Flag of Afghanistan Northern Alliance
ISAF (led by NATO)
Operation Enduring Freedom Allies

The Taliban (Pashto: طالبان - ṭālibān, also anglicised as Taleban) are a Sunni Islamist and Pashtun nationalist movement[2] that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the Northern Alliance and NATO countries. Committed fundamentalist insurgents, often described as "Taliban" in the media, originating[3] in the Frontier Tribal Areas of Pakistan, are currently engaged in a protracted guerrilla war against the current government of Afghanistan, allied NATO forces participating in Operation Enduring Freedom, and the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force.[4] Mujahideen (Arabic: ‎, , literally strugglers) is a term for Muslims fighting in a war or involved in any other struggle. ... Belligerents DRA USSR Mujahideen of Afghanistan Commanders Soviet 40th Army: Sergei Sokolov Valentin Varennikov Boris Gromov DRA: Babrak Karmal Mohammad Najibullah Abdul Rashid Dostum Abdul Haq Jalaluddin Haqqani Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Ismail Khan Ahmad Shah Massoud Strength Soviet forces: 80,000-104,000 Afghan forces: 329,000 (in 1989)[1] 45... Image File history File links Flag_of_jihad. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... The Hezb-e-Islami Gulbuddin started as a faction of Afghanistans Hezbi Islami Party. ... Area controlled by the Islamic Emirate of Waziristan shown in dark green The Islamic Emirate of Waziristan (Urdu: اسلامی امارات وزیرستان ) is a rebel organization in Waziristan, Pakistan that some commentators claim gained de facto recognition from the Government of Pakistan when it was named as party to the Waziristan Accord, the agreement... The Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) was a militant Islamist group formed in 1998 by former Soviet paratrooper Juma Namangani, and the Islamic ideologue Tohir Yuldashev - both ethnic Uzbeks from the Fergana Valley. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Afghanistan_1992_free. ... The Northern Alliance is a term used by the western media, Taliban and Al Qaida to identify the military coalition of various Afghan groups fighting the Taliban. ... Logo of ISAF. Pashto writing: Ú©Ù…Ú© Ùˆ همکاری (Komak wa Hamkari) means Help and Cooperation. International Security Assistance Force (10) (ISAF) is the name of a NATO-led security and development mission in Afghanistan which was established by the United Nations Security Council on 20 December 2001[1] and consists of about 35... This article is about the military alliance. ... The Civil war in Afghanistan, also known as Afghan Civil War, began in 1978 and has continued since, though it has included several distinct phases. ... Belligerents DRA USSR Mujahideen of Afghanistan Commanders Soviet 40th Army: Sergei Sokolov Valentin Varennikov Boris Gromov DRA: Babrak Karmal Mohammad Najibullah Abdul Rashid Dostum Abdul Haq Jalaluddin Haqqani Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Ismail Khan Ahmad Shah Massoud Strength Soviet forces: 80,000-104,000 Afghan forces: 329,000 (in 1989)[1] 45... Combatants Democratic Republic of Afghanistan Mujahideen Commanders Mohammad Najibullah Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Ahmed Shah Massoud The 1989 to 1992 phase of the Afghan Civil War began after the Soviets withdrew from Afghanistan, leaving the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan to fend for itself against the Mujahadeen. ... Combatants Islamic State of Afghanistan Hezbi Islami Taliban Commanders Burhanuddin Rabbani Ahmed Shah Massoud Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Abdul Rashid Dostum Mohammed Omar Abdul Rashid Dostum joined forces with Gulbuddin Hekmatyar in 1994. ... Combatants Northern Alliance Taliban Al-Qaeda Commanders Burhanuddin Rabbani Ahmed Shah Massoud † Mohammed Fahim Abdul Rashid Dostum Mohammed Omar Osama bin Laden The Afghan Civil War continued after the capture of Kabul by the Taliban, with the formation of the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan (more commonly... For other uses of War in Afghanistan, see War in Afghanistan. ... Pashto (‎, IPA: , also rendered as Pakhto, Pushto, Pukhto ‎, Pashtoe, Pashtu, Pushtu, Pathani or Pushtoo and also known as Afghan language[4][5]) is an Iranian language spoken by Pashtuns living in Afghanistan and Pakistan[6]. // Geographic distribution of Pashto (purple) and other Iranian languages Pashto is spoken by about 30... Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Flag flown by the UIF (Northern Alliance). ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Look up fundamentalism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An insurgency is an armed rebellion against a constituted authority, by any irregular armed force that rises up against an enforced or established authority, government, or administration. ... The Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) are areas of Pakistan outside the four provinces, comprising a region of some 27,220 km² (10,507 mi²). // The FATA are bordered by: Afghanistan to the west with the border marked by the Durand Line, the North-West Frontier Province and the Punjab... Guerrilla redirects here. ... In recent years the politics of Afghanistan have been dominated by the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan by the United States and the subsequent efforts to stabilise and democratise the country. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Combatants United States, Poland, France, Canada, Pakistan, India, Australia, United Kingdom, Germany, Netherlands, New Zealand, Philippines (in the Philippines theatre only), Northern Alliance, Italy, Czech Republic, Hungary, Ethiopia, Somalia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Croatia, Albania, Macedonia, Romania, Portugal, Bulgaria, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Georgia Taliban, al-Qaeda, Abu Sayyaf, Jemaah... This article is about the military alliance. ... Logo of ISAF. Pashto writing: Ú©Ù…Ú© Ùˆ همکاری (Komak wa Hamkari) means Help and Cooperation. International Security Assistance Force (10) (ISAF) is the name of a NATO-led security and development mission in Afghanistan which was established by the United Nations Security Council on 20 December 2001[1] and consists of about 35...


The Taliban movement was headed by Mullah Mohammed Omar. Beneath Mullah Omar were "a mixture of former small-unit military commanders and Madrasah teachers"[5] and then a rank and file most of whom had studied in Islamic religious schools in Pakistan. The overwhelming majority of Taliban movement were ethnic Pashtuns from southern Afghanistan and western Pakistan, along with a smaller number of volunteers from elsewhere, for example Europe or China. The Taliban received valuable training, supplies and arms from the Pakistani government, particularly the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI)[24], and many recruits from Madrasahs for Afghan refugees in Pakistan, primarily ones established by the Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam JUI. Mullah (Persian: ملا) is a title given to some Islamic clergy, coming from the Arabic word mawla, meaning both vicar and guardian. ... Mullah Mohammed Omar (Pashto: ملا محمد عمر) (born c. ... A Madrasah complex in Gambia Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand, ca. ... Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand, ca. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Pakistani intelligence agency. ... Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand, ca. ... The Muhajir or Mohajir Afghans are the Afghan refugees that fled Afghanistan after the Soviet invasion in 1979. ... The Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam (Assembly of Islamic Clergy) is a political party in Pakistan. ...


Although in control of Afghanistan's capital (Kabul) and much or most of the country for five years, the Taliban regime, or "Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan," gained diplomatic recognition from only three states: Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. Human rights abuses denied it United Nations recognition and most of the world's states, including Iran, India, Turkey, Russia, USA and most Central Asian republics opposed the Taliban and aided its rival (Afghan Northern Alliance). For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... Flag of the Islamic Emirate Afghanistan (1997-2001). ... Diplomatic recognition is a political act by which one state acknowledges an act or status of another state or government, thereby according it legitimacy and expressing its intent to bring into force the domestic and international legal consequences of recognition. ...


While in power, the Taliban implemented the "strictest interpretation of Sharia law ever seen in the Muslim world,"[6] and became notorious internationally for their mistreatment of women.[7] Women were forced to wear the burqa in public.[8] They were allowed neither to work nor to be educated after the age of eight,[7] and until then were permitted only to study the Qur'an.[7] Women seeking an education were forced to attend underground schools, where they and their teachers risked execution if caught.[7] They were not allowed to be treated by male doctors unless accompanied by a male family member or husband chaperone, which led to illnesses remaining untreated. They faced public flogging in the street,[9] and both men and women faced public execution for violations of the Taliban's laws.[10][11] Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... Public execution of a woman, known as Zarmina, by the Taliban at the Ghazi Sports Stadium, Kabul, November 16, 1999. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... In biology, chaperones are proteins whose function is to assist other proteins in achieving proper folding. ...

Contents

Etymology

The word Taliban is from the Arabic طالبان ṭālibān, " students", loaned from Arabic, طالب ṭālib, the Arabic plural being طلاب‎ ṭullāb. Since becoming a loanword in English, Taliban besides a plural noun referring to the group is also used as a singular noun referring to an individual. For example, John Walker Lindh has been referred to as "an American Taliban" besides the more correct "an American Talib".[12] Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Arabic redirects here. ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ... For other persons named John Walker, see John Walker (disambiguation). ...


Origin

The Taliban initially had enormous goodwill from Afghans weary of the corruption, brutality and incessant fighting of Mujahideen warlords. Two contrasting narratives of the beginnings of the Taliban[13] are that the rape and murder of boys and girls from a family traveling to Kandahar or a similar outrage by Mujahideen bandits sparked Mullah Omar and his students to vow to rid Afghanistan of these criminals.[14] The other is that the Pakistan-based truck shipping mafia known as the "Afghanistan Transit Trade" and their allies in the Pakistan government, trained, armed and financed the Taliban to clear the southern road across Afghanistan to the Central Asian Republics of extortionate bandit gangs.[15] Mujahideen (Arabic: ‎, , literally strugglers) is a term for Muslims fighting in a war or involved in any other struggle. ...


Though there is no evidence that the CIA directly supported the Taliban or Al Qaeda, some basis for military support of the Taliban was provided when, in the early 1980s, the CIA and the ISI (Pakistan's Interservices Intelligence Agency) provided arms to Afghans resisting the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and the ISI assisted the process of gathering radical Muslims from around the world to fight against the Soviets. Osama Bin Laden was one of the key players in organizing training camps for the foreign Muslim volunteers. The U.S. poured funds and arms into Afghanistan and "by 1987, 65,000 tons of U.S.-made weapons and ammunition a year were entering the war".[16] CIA redirects here. ... Map of major attacks attributed to al-Qaeda Al-Qaeda (also al-Qaida or al-Qaida or al-Qaidah) (Arabic: ‎ , translation: The Base) is an international alliance of terrorist organizations founded in 1988[4] by Osama bin Laden and other veteran Afghan Arabs after the Soviet War in... Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ...


The Taliban were based in the Helmand, Kandahar and Uruzgan regions, and were overwhelmingly ethnic Pashtuns and predominantly Durrani Pashtuns. They received training and arms from Pakistan, Saudi Arabia as well as other Middle Eastern countries who had been recruited by the U.S. to thwart the Soviet invasion of this region. Helmand (Pashto: هلمند) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan. ... Kandahar or Qandahar (Pashto: قندھار) is one of the largest of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. ... Categories: Stub | Provinces of Afghanistan ... Durrani (Persian: درانی) or Abdali (Persian: ابدالی) tribe is one of the Pashtun elite, and is also found in large numbers in western Pakistan. ...


The first major military activity of the Taliban was in October-November 1994 when they marched from Maiwand in southern Afghanistan to capture Kandahar City and the surrounding provinces, losing only a few dozen men.[17] Starting with the capture of a border crossing and a huge ammunition dump from warlord Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, a few weeks later they freed "a convoy trying to open a trade route from Pakistan to Central Asia" from another group of warlords attempting to extort money.[18] In the next three months this hitherto "unknown force" took control of twelve of Afghanistan's 34 provinces, with Mujahideen warlords often surrendering to them without a fight and the "heavily armed population" giving up their weapons.[19] By September 1996 they captured Afghanistan's capital, Kabul. The Maywand District is situated in the western part of the Kandahar Province,Afghanistan. ... This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ... Gulbuddin Hekmatyar (born 1947) Islamist Mujahideen leader and warlord. ... The Provinces of Afghanistan (locally recognized as wilayats - ولايت) are the primary administrative divisions of Afghanistan. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ...


Taliban ideology and its application

The Taliban's extremely strict and "anti-modern" ideology has been described as an "innovative form of sharia combining Pashtun tribal codes",[20] or Pashtunwali, with radical Deobandi interpretations of Islam favored by members of the Pakistani fundamentalist Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam (JUI) organization and its splinter groups. Also contributing to the admixture was the Wahhabism of their Saudi financial benefactors, and the jihadism and pan-Islamism of sometime comrade-in-arms Osama bin Laden.[21] Their ideology was a departure from the Islamism of the anti-Soviet mujahideen rulers they replaced who tended to be mystical Sufis, traditionalists, or radical Islamicists inspired by the Ikhwan.[22] Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... Pashtunwali (Pashto: ) is a concept of living for the Pashtun people (also known as Pathans), which dates back to pre-Islamic eras. ... The Deobandi (Urdu: دیو بندی devbandī) is a Sunni Islamic revivalist movement which started in South Asia and has more recently spread to other countries, such as Afghanistan, South Africa and the United Kingdom. ... The Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam (Assembly of Islamic Clergy) is a political party in Pakistan. ... Wahhabism (Arabic: Al-Wahhābīyya الوهابية) or Wahabism is a conservative 18th century reform movement of Sunni Islam founded by Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab, after whom the movement is named. ... Pan-Islam is a religious movement calling for the Muslims of the world to unite. ... Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ... This article is about political Islam For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Divine love and the cultivation of the elements of the Divine within the individual human being. ... The Muslim Brothers (Arabic: الإخوان المسلمون al-ikhwān al-muslimūn, full title The Society of the Muslim Brothers, often simply الإخوان al-ikhwān, the Brotherhood or MB) is a world-wide Sunni Islamist movement and the worlds largest, most influential Islamist group[1]. The MB is the largest political...


Sharia law was interpreted to ban a wide variety of activities hitherto lawful in Afghanistan, see below. Critics complained that most Afghans were non-Pashtuns who followed a different, less strict and less intrusive interpretation of Islam. Despite their similarity to the Wahhabis, the Taliban did not eschew all traditional popular practices. They did not destroy the graves of pirs (holy men) and emphasized dreams as a means of revelation.[23] A Pir (Persian: پیر) meaning Old Man. ...


Taliban relationship with ethnicity was mixed. Following Deobandi and Islamist anti-nationalist belief, they opposed "tribal and feudal structures," and eliminated from "leadership roles" traditional tribal or feudal leaders.[24] On the other hand, since they were very reluctant to share power and their ranks were overwhelmingly Pashtuns, their rule meant ethnic Pashtuns controlled multi-ethnic Afghanistan, where Pashtuns made up only 42% of the population.[25] At the national level, "all senior Tajik, Uzbek and Hazara bureaucrats" were replaced "with Pashtuns, whether qualified or not. As a result of this loss of expertise, the ministries by and large ceased to function."[26] In local units of government like city councils of Kabul[27] or Herat,[28] Taliban loyalists, not locals, dominated, even when the Pashto-speaking Taliban could not communicate with the local Persian-speaking Afghans (roughly half of the population of Afghanistan spoke Dari or other non-Pashtun tongues.)[28] Critics complained this "lack of local representation in urban administration made the Taliban appear as an occupying force."[29] The Deobandi (Urdu: دیو بندی devbandī) is a Sunni Islamic revivalist movement which started in South Asia and has more recently spread to other countries, such as Afghanistan, South Africa and the United Kingdom. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... Language(s) Persian (varieties of Dari and Tajiki) Religion(s) Islam (predominantly Sunni, with sizable Ithna Ashari and Ismaili minorities) Tājīk (Persian: ; UniPers: Tâjik; Tajik: ) is a term generally applied to Persian-speaking peoples of Iranian origin living east of Iran. ... Language(s) Hazaragi/Dari (Hazaragi and Dari dialects) Religion(s) Shia, some Sunni Related ethnic groups Mongol, Turkic, Iranian The Hazara are an ethnic group who reside mainly in the central region of Afghanistan, called Hazarajat or Hazaristan. ... Pashto (‎, IPA: , also rendered as Pakhto, Pushto, Pukhto ‎, Pashtoe, Pashtu, Pushtu, Pathani or Pushtoo and also known as Afghan language[4][5]) is an Iranian language spoken by Pashtuns living in Afghanistan and Pakistan[6]. // Geographic distribution of Pashto (purple) and other Iranian languages Pashto is spoken by about 30...


Like Wahhabi and other Deobandis, the Taliban strongly opposed the Shia branch of Islam. The Taliban declared the Hazara ethnic group, which totaled almost 10% of Afghanistan's population, "not Muslims."[30] Language(s) Hazaragi/Dari (Hazaragi and Dari dialects) Religion(s) Shia, some Sunni Related ethnic groups Mongol, Turkic, Iranian The Hazara are an ethnic group who reside mainly in the central region of Afghanistan, called Hazarajat or Hazaristan. ...


Along with being very strict, the Taliban were adverse to debate on doctrine with other Muslims. "The Taliban did not allow even Muslim reporters to question [their] edicts or to discuss interpretations of the Qur'an."[31] The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


As they established their power the Taliban created a new form of Islamic radicalism that spread beyond the borders of Afghanistan, mostly to Pakistan. By 1998-1999 Taliban-style groups in the Pashtun belt, and to an extent in Pakistan-administered Kashmir, "were banning TV and videos .... and forcing people, particularly women to adapt to the Taliban dress code and way of life."[32]


Governance

The Taliban did not hold elections, as their spokesman explained:

The Sharia does not allow politics or political parties. That is why we give no salaries to officials or soldiers, just food, clothes, shoes and weapons. We want to live a life like the Prophet lived 1400 years ago and jihad is our right. We want to recreate the time of the Prophet and we are only carrying out what the Afghan people have wanted for the past 14 years.[33] Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ...

Instead of an election, their leader's legitimacy came from "Bay'ah" or oath of allegiance in imitation of the Prophet and early Muslims. On 4 April 1996, Mullah Omar had the "the Cloak of the Prophet Mohammed", taken from its shrine "for the first time in 60 years." Wrapping himself in the relic, he appeared on the roof of a building in the centre of Kandahar while hundreds of Pashtun mullahs below shouted `Amir al-Mu'minin`! (Commander of the Faithful), in a defacto pledge of support. Bayah, in Islamic terminology is an oath of allegiance to a leader. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... It has been suggested that Amir-al-Muminin be merged into this article or section. ...


Also in keeping with the governance of early Muslims was a lack of state institutions or "a methodology for command and control," standard today internationally even among non-Westernized states. The Taliban didn't issue "press releases, policy statements or hold regular press conferences," and of course the outside world and most Afghans didn't even know what they looked like since photography was banned.[34] Their regular army resembled "a lashkar or traditional tribal militia force" with only 25,000 to 30,000 men, these being added to as the need arose. Cabinet ministers and deputies were mullahs with a "madrassa education." Several of them, such as the Minister of Health and Governor of the State bank, were primarily military commanders who left their administrative posts to fight when needed. If and when military reverses trapped them behind lines or led to their deaths, this created "even greater chaos" in the national administration.[35] In the Ministry of Finance there was no budget or "qualified economist or banker." Cash to finance Taliban war effort was collected and dispersed by Mullah Omar without book-keeping. A Madrasah complex in Gambia Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand, ca. ...


Consistency

The Taliban ideology was not static. Before its capture of Kabul members of the Taliban talked about stepping aside once a government of "good Muslims" took power and law and order were restored. The decision making process of the Taliban in Kandahar was modeled on the Pashtun tribal council (jirga), together with what was believed to be the early Islamic model. Discussion was followed by a building of a consensus by the believers.[36] A jirga (occasionally jirgah) is a tribal assembly which takes decisions by consensus. ...


However, as the Taliban's power grew, decisions were made by Mullah Omar without consulting the jirga, and without Omar's visiting other parts of the country. He visited the capital, Kabul, only twice while in power.

Decisions are based on the advice of the Amir-ul Momineen. For us consultation is not necessary. We believe that this is in line with the Sharia. We abide by the Amir's view even if he alone takes this view. There will not be a head of state. Instead there will be an Amir al-Mu'minin. Mullah Omar will be the highest authority and the government will not be able to implement any decision to which he does not agree. General elections are incompatible with Sharia and therefore we reject them.[37]

In 1999, Omar issued a decree stating the Buddha statues at Bamyan would be protected because Afghanistan had no Buddhists, implying idolatry would not be a problem. But in March 2001 they were destroyed after the previous decision was reversed with a decree stating "all the statues around Afghanistan must be destroyed."[38] The Buddhas of Bamyan (Pashto: د بودا بتان په باميانو کې De Buda butan pe bamiyano ke, Farsi: تندیس‌های بودا در باميان tandis-ha-ye buda dar bamiyaan) were two monumental statues of standing Buddhas carved into the side of a cliff in the Bamyan valley of central Afghanistan, situated 230 km (143 miles) northwest of Kabul at an altitude... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... The Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin Idolatry is a major sin in the Abrahamic religions regarding image. ...


Criticism of ideology

The Taliban were criticized for their strictness toward those who disobeyed the (Bid‘ah) rule. Some Muslims complained that many Taliban prohibitions - such as bans on clapping during sports events; kite flying; beard trimming; or sports for women - had no validity in the Qur'an or sharia. Another source of objection was that the Taliban called their 20% tax on truckloads of opium "zakat," when zakat is limited to 2.5% of the zakat-payers' disposable income.[39] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ...


The bestowing of the title of Amir al-Mu'minin on Muhammad Omar was criticized on the grounds that he lacked scholarly learning, tribal pedigree, or connections to the Prophet's family. Sanction for the title required the support of all of the country's ulema, whereas only some 1200 Pashtun Taliban-supporting Mullahs had declared Omar the Amir.[39] "No Afghan had adopted the title since 1834, when King Dost Mohammed Khan assumed the title before he declared jihad against the Sikh kingdom in Peshawar. But Dost Mohammed was fighting foreigners, while Omar had declared jihad against other Afghans."[40] It has been suggested that Amir-al-Muminin be merged into this article or section. ... Dost Mahommed Khan (1793 - June 9, 1863) founded the Barakzai dynasty in Afghanistan. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ...


Explanation of ideology

Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam (JUI) was important to the Taliban because the "vast majority" of its rank and file and most of the leadership, (though not Mullah Omar), were Koranic students who had studied at madrassas set up for Afghan refugees, usually by the JUI. The leader of JUI, Maulana Fazl ur-Rahman, was a political ally of Benazir Bhutto. After Bhutto became prime minister, Rehman "had access to the government, the army and the ISI" whom he influenced to help the Taliban.[41] The Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam (Assembly of Islamic Clergy) is a political party in Pakistan. ... The Muhajir or Mohajir Afghans are the Afghan refugees that fled Afghanistan after the Soviet invasion in 1979. ... Maulana Fazl ur-Rahman (Urdu: مولانا فضل الرحمان ) is the son of Mufti Mahmud (Former provincial Chief Minister). ...


Journalist Ahmed Rashid suggests that the devastation and hardship of the war against the Soviet Union and the civil war that followed, was another factor influencing the ideology of the Taliban.[42] The young rank and file Taliban were Koranic students in Afghan refugee camps whose teachers were often "barely literate," let alone scholars learned in the finer points of Islamic law and history. The refugee students brought up in a totally male society, not only had no education in mathematics, science, history or geography, they had no traditional skills of farming, herding or handicraft-making, nor even knowledge of their tribal and clan lineages.[42] Ahmed Rashid (b. ...


In such an environment peace meant unemployment, and domination of women was an affirmation of manhood. Rigid fundamentalism was a matter of political survival, not just principle, Taliban leaders "repeatedly told" Rashid "that if they gave women greater freedom or a chance to go to school, they would lose the support of their rank and file."[43]


Life under the Taliban regime

Sharia law was interpreted to ban a wide variety of activities hitherto lawful in Afghanistan: employment and education for women, movies, television, videos, music, dancing, hanging pictures in homes, clapping during sports events. One Taliban list of prohibitions included:

pork, pig, pig oil, anything made from human hair, satellite dishes, cinematography, and equipment that produces the joy of music, pool tables, chess, masks, alcohol, tapes, computers, VCRs, television, anything that propagates sex and is full of music, wine, lobster, nail polish, firecrackers, statues, sewing catalogs, pictures, Christmas cards."[44]

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:

Men were required to have a beard extending farther than a fist clamped at the base of the chin. On the other hand, they had to wear their head hair short. Men were also required to wear a head covering.[45] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...


Possession was forbidden of depictions of living things, including photographs of them, stuffed animals, and dolls.[45]


Rules which according to some Muslims had no validity in the Qur'an or sharia included a ban on clapping during sports events, kite flying, beard trimming, and sports for women. The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... For other uses, see Kite (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Beard (disambiguation). ...


These rules were issued by the Ministry for the Promotion of Virtue and Suppression of Vice (PVSV) and enforced by its "religious police", a concept thought to be borrowed from the Wahhabis. In newly conquered towns hundreds of religious police beat offenders — typically men who shaved and women who were not wearing their burqa properly — with long sticks.[46] The Mutaween (مطوعين in Arabic) (variant English spellings: mutawwain, muttawa, mutawallees, mutawa’ah, mutawi’) are the government-authorized or -recognized religious police (or clerical police or public order police) within Islamist theocracies which adhere to varied interpretations of Sharia Law in which governments are either directly controlled by or significantly under...


Theft was punished by the amputation of a hand, rape and murder by public execution. Married adulterers were stoned to death. In Kabul, punishments were carried out in front of crowds in the city's former soccer stadium. The Olympia Stadium: start and finish lines visible, defining the length of one stadium (in this case 192. ...


Treatment of women

A member of the Taliban's religious police beating a woman in Kabul on September 13, 2001. The footage, which was filmed by RAWA, can be seen here.
A member of the Taliban's religious police beating a woman in Kabul on September 13, 2001. The footage, which was filmed by RAWA, can be seen here.

Women in particular were targets of the Taliban's restrictions. They were prohibited from working; from wearing clothing regarded as "stimulating and attractive," including the "Iranian chador," viewed as insufficiently complete in its covering); from taking a taxi without a "close male relative"; washing clothes in streams; or having their measurements taken by tailors.[47] Public execution of a woman, known as Zarmina, by the Taliban at the Ghazi Sports Stadium, Kabul, November 16, 1999. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Talibanbeating. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Talibanbeating. ... The Mutaween (مطوعين in Arabic) (variant English spellings: mutawwain, muttawa, mutawallees, mutawa’ah, mutawi’) are the government -authorized or -recognized religious police (or clerical police or public order police) within Islamist theocracies which adhere to varied interpretations of Sharia Law, and in which the governments are either directly controlled by, or... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Logo of the Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan The Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan (RAWA) (جمعیت انقلابی زنان افغانستان) is a womens organization in Afghanistan that promotes womens rights and secular democracy. ... A chador (Persian چادر) is an outer garment worn by some Iranian women when they venture out into public; it is one possible way in which a Muslim woman may follow the Islamic ħijāb dress code. ...


Employment for women was restricted to the medical sector, since male medical personnel were not allowed to examine women. One result of the banning of employment of women by the Taliban was the closing down in places like Kabul of primary schools not only for girls but for boys, because almost all the teachers there were women.[48]


Women were also not permitted to attend co-educational schools; in practice, this prevented the vast majority of young women and girls in Afghanistan from receiving even a primary education. A primary school in Český Těšín, Poland Primary education is the first stage of compulsory education. ...


Women were made to wear the burqa, a traditional dress covering the entire body except for a small screen to see out of. Taliban restrictions became more severe after they took control of the capital. In February 1998, religious police forced all women off the streets of Kabul and issued new regulations ordering "householders to blacken their windows, so women would not be visible from the outside."[49] Home schools for girls, which had been allowed to continue, were forbidden.[50] In June 1998, the Taliban stopped all women from attending general hospitals,[51] leaving the use of one all-women hospital in Kabul. There were many reports of Muslim women being beaten by the Taliban for violating the Sharia. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ...


Prohibitions on culture

Movie theaters were closed and music banned. Hundreds of cultural artifacts that were deemed polytheistic were also destroyed including major museum and countless private art collections. A typical multiplex (AMC Promenade 16 in Woodland Hills, Los Angeles, United States). ... Polytheism is belief in, or worship of, multiple gods or divinities. ...


A sample Taliban edict issued after their capture of Kabul is one decreed in December 1996 by the "General Presidency of Amr Bil Maruf and Nahi Anil Munkar" (or Religious Police) banning a variety of things and activities: music, shaving of beards, keeping of pigeons, flying kites, displaying of pictures or portraits, western hairstyles, music and dancing at weddings, gambling, "sorcery," and not praying at prayer times.[47] In February 2001, Taliban used sledgehammers to destroy representational works of art at the National Museum of Afghanistan.[52] 2001 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December Events: February - Iraq disarmament crisis: British and U.S. forces carry out bombing raids attempting to disable Iraqs air defense network. ...


Non-Western festivities were not exempt from bannings. The Taliban banned the traditional Afghan New Year's celebration of Nowruz as anti-Islamic, and "for a time they also banned Ashura, the Shia Islamic month of mourning and even restricted any show of festivity at Eid."[53] The Afghan people were not allowed to have any cultural celebrations if the women were there. If there were only men at the celebration it would be allowed to go forth, so long as it did not go over the curfew time of 9:00 pm. Persepolis all nations stair case. ... The Day of Aashurah, sometimes spelled ‘Ashurah or Aashoorah, falls on the 10th day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar. ... The word Eid can mean several things: There are two Islamic festivals of Eid: One is called Eid ul-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر) that marks the end of the holy month of Ramadan, The other is Eid ul-Adha (Arabic: عيد الأضحى) or Eid-e Qurban (Persian: عید قربان) which is celebrated to commemorate Prophet Ibrahim...


Taliban official Mullah Mohammed Hassan explained that "of course we realize that people need some entertainment but they can go to the parks and see the flowers, and from this they will learn about Islam." The Education Minister Mullahs Abdul Hanifi told questioners that the Taliban "oppose music because it creates a strain in the mind and hampers study of Islam."[53]


Ethnic massacres and persecution

The worst attack on civilians came in summer of 1998 when the Taliban swept north from Herat to the predominantly Hazara and Uzbek city of Mazar-i-Sharif, the largest city in the north. Entering at 10 am on 8 August 1998, for the next two days the Taliban drove their pickup trucks "up and down the narrow streets of Mazar-i-Sharif shooting to the left and right and killing everything that moved — shop owners, cart pullers, women and children shoppers and even goats and donkeys."[54] More than 8000 noncombatants were reported killed in Mazar-i-Sharif and later in Bamiyan.[55] Contrary to the injunctions of Islam, which demands immediate burial, the Taliban forbade anyone to bury the corpses for the first six days while they rotted in the summer heat and were eaten by dogs.[56] In addition to this indiscriminate slaughter, the Taliban sought out and massacred members of the Hazara, a mostly Shia ethnic group, while in control of Mazar. Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ... Mazari Sharif, also known as Mazar-i Sharif or Mazār-e SharÄ«f (Persian: ‎ ), is the fourth largest city of Afghanistan, with population of 300,600 people (2006 official estimate). ... Language(s) Hazaragi/Dari (Hazaragi and Dari dialects) Religion(s) Shia, some Sunni Related ethnic groups Mongol, Turkic, Iranian The Hazara are an ethnic group who reside mainly in the central region of Afghanistan, called Hazarajat or Hazaristan. ...


While the slaughter can be attributed to several factors — ethnic difference, suspicions of Hazaras loyalty to their co-religionists in Iran, fury at the loss of life suffered in an earlier unsuccessful Taliban takeover of Mazar — takfir by the puritanical Sunni Taliban toward the Shia Hazaras was instrumental. It was expressed by Mullah Niazi, the commander of the attack and governor of Mazar after the attack, in his declaration from Mazar's central mosque: In Shia terminology, takfir also refers to the practice of crossing the arms when standing upright during salat (or takattuf, called qabd by Sunnis). ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ...

"Last year you rebelled against us and killed us. From all your homes you shot at us. Now we are here to deal with you. The Hazaras are not Muslims and now have to kill Hazaras. You either accept to be Muslims or leave Afghanistan. Wherever you go we will catch you. If you go up we will pull you down by your feet; if you hide below, we will pull you up by your hair.";[30]

Hazara also suffered from a siege by the Taliban of their Hazarajat homeland in central Afghanistan and the refusal of the Taliban to allow the UN to supply food to Hazara to the provinces of Bamiyan, Ghor, Wardak and Ghazni.[57] A month after the Mazar slaughter, Taliban broke through Hazar lines and took over Hazarajat. The killing of civilians was much less common there than in Mazar, but occurred nevertheless.[58]


During the years that followed, rapes and massacres of Hazara by Taliban forces were documented by groups such as Human Rights Watch.[59] Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ...


Economy

Peace did bring economic development to Afghanistan. The so-called "transportation mafia" operating out of Pakistan "cut down millions of acres of timber in Afghanistan for the Pakistani market, denuding the countryside as there was no reforestation. They stripped down rusting factories, ... even electricity and telephone poles for their steel and sold the scrap to steel mills in Lahore."[60]


Conscription

Main article: Taliban conscription

According to the testimony of Guantanamo captives before their Combatant Status Review Tribunals, the Taliban, in addition to conscripting men to serve as soldiers, also conscripted literate and numerate men to staff its civil service. Ironically, given the derivation of their name for themselves, some of the Taliban leaders were illiterate. During its administration of Monique Bowan there was an extensive, varied Taliban conscription program. ... Detainees upon arrival at Camp X-Ray, January 2002 Guantánamo Bay detainment camp serves as a joint military prison and interrogation camp under the leadership of Joint Task Force Guantanamo (JTF-GTMO) and has occupied a portion of the United States Navys base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba since... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Detention, Treatment, and Trial of Certain Non-Citizens in the War Against Terrorism Wikisource has original text related to this article: Declaration of Stephen Abraham, Lieutenant Colonel, United States Army Reserve, June 14th, 2007 This is the trailer where the Combatant Status... The Roman civil service in action. ...


War with the Northern Alliance

Main article: Afghan Civil War (1996-2001)
Taliban in Herat, July 2001.
Taliban in Herat, July 2001.

Taliban's strict policies and condescending behavior toward their local allied troops caused an uprising in which thousands of the Taliban's best troops were killed. Combatants Northern Alliance Taliban Al-Qaeda Commanders Burhanuddin Rabbani Ahmed Shah Massoud † Mohammed Fahim Abdul Rashid Dostum Mohammed Omar Osama bin Laden The Afghan Civil War continued after the capture of Kabul by the Taliban, with the formation of the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan (more commonly... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2508x3777, 1283 KB) Summary Taliban in Herat. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2508x3777, 1283 KB) Summary Taliban in Herat. ...


In 1997, Ahmad Shah Massoud devised a plan to utilize guerrilla tactics in the Shamali plains to defeat the Taliban advances. In collaboration with the locals, Masoud had deployed his forces to be stationed at civilian dwellings and other hidden places. Upon the arrival of the Taliban, some locals, who had vowed pacts of peace with the Taliban, as well as Masoud's forces came out of hiding and in a surprise attack captured the north of Kabul. Soon after, the Taliban put a major effort into taking control of the Shamali plains, indiscriminately killing young men, uprooting and expelling the population. Kamal Hossein, a special reporter for the UN, had written a full report on these and other war crimes that further insinuated and inflamed the issue of ethnicity. Ahmad Shah Massoud(Persian: ) (c. ... Guerilla may refer to Guerrilla warfare. ... In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ...


In August 8, 1998 the Taliban again took Mazar-i-Sharif this time avenging their earlier defeat and creating more international controversy with mass killings of thousands of civilians and several Iranian diplomats. This offensive left the Northern Alliance in control of only a small part of Afghanistan (10-15%) in the north. The Taliban retained control of most of the country until the 2001 9/11 attack by Al Qaeda. On September 9, 2001, a suicide bomber, posing as an interviewer and widely thought to be connected to Al-Qaeda, assassinated the Northern Alliance mujahideen military leader Ahmad Shah Massoud. Despite his removal, the Taliban were driven from most of Afghanistan by American bombing and Northern Alliance ground troops a couple of months later in the 2001 War. is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Mazār-e Sharīf, also known as Mazar-e-Sharif, Mazar-i Sharif and Mazar-i-Sharif (in Persian مزار شریف), is a city in northern Afghanistan and the capital of Balkh province. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Ahmad Shah Massoud(Persian: ) (c. ... Mujahideen (Arabic: ‎, , literally strugglers) is a term for Muslims fighting in a war or involved in any other struggle. ... Ahmad Shah Massoud(Persian: ) (c. ... For other uses of War in Afghanistan, see War in Afghanistan. ...

Main article: War in Afghanistan (2001–present)

For other uses of War in Afghanistan, see War in Afghanistan. ...

International relations

During its time in power, the Taliban regime, or "Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan," gained diplomatic recognition from only three states: the United Arab Emirates, Pakistan, and Saudi Arabia all of whom also provided aid. Most states in the world, including Russia, Iran, India, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and later the USA, opposed the Taliban and aided their enemy the Northern Alliance. Flag of the Islamic Emirate Afghanistan (1997-2001). ... Diplomatic recognition is a political act by which one state acknowledges an act or status of another state or government, thereby according it legitimacy and expressing its intent to bring into force the domestic and international legal consequences of recognition. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Flag flown by the UIF (Northern Alliance). ...


Officially Pakistan denied it was supporting the Taliban, but its support was substantial -- one year's aid (1997/1998) was an estimated US$30 million in wheat, diesel, petroleum and kerosene fuel, and other supplies.[61] The Taliban's influence in its neighbour Pakistan was deep. Its "unprecedented access" among Pakistan's lobbies and interest groups enabled it "to play off one lobby against another and extend their influence in Pakistan even further. At times they would defy" even the powerful ISI.[62]


Foreign powers, including the United States, were at first supportive of the Taliban in hopes it would serve as a force to restore order in Afghanistan after years of division into corrupt, lawless warlord fiefdoms. The U.S. government, for example, made no comment when the Taliban captured Herat in 1995 and expelled thousands of girls from schools.[63] These hopes faded as it began to be engaged in warlord practices of rocketing unarmed civilians, targeting ethnic groups (primarily Hazaras) and restricting the rights of women.[64] In late 1997, American Secretary of State Madeleine Albright began to distance the U.S. from the Taliban and the next year the American-based Unocal oil company withdrew from a major deal with the Taliban regime concerning an oil pipeline. Madeleine Korbel Albright (born Marie Jana Korbelová, IPA: , on May 15, 1937) was the first woman to become United States Secretary of State. ... The Unocal Corporation (NYSE: UCL), based in Los Angeles, California, was founded in 1890 as the Union Oil Company of California. ...


In early August of 1998 the Taliban's difficulties in relations with foreign groups became much more serious. After attacking the city of Mazar, Taliban forces killed several thousand civilians and 10 Iranian diplomats and intelligence officers in the Iranian consulate. Alleged radio intercepts indicate Mullah Omar personally approved the killings.[65] The Iranian government was incensed and a "full-blown regional crisis" ensued with Iran mobilizing 200,000 regular troops,[66] though war was averted.


A day before the capture of Mazar, affiliates of Taliban guest Osama bin Laden bombed two U.S. embassies in Africa killing 224 and wounding 4500 mostly African victims. The United States responded by launching cruise missiles attacks on suspected terrorists camps in Afghanistan killing over 20 though failing to kill bin Laden or even many al-Qaeda. Mullah Omar condemned the missile attack and American President Bill Clinton.[67] Saudi Arabia expelled the Taliban envoy in Saudi Arabia in protest over the Taliban's refusal to turn over bin Laden and after Mullah Omar allegedly insulted the Saudi royal family.[68] In mid-October the UN Security Council voted unanimously to ban commercial aircraft flights to and from Afghanistan and freeze its bank accounts world wide.[69] Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ... In the 1998 U.S. Embassy bombings (August 7, 1998), 257 people were killed and over 4,000 wounded in simultaneous car bomb explosions at the United States embassies in the East African capital cities of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Nairobi, Kenya. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ...


The regime's isolation grew in March 2001 with the destruction of Afghanistan's most significant archeological treasures, the 1500-year-old giant Buddha statues, (the two largest were 55 and 37 meters high) in Bamiyan. That month the Taliban also issued a decree ordering non-Muslims to wear distinctive yellow patches. In September the isolation climaxed with the 9/11 bombing of the United States and the 2001 war that drove the Taliban from power. One of the Buddhas of Bamiyan as it stood in 1963 The Buddhas of Bamiyan (Persian: تندیس‌های بودا در باميان tandis-ha-ye buda dar bamiyaan) were two monumental statues of standing Buddhas carved into the side of a cliff in the Bamiyan valley of central Afghanistan, situated 230 km (143 miles) northwest of... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly...


Relations with the United Nations and aid agencies

A major issue during the Taliban's reign was its relations with the United Nations (UN) and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Twenty years of continuous warfare, first with the Soviets and then between mujahideen, had devastated Afghanistan's infrastructure and economy. There was no running water, little electricity, few telephones, motorable roads or regular energy supplies. Basic necessities like water, food and housing and others were in desperately short supply. In addition, the clan and family structure that provided Afghans with a social/economic safety net was also badly damaged.[31][70] Afghanistan's infant mortality was the highest in the world. A full quarter of all children died before they reached their fifth birthday, a rate several times higher than most other developing countries.[71] UN redirects here. ... NGO redirects here. ... For other uses, see Clan (disambiguation). ...


Consequently international charitable and/or development organisations (NGOs) were extremely important to the supply of food, employment, reconstruction, and other services in Afghanistan. With one million plus deaths during the years of war, the number of families headed by widows had reached 98,000 by 1998.[72] Thus Taliban restrictions on women were sometime a matter not only of human rights, but of life and death. In Kabul, where vast portions of the city had been devastated from rocket attacks, more than half of its 1.2 million people benefited in some way from NGO charity, even for water to drink.[73] The civil war and its refugee-creation processes continued during the entire time the Taliban were in power. During that time, more than three-quarters of a million civilians were displaced by new Taliban offensives in the north around Mazar, on the Herat front, and in the fertile Shomali valley around Kabul. The offensives used "scorched-earth" tactics to prevent civilians from supplying the enemy with aid.[74] Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


Despite the receipt of UN and NGO aid, the Taliban's attitude toward the UN and NGOs was often one of suspicion, not gratitude or even tolerance. The UN operates on the basis of international law, not Islamic Sharia, and the UN did not recognize the Taliban as the legitimate government of Afghanistan. Additionally, most of the foreign donors and aid workers, who had tried to persuade the Taliban to change its strict policies and allow women more freedom, were non-Muslims. Providing a constitution for public international law, the United Nations was conceived during World War II International law is the term commonly used for referring to the system of implicit and explicit agreements that binds together nation-states in adherence to recognized values and standards, differing from other legal systems... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ...


As the Taliban's Attorney General Maulvi Jalil-ullah Maulvizada expressed it:

Let us state what sort of education the UN wants. This is a big infidel policy which gives such obscene freedom to women which would lead to adultery and herald the destruction of Islam. In any Islamic country where adultery becomes common, that country is destroyed and enters the domination of the infidels because their men become like women and women cannot defend themselves. Anyone who talks to us should do so within Islam's framework. The Holy Koran cannot adjust itself to other people's requirements, people should adjust themselves to the requirements of the Holy Koran.[75]

Frustrations of aid agencies were numerous. Taliban decision-makers, particularly Mullah Omar, seldom if ever talked directly to non-Muslim foreigners, so aid providers had to deal with intermediaries whose approvals and agreements were often reversed by Taliban higher-ups.[76] In September 1997, the European Commissioner for Humanitarian Affairs, Emma Bonino, and 19 Western journalists and aid workers were arrested and held for three hours by the Taliban religious police in Kabul when photographs were taken of women patients.[77] Around the same time the heads of three UN agencies in Kandahar were expelled from the country after protesting that a female lawyer for the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) was forced to talk to Taliban officials from behind a curtain so her face would not be visible.[78]


When the UN increased the number of Muslim women staff to satisfy Taliban demands for Muslim staff, the Taliban then insisted "all female Muslim UN staff traveling to Afghanistan to be chaperoned by a mahram or a blood relative."[51] In July 20, 1998, the Taliban closed "down all NGO offices by force" after those organization refused to move to a bombed out former Polytechnic College as ordered.[79] One month later the UN offices were also shut down.[80] In Islamic sharia legal terminology, a mahram (Arabic محرم, also transcribed mahrim or maharem) is an unmarriageable kin with whom sexual intercourse would be considered incestuous, a punishable taboo. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...


As food prices rose and conditions deteriorated, the Taliban Planning Minister Qari Din Mohammed explained the Taliban's indifference to the loss of humanitarian aid:

We Muslims believe God the Almighty will feed everybody one way or another. If the foreign NGOs leave then it is their decision. We have not expelled them.[81]

Relationship with Osama bin Laden

In 1996, Osama bin Laden moved to Afghanistan from Sudan. He came without any invitation from the Taliban, and sometimes irritated Mullah Omar with his declaration of war and fatwa to murder citizens of third-party countries, and follow-up interviews,[82] but relations between the two groups became closer over time, and eventually bonded to the point where Mullah Omar rebuffed its patron Saudi Arabia, insulting Saudi minister Prince Turki and refusing to turn over bin Laden to the Saudis as Omar had reportedly promised to earlier.[83] Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ... Prince Turki bin Faisal al Saud (born February 15, 1945) is the former Saudi Head of Intelligence, Saudi Ambassador to the United Kingdom, Ireland and as of July 2005, the Saudi ambassador to the United States. ...


Bin Laden was able to forge an alliance between the Taliban and his Al-Qaeda organization. It is understood that al-Qaeda-trained fighters known as the 055 Brigade were integrated with the Taliban army between 1997 and 2001. Several hundred Arab Afghan fighters sent by bin Laden assisted the Taliban in the slaughter at Mazar-e-Sharif.[84] Taliban-al-Qaeda connections, were also strengthened by the reported marriage of one of bin Laden's sons to Omar's daughter. During Osama bin Laden's stay in Afghanistan, he may have helped finance the Taliban.[85] [86] Perhaps the biggest favor al-Qaeda did for the Taliban was the assassination by suicide bombing[52] of the Taliban's most effective military opponent mujahideen commander and Northern Alliance leader Ahmad Shah Massoud shortly before September 9, 2001. This came at a time when Taliban human rights violations and extremism seemed likely to create international support for Massoud's group as the legitimate representatives of Afghanistan.[52] The killing, reportedly handled by Ayman Zawahiri and the Egyptian Islamic Jihad wing of al-Qaeda, left the Northern Alliance leaderless, and removed "the last obstacle to the Taliban’s total control of the country ..."[87] A military alliance is an agreement between two, or more, countries; related to wartime planning, commitments, or contingencies; such agreements can be both defensive and offensive. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... The 055 Brigade is an elite guerrilla organization sponsored and trained by Al Qaeda that was integrated into the Taliban army between 1997 and 2001. ... Mujahideen (Arabic: ‎, , literally strugglers) is a term for Muslims fighting in a war or involved in any other struggle. ... Ahmad Shah Massoud(Persian: ) (c. ... Ayman al-Zawahiri (in Arabic, ايمن الظواهري) (born June 19, 1951) is a prominent member of the al-Qaeda group and formerly the head of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad paramilitary organization. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


After the 1998 U.S. embassy bombings in Africa, Osama bin Laden and several al Qaeda members were indicted in U.S. criminal court.[88] The Taliban protected Osama bin Laden from extradition requests by the U.S., variously claiming that bin Laden had "gone missing" in Afghanistan,[89] or that Washington "cannot provide any evidence or any proof" that bin Laden is involved in terrorist activities and that "without any evidence, bin Laden is a man without sin... he is a free man."[90][91] Evidence against bin Laden included courtroom testimony and satellite phone records.[92][93] Bin Laden in turn, praised the Taliban as the "only Islamic government" in existence, and lauded Mullah Omar for his destruction of idols like the Buddhas of Bamiyan.[94] In the 1998 U.S. Embassy bombings (August 7, 1998), 257 people were killed and over 4,000 wounded in simultaneous car bomb explosions at the United States embassies in the East African capital cities of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Nairobi, Kenya. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Banner used by the FBI since inception on October 10, 2001 as the main title for the web site pages of both the group of wanted terrorists, and also on the wanted poster of each terrorist fugitive. ... Extradition is the official process by which one nation or state requests and obtains from another nation or state the surrender of a suspected or convicted criminal. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is becoming very long. ... In law and in religion, testimony is a solemn attestation as to the truth of a matter. ... A satellite telephone, satellite phone, or satphone is a mobile phone that communicates directly with orbiting communications satellites. ... One of the Buddhas of Bamiyan as it stood in 1963 The Buddhas of Bamiyan (Persian: تندیس‌های بودا در باميان tandis-ha-ye buda dar bamiyaan) were two monumental statues of standing Buddhas carved into the side of a cliff in the Bamiyan valley of central Afghanistan, situated 230 km (143 miles) northwest of...


Taliban in Pakistan

See also: 2004-2006 Waziristan conflict and Wana conflict

Closely tied with JUI party in Pakistan, the Taliban received manpower from Madrasahs in Pakistan’s border region. After a request for help from Mullah Omar in 1997, Maulana Samiul Haq shut down his 2500+ student madrassa and "sent his entire student" body hundreds of miles away to fight alongside the Taliban. The next year, the same religious leader helped persuade 12 madrassas in Pakistan's North-West Frontier Province to shut down for one month and send 8000 students to provide reinforcements for the Taliban army in Afghanistan.[95] Area controlled by the Islamic Emirate of Waziristan shown in dark green The Islamic Emirate of Waziristan (Urdu: اسلامی امارات وزیرستان ) is a rebel organization in Waziristan, Pakistan that some commentators claim gained de facto recognition from the Government of Pakistan when it was named as party to the Waziristan Accord, the agreement... Combatants Pakistan Waziristan tribesmen, al-Qaeda, Taliban Commanders Commander XI Corps Haji Omar, Abu Faraj al-Libbi(captured) Strength 80,000[2] 40,000[3] Casualties 950[4] - 3,000[5] Pakistan military and paramilitary killed 1,000[6] - 3,000[4] militants killed, 2,500 foreign suspects captured (released... Combatants Wana tribespeople, possibly Pakistani army Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan and their local supporters Commanders Maulvi Nazir Tohir Yuldeshev Strength 800-1,200 (est. ... The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) (Urdu: Å›imāl maÄ¡ribÄ« sarhadÄ« sÅ«ba شمال مغربی سرحدی صوبہ) is the smallest of the four main provinces of Pakistan. ...


The Taliban returned the favor, helping spread its ideology to parts of Pakistan. By 1998 some groups "along the Pashtun belt" were banning TV and videos, imposing Sharia punishments "such as stoning and amputation in defiance of the legal system, killing Pakistani Shia and forcing people, particularly women to adapt to the Taliban dress code and way of life."[96] In December 1998 the Tehrik-i-Tuleba or Movement of Taliban in the Orakzai Agency ignored Pakistan’s legal process and publicly executed a murderer in front of 2000 spectators Taliban-style. They also promised to implement Taliban-style justice and ban TV, music and videos.[97] In Quetta, Pashtun pro-Taliban groups "burned down cinema houses, shot video shop owners, smashed satellite dishes and drove women off the streets".[98] In Kashmir Afghan Arabs from Afghanistan attempted to impose a "Wahhabi style dress code" banning jeans and jackets. "On 15 February 1999, they shot and wounded three Kashmiri cable television operators for relaying Western satellite broadcasts."[99]


As of early 2007, Taliban influence in Pakistan continues in conjunction with the Taliban insurgency. Citing a suicide bombing of a restaurant in Peshwar in retaliation for the arrest of a relative of Taliban commander Mullah Dadullah, the Associated Press states "... in Pakistan's frontier regions, ... scores of people have been executed over the past two or three years apparently for being too aligned with the Pakistani government or America — allies in the U.S.-led war on terrorism."[100] ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Mullah Dadullah (1966? – ) is a Pashtun military leader. ...


Buddhas of Bamiyan

Main article: Buddhas of Bamiyan
The Taliban's destruction of the Buddhas of Bamyan in March 21, 2001.
The Taliban's destruction of the Buddhas of Bamyan in March 21, 2001.

In March 2001, the Taliban ordered the demolition of two statues of Buddhas carved into cliffsides at Bamiyan, one 38 metres (125 ft) tall and built in CE 507, the other 53 metres (174 ft) tall and built in CE 554. The act was condemned by UNESCO and many countries around the world. One of the Buddhas of Bamiyan as it stood in 1963 The Buddhas of Bamiyan (Persian: تندیس‌های بودا در باميان tandis-ha-ye buda dar bamiyaan) were two monumental statues of standing Buddhas carved into the side of a cliff in the Bamiyan valley of central Afghanistan, situated 230 km (143 miles) northwest of... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Buddhas of Bamyan (Pashto: د بودا بتان په باميانو کې De Buda butan pe bamiyano ke, Farsi: تندیس‌های بودا در باميان tandis-ha-ye buda dar bamiyaan) were two monumental statues of standing Buddhas carved into the side of a cliff in the Bamyan valley of central Afghanistan, situated 230 km (143 miles) northwest of Kabul at an altitude... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Buddharupa (literally, Image of the Awakened One/The Buddha) is the Sanskrit term used in Buddhism for images of the Buddha. ... One of the Buddhas of Bamiyan as it stood in 1963 The Buddhas of Bamiyan (Persian: تندیس‌های بودا در باميان tandis-ha-ye buda dar bamiyaan) were two monumental statues of standing Buddhas carved into the side of a cliff in the Bamiyan valley of central Afghanistan, situated 230 km (143 miles) northwest of... This article is about a foot as a unit of length. ... UNESCO logo UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ...


The intentions of the destruction remain unclear. Mullah Omar initially supported the preservation of Afghanistan's heritage, and Japan linked financial aid to the preservation of the statues.[101] However, after a few years, a decree was issued claiming all representations of humans and idols, including those in museums, must be destroyed in accordance with Islamic law which prohibits any form of idol worship. Cultural heritage (national heritage or just heritage) is the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and bestowed for the benefit of future generations. ... Decree is an order that has the force of law. ... Idolatry is a term used by many religions to describe the worship of a false deity, which is an affront to their understanding of divinity. ...


The government of Pakistan (itself host to one of the richest and most ancient collections of Buddhist art) implored the Taliban to spare the statues. Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates later denounced the act as savage.


Sayed Rahmatullah Hashemi, a senior representative of the Taliban designated as the roving Ambassador visited the US in March, 2001. He represented the Taliban's action not as an act of irrationality, but as an act of rage over UNESCO and some western governments denying the Taliban use of the funds intended for the repairs of the war-damaged statues of the Buddha. He contended that the Taliban intended to use the money for drought relief. There are mulitple individuals named Rahmatullah who intelligence analysts assert are associated with the Taliban. ... For other uses, see Ambassador (disambiguation). ...


Opium

Opium poppies have traditionally been grown in Afghanistan, and, with the war shattering other sectors of the economy, it became the number one export of the country. Binomial name L. The opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, is the type of poppy from which opium and all refined opiates such as morphine, thebaine, codeine, papaverine, and noscapine are extracted. ...

The Taliban have provided an Islamic sanction for farmers ... to grow even more opium, even though the Koran forbids Muslims from producing or imbibing intoxicants. Abdul Rashid, the head of the Taliban's anti-drugs control force in Kandahar, spelled out the nature of his unique job. He is authorized to impose a strict ban on the growing of hashish, "because it is consumed by Afghans and Muslims." But, Rashid told me without a hint of sarcasm, "Opium is permissible because it is consumed by kafirs in the West and not by Muslims or Afghans."[102] Hashish Hashish (from Arabic: , lit. ...

But in 2000 the Taliban banned opium production, a first in Afghan history. In 2000, Afghanistan's opium production still accounted for 75% of the world's supply. On July 27, 2000, the Taliban again issued a decree banning opium poppy cultivation. According to opioids.com, by February 2001, production had been reduced from 12,600 acres (51 km²) to only 17 acres.[103] When the Taliban entered north Waziristan in 2003 they immediately banned poppy cultivation and punished those who sold it.[citation needed] is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Binomial name L. The opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, is the type of poppy from which opium and all refined opiates such as morphine, thebaine, codeine, papaverine, and noscapine are extracted. ... Area controlled by the Islamic Emirate of Waziristan shown in dark green The Islamic Emirate of Waziristan (Urdu: اسلامی امارات وزیرستان ) is a rebel organization in Waziristan, Pakistan that some commentators claim gained de facto recognition from the Government of Pakistan when it was named as party to the Waziristan Accord, the agreement...


Another source claims opium production was cut back by the Taliban not to prevent its use but to shore up its price, and thus increase the income of poppy farmers and revenue of Afghan tax collectors.[104]


The official verdict of the Taliban however was otherwise. Mullah Amir Mohammed Haqqani, the Taliban's top drug official in Nangarhar, said the ban would remain regardless of whether the Taliban received aid or international recognition. "It is our decree that there will be no poppy cultivation. It is banned forever in this country," he said. "Whether we get assistance or not, poppy growing will never be allowed again in our country."[105]


However, with the 2001 US/Northern Alliance expulsion of the Taliban, opium cultivation has increased in the southern provinces liberated from the Taliban control,[106] and by 2005 production was 87% of the world's opium supply,[107] rising to 90% in 2006.[108]


U.S.-led invasion and displacement of the Taliban

Main article: War in Afghanistan (2001–present)

For other uses of War in Afghanistan, see War in Afghanistan. ...

Prelude to invasion

Taliban press conference in Pakistan after the September 11th attacks, declaring they will not extradite Osama bin Laden without evidence.
Taliban press conference in Pakistan after the September 11th attacks, declaring they will not extradite Osama bin Laden without evidence.

After the September 11 attacks and the PENTTBOM investigation, the USA delivered this ultimatum to the Taliban: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ... PENTTBOM is the code-name for the FBI investigation into the September 11, 2001 attacks on New York and Washington, D.C, the largest criminal investigation in U.S. history. ... An ultimatum (Latin: ) is a demand whose fulfillment is requested in a specified period of time and which is backed up by a threat to be followed through in case of noncompliance. ...

  1. Deliver to the US all of the leaders of Al Qaeda;
  2. Release all imprisoned foreign nationals;
  3. Close immediately every terrorist training camp;
  4. Hand over every terrorist and their supporters to appropriate authorities;
  5. Give the United States full access to terrorist training camps for inspection.[109]

On September 21, 2001, the Taliban responded that if the United States could bring evidence that bin Laden was guilty they would hand him over, stating there was no evidence in their possession linking him to the September 11 attacks.[91] is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...


On September 22, 2001, the United Arab Emirates and later Saudi Arabia withdrew their recognition of the Taliban as the legal government of Afghanistan, leaving neighboring Pakistan as the only remaining country with diplomatic ties. On October 4, 2001, it is believed that the Taliban covertly offered to turn bin Laden over to Pakistan for trial in an international tribunal that operated according to Islamic Sharia law.[110][111] Pakistan, recently recast as an ally of the west, is believed to have rejected the offer (even though they still recognized the Taliban). is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Look up trial in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A tribunal is a generic term for any body acting judicially, whether or not it is called a tribunal in its title. ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ...


On October 7, 2001, before the onset of military operations, the Taliban ambassador to Pakistan offered to "detain bin Laden and try him under Islamic law" if the United States made a formal request and presented the Taliban with evidence.[112] This counter offer was immediately rejected by the U.S. as insufficient. is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...


Bin Laden for his part, maintained America's attack on the Taliban after 9/11 was motivated only by its hatred for Islam.[113]


American attack

Shortly afterward, on October 7, 2001, the United States, aided by the United Kingdom, Canada, and supported by a coalition of other countries including several from the NATO alliance, initiated military actions in Afghanistan, and bombed Taliban and Al Qaeda related camps.[114][115] The stated intent of military operations was to remove the Taliban from power because of the Taliban's refusal to hand over Osama bin Laden for his alleged involvement in the September 11 attacks, and disrupt the use of Afghanistan as a terrorist base of operations.[116] No proof of Bin Laden' involvement was provided to the Taliban Government. On October 14 the Taliban offered to discuss handing over Osama bin Laden to a neutral country if the US halted bombing, but only if the Taliban were given evidence of Bin Laden's involvement in 9/11.[117] The U.S. rejected this offer as an insufficient public relations ploy and continued military operations. is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The ground war was mainly fought by the Northern Alliance, the remaining elements of the anti-Taliban forces which the Taliban had routed over the previous years but had never been able to entirely destroy. Mazari Sharif fell to U.S.-Northern Alliance forces on November 9, leading to a cascade of provinces falling with minimal resistance, and many local forces switching loyalties from the Taliban to the Northern Alliance. On the night of November 12, the Taliban retreated south in an orderly fashion from Kabul. This retreat was so orderly, that on November 15, they released eight Western aid workers after three months in captivity (see Attacks on humanitarian workers). By November 13 the Taliban had withdrawn from both Kabul and Jalalabad. Finally, in early December, the Taliban gave up their last city stronghold of Kandahar and retired to the hilly wilderness along the Afghanistan-Pakistan border, where they remain today as a guerrilla warfare operation, drawing new recruits and developing plans for a restoration of power. is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Aid workers are the staff of humanitarian aid organizations, typically working overseas in development, disaster or complex emergencies. ... Humanitarian aid workers belonging to UN organisations, PVOs / NGOs or the Red Cross / Red Crescent have traditionally enjoyed both international legal protection, and de facto immunity from attack by belligerent parties. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... For the city in Kyrgyzstan, see Jalal-Abad. ... A stronghold is a strongly fortified defensive structure. ... This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ...


Resurgence of Taliban

Main article: Taliban insurgency
Mullah Dadullah Akhund, the military commander of the Taliban until May 2007.

As of 2007, the insurgency, in the form of a Taliban guerrilla war, continues. However, the Pashtun tribal group, with over 40 million members, has a long history of resistance to occupation forces in the region so the Taliban themselves may comprise only a part of the insurgency. Most of the post-invasion Taliban fighters are new recruits, drawn again from that region's madrassas. The more traditional village schools are the primary source of the new fighters. ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Mullah Dadullah in an interview in early 2006. ... “Insurrection” redirects here. ... http://www. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ...


Before the summer 2006 offensive began, indications existed that Canadian soldiers in Afghanistan had lost influence and power to other groups, including potentially the Taliban. The most notable sign was the rioting in May after a street accident in the city of Kabul. The continued support from tribal and other groups in Pakistan, the drug trade and the small number of NATO forces, combined with the long history of resistance and isolation, led to the observation that Taliban forces and leaders are surviving and will have some influence over the future of Afghanistan. A new introduction is suicide attacks and terrorist methods not used in 2001. Observers[118] have suggested that poppy eradication policies, which destroy the livelihoods of rural Afghans, and civilian deaths caused by the bombing campaigns of international troops, are linked to the resurgence of the Taliban. These observers maintain that counter-insurgency policy should focus on the battle for the hearts and minds of the Afghan people and on the reconstruction of the Afghan economy, which could profit from the licensing of poppies to make medicine rather than their eradication.[119] Main articles: History of Canada, Timeline of Canadian history Canada has been inhabited by aboriginal peoples (known in Canada as First Nations) for at least 40,000 years. ... Teamsters, armed with pipes, riot in a clash with riot police in the Minneapolis Teamsters Strike of 1934. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... This article is about the military alliance. ... A suicide attack is an attack on a military or civilian target, in which an attacker intends to kill others, knowing that he or she will either certainly or most likely die in the process (see suicide). ...


In September 2006, the Islamic Emirate of Waziristan, an association of Waziristani chieftains with close ties to the Taliban, were recognized by the Government of Pakistan as the de facto security force in charge of North and South Waziristan. This recognition was part of the agreement to end the Waziristan War which had extracted a heavy toll on the Pakistan Army since early 2004. Some commentators viewed Islamabad's shift from war to diplomacy as implicit recognition of the growing power of the resurgent Taliban relative to American influence, with the US distracted by the threat of looming crises in Iraq, Lebanon, and Iran. Area controlled by the Islamic Emirate of Waziristan shown in dark green The Islamic Emirate of Waziristan (Urdu: اسلامی امارات وزیرستان ) is a rebel organization in Waziristan, Pakistan that some commentators claim gained de facto recognition from the Government of Pakistan when it was named as party to the Waziristan Accord, the agreement... Government of Pakistan (Urdu: حکومتِ پاکستان)The Constitution of Pakistan provides for a Federal Parliamentary System of government, with a President as the Head of State and an indirectly-elected Prime Minister as the chief executive. ... North Waziristan (Urdu: شمالی وزیرستان) is the northern part of Waziristan, a mountainous region of northwest Pakistan, bordering Afghanistan and covering some 11 585 km² (4,473 mi²). It comprises the area west and south-west of Peshawar between the Tochi river to the north and the Gomal river to the south... District map of FATA and NWFP - Districts of FATA are shown shown in blue, Waziristan is located in the south. ... Combatants Pakistan Waziristan tribesmen, al-Qaeda, Taliban Commanders Commander XI Corps Haji Omar, Abu Faraj al-Libbi(captured) Strength 80,000[2] 40,000[3] Casualties 950[4] - 3,000[5] Pakistan military and paramilitary killed 1,000[6] - 3,000[4] militants killed, 2,500 foreign suspects captured (released... The Pakistan Army (Urdu: پاک فوج) is the largest branch of the Pakistan military, and is mainly responsible for protection of the state borders, the security of administered territories and defending the national interests of Pakistan within the framework of its international obligations. ... Location within Pakistan Coordinates: , Country Pakistan Province Constructed 1960s Union Council 40 UC (District Govt. ...

Taliban bounty flyer.
Taliban bounty flyer.

Other commentators view Islamabad's shift from war to diplomacy as a means to appease growing discontent in Pakistan.[120] Because of its leadership structure, the assassination of Mullah Dadullah in May 2007 will not significantly affect the Taliban, but it may set-back the incipient relations with Pakistan.[121] Image File history File linksMetadata Taliban_bounty_flyer. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Taliban_bounty_flyer. ... Location within Pakistan Coordinates: , Country Pakistan Province Constructed 1960s Union Council 40 UC (District Govt. ...


Human rights violations

According to Human Rights Watch, bombings and other attacks which have led to civilian casualties are reported to have "sharply escalated in 2006" with "at least 669 Afghan civilians were killed in at least 350 armed attacks, most of which appear to have been intentionally launched at non-combatants."[122][123] Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ...


Timeline

2006

During the summer of 2006, the Battle of Panjwaii took place. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

  • June 6: A roadside bombing leaves 2 American soldiers killed, the attack took place in the province of Nanghar. Also a separate suicide bombing in Khost leaves three US soldiers wounded.[124]
  • June 15: A bus carrying workers to an American base explodes killing 10 and wounding 15. The explosives were placed on the bus.[125]
  • July 1: 2 British soldiers are killed when their base came under small arms fire including rocket propelled grenades.[126]
  • August 8: 4 Canadian NATO soldiers are killed in two separate attacks. And a suicide bomber targeting a NATO convey detonates killing 21 people.[127]
  • August 20: 3 American soldiers are killed and another 3 are wounded in a battle with Taliban militants after a roadside bomb hit an American patrol.[128]
  • September 8: A major suicide car bombing near the US embassy in Kabul kills 18 including 2 US soldiers.[129]
  • September 10: The governor of Afghanistan's southeastern Paktia province is killed alongside his bodyguard and nephew when a suicide bomber detonates himself beside the governor's car.[130]
  • October 14: A suicide attack in Kandahar city leaves 8 dead including one NATO soldier.[131]
  • October 15: 2 Canadian soldiers were killed when Taliban militants attacked NATO troops using small arms fire and rocket propelled grenades.[131]
  • December 6: A suicide bomber blew himself up outside a security contractor's office killing 7 including 2 Americans, the attack took place south of Afghanistan in Kandahar.[132]
  • December 19: Mullah Akhtar Muhammad Osmani, reportedly number 4 in the Taliban shura, is killed by an American airstrike in southern Afghanistan.[133]

This article is about the military alliance. ... This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ...

2007

  • January 23: A suicide bomber blew himself up outside a US base in eastern Afghanistan killing 10 people who were waiting outside the base.[134]
  • February 2: Taliban forces raided a southern Afghan town destroying the government center and briefly holding some elders captive.[135]
  • February 19: The Taliban briefly seized a small town in western Afghanistan after police fled the town, the Taliban forces moved in for 30 minutes and seized three vehicles.[136]
  • February 20: A suicide bomber blew himself up during an opening hospital ceremony injuring 2 NATO soldiers and a hospital worker.[137]
  • February 27: 23 people are killed when a suicide bomber attacks an American military base, Bagram Airfield (BAF) in Bagram District, Parwan Province. The attack took place while US vice president Dick Cheney was in the compound, Cheney was unhurt in the attack and was the intended target of the attack as claimed by the Taliban. The dead included an American soldier, a Korean soldier, and an American contractor.[138]
  • March 4: A suicide bomber attacks an American convoy which leaves 16 civilians dead in the aftermath as the American convey begins to sporadically fire at civilian cars around them. In a separate incident, two British soldiers were killed when a Taliban rocket was fired on them during clashes in Southern Helmand Province.[139]
  • March 17: A suicide bomber targeting a Canadian military convoy leaves one dead and three injured, including one NATO soldier. The attack took place in Kandahar.[140]
  • March 19: A car bomb blew up near a three-vehicle US embassy convoy injuring many in the convoy.[141]
  • March 27: Four police officers are killed in the southern Helmand province after a suicide bomber blew himself up outside a police station.[142]
  • March 28: A suicide bomber killed a top intelligence officer and three others in the capital Kabul.
  • April 6: A suicide bomber struck a police checkpoint in Kabul leaving four dead and four others wounded. [143].
  • April 9: Six Canadian soldiers were killed in southern Afghanistan when they struck a roadside bomb. A separate roadside bombing, also in south Afghanistan, left another NATO soldier dead and one wounded. In another incident, a statement from the Taliban's spokesperson claimed that they had beheaded a translator for a kidnapped Italian journalist.[144]
  • April 15: A suicide bomber struck a US-private security firm, killing four Afghans working for the company. [145]
  • April 16: A suicide bomber ran onto a police training field and detonating his explosive device, killing 10 police officers and wounding dozens of others. The attack took place in the relatively quiet city of Kunduz. The Taliban claimed responsibility for the attack.[146]
  • April 20: Separate explosions in Southern Afghanistan leave two Nato soldiers dead. [147]
  • April 22: A suicide bomber blew himself up an eastern city of Afghanistan, killing six. A roadside bomb also hit an Afghan intelligence service vehicle, killing all four who were inside.[148]
  • April 30: Hundreds of Afghans took to the streets in western Afghanistan, accusing US soldiers of killing scores of civilians in fighting which the coalition said killed 136 Taliban in a three-week operation.[149]
  • May 13: Mullah Dadullah, the Taliban's top military commander in Afghanistan, is killed in fighting in the south.[133]
  • May 23: The Taliban’s newly-named top field commander, Mullah Bakht Mohammed, brother and replacement of deceased field commander Mullah Dadullah, makes his first public statement, saying the Taliban will "pursue holy war until the occupying countries leave."[150]
  • July 19: The South Korean hostage crisis involved the hostage taking of twenty-three South Korean Christian aid workers in the Ghazni Province which resulted in the death of two. The crisis ended on August 30 with the release of the remaining hostages as part of a deal with the South Korean diplomats of government.
  • August 31: A suicide bomber detonated his explosive-laden vehicle after ramming three military vehicles at the military gate of the Kabul International Airport. Two Afghan soldiers were killed and ten people were injured.
  • September 29: In an effort to reach a compromise with the Taliban leaders, the president, Hamid Karzai would make a quid quo pro by allowing millitants to have a place in government if they stopped fighting. Taliban leaders replied by saying there would be no compromise unless intervening forces such as Nato and the U.S. left.[151]
  • November 2: Mawlawi Abdul Manan, an important Taliban figure, is killed by Afghan Security forces. His death is confirmed by the Taliban.[152]

This article is about the military alliance. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Mullah Bakht Mohammed is Mullah Dadullahs younger brother who succeeded him as senior military commander of the Taliban. ... The 2007 South Korean hostage crisis in Afghanistan began on July 19, 2007, when 23 South Korean missionaries were captured and held hostage by members of the Taliban while passing through Ghazni Province of Afghanistan. ... A hostage is a person (sometimes another entity) which is held by a captor in order to compel another party to act or refrain from acting in a particular way. ... For Korea as a whole, see Korea. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Aid workers are the staff of humanitarian aid organizations, typically working overseas in development, disaster or complex emergencies. ... Ghazni (Persian: غزنی , ÄžaznÄ«) is a city in eastern Afghanistan, with an estimated population of 149,998 people. ...

2008

Military intelligence (abbreviated MI, int. ...

References

  1. ^ Pajhwok Afghan News, Taliban have opened office in Waziristan (Pakistan)
  2. ^ Jalali, Ali A. & Grau, Lester W. (6 March), "Taliban - a Model for "Isilalaicising" Central Asia?", The Cyber-Caravan, <http://www.fas.org/irp/world/para/docs/990306-taliban.htm> 
  3. ^ Afghanistan: Taleban's second coming - BBC News 2 June 2006. "After being routed in 2001 the Taleban found a safe sanctuary in Balochistan and the North West Frontier province of Pakistan. They have been able to set up a major logistics hub, training camps, carry out fund raising and have been free to recruit fighters from madrassas and refugee camps. The Taleban have received help from Pakistan's two provincial governments, the MMA, Islamic extremist groups, the drugs mafia and criminal gangs - while the military regime has looked the other way. Al-Qaeda has helped the Taliban reorganise and forge alliances with other Afghan and Central Asian rebel groups. "
  4. ^ ISAF is made up of 39 countries, including all 26 NATO allies but also many other non-NATO countries. See ISAF Troop Contribution Placement, December 5, 2007
  5. ^ Goodson, Afghanistan's Endless War, (2001) p.114.
  6. ^ Rashid,Taliban, (2000), p.29
  7. ^ a b c d Dupree Hatch, Nancy. "Afghan Women under the Taliban" in Maley, William. Fundamentalism Reborn? Afghanistan and the Taliban. London: Hurst and Company, 2001, pp. 145-166.
  8. ^ M. J. Gohari (2000). The Taliban: Ascent to Power. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 108-110.
  9. ^ A woman being flogged in public.
  10. ^ "The Taliban's War on Women"PDF (857 KiB), Physicians for Human Rights, August 1998.
  11. ^ "100 Girls' Schools in Afghan Capital Are Ordered Shut", The New York Times, June 17, 1998.
  12. ^ [1]
  13. ^ Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim world / editor in chief, Richard C. Martin, Macmillan Reference USA : Thomson/Gale, c2004
  14. ^ Matinuddin, Kamal, The Taliban Phenomenon, Afghanistan 1994-1997, Oxford University Press, (1999), p.25-6
  15. ^ Rashid, Taliban (2000), 25-29.
  16. ^ Rashid, Taliban (2000)
  17. ^ Rashid, Taliban, (2000) p.27-9
  18. ^ The Taliban — Infoplease.com
  19. ^ Rashid, Taliban (2000), p.1
  20. ^ Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World, the Taliban has also been known to discriminate against the rights of women saying that men cannot be "trusted" around them (2004)
  21. ^ Rashid,Taliban, (2000), p.132, 139
  22. ^ Rashid,Taliban, (2000), p.87
  23. ^ Roy, Olivier, Globalized Islam, Columbia University Press, 2004, p.239
  24. ^ Rashid,Taliban (2000), p.92
  25. ^ Pashtun people#Demographics
  26. ^ Rashid, Taliban (2000), p.101
  27. ^ Rashid,Taliban (2000), p.98
  28. ^ a b Rashid, Taliban (2000) p.39-40
  29. ^ Rashid, Taliban (2000), p.101-2
  30. ^ a b Human Rights Watch Report, `Afghanistan, the massacre in Mazar-e-Sharif`, November 1998. INCITEMENT OF VIOLENCE AGAINST HAZARAS BY GOVERNOR NIAZI
  31. ^ a b Rashid,Taliban (2000), p.107
  32. ^ Rashid, Taliban, p.93, 137
  33. ^ March 1996 interview in Kandahar with Mullah Wakil, an aide to Omar by Ahmed Rashid, from Rashid's book Taliban (2000), p.43
  34. ^ Rashid, Taliban (2000), p.5
  35. ^ Rashid, Taliban (2000), p.100
  36. ^ Rashid, Taliban (2000), p.95
  37. ^ Interview with Taliban spokesman Mullah Wakil in Arabic magazine Al-Majallah, 23 October 1996
  38. ^ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,4145138,00.html "How the Buddha got his wounds", Guardian March 3, 2001
  39. ^ a b Rashid,Taliban, (2000), p.41-2
  40. ^ Rashid,Taliban, (2000), p.42
  41. ^ Rashid, Taliban (2000), p.26
  42. ^ a b Rashid, Taliban (2000), p.32
  43. ^ Rashid, Taliban, (2000) p.111
  44. ^ Amy Waldman, `No TV, no Chess, No Kites: Taliban's Code, from A to Z,` New York Times, November 22, 2001
  45. ^ a b US Country Report on Human Rights Practices - Afghanistan 2001
  46. ^ Rashid,Taliban (2000), p.105
  47. ^ a b Rashid, Taliban (2000), p.218-9. See the full edict here: The Taliban In Their Own Words
  48. ^ Rashid, Taliban (2000), p.106
  49. ^ Rashid, Taliban (2000) p.70
  50. ^ Rashid,Taliban (2000), p.114
  51. ^ a b Rashid,Taliban (2000), p.71.
  52. ^ a b c Wright, Looming Towers (2006), p.337.
  53. ^ a b Rashid,Taliban, (2000), p.115-116.
  54. ^ Rashid,Taliban (2000), p.73.
  55. ^ Goodson, Afghanistan's Endless War, (2001), p.79.
  56. ^ THE MASSACRE IN MAZAR-I SHARIF, THE FIRST DAY OF THE TAKEOVER.
  57. ^ Rashid,Taliban (2000), p.68
  58. ^ Rashid,Taliban (2000), p.76.
  59. ^ MASSACRES OF HAZARAS IN AFGHANISTAN, hrw.org.
  60. ^ Rashid,Taliban (2000), p.192.
  61. ^ Interviews with cabinet ministers and bureaucrats in June 1998 and information [provided by civilian and military officials between 1995 and 1999 to Ahmed Rashid, in Rashid, Taliban (2000), p.183. Also "Pakistan and the Taliban" in Maley, William, Fundamentalism Reborn? Afghanistan and the Taliban, C. Hurst, London, 1998.
  62. ^ Rashid, Taliban (2000) p.185-186.
  63. ^ Rashid, Taliban (2000) p.177.
  64. ^ Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World, (2004).
  65. ^ Rashid, Taliban (2000), p.74-75.
  66. ^ IRANIAN-AFGHAN TENSIONS.
  67. ^ Reuters, "Taliban blame Clinton scam for attacks", 21 August 1998
  68. ^ Rashid,Taliban, (2000), p.138, 231.
  69. ^ Rashid, Taliban, (2000), p.78.
  70. ^ Rashid,Taliban (2000), p.126.
  71. ^ UNCP Country Development Indicators, 1995.
  72. ^ quoting the ICRC.
  73. ^ Rashid, Taliban (2000), p.72.
  74. ^ Rashid, Taliban (2000), p.64, 78.
  75. ^ interview June 1997, (Rashid, Taliban (2000), p.111-112).
  76. ^ Rashid, Taliban, (2000), p.101.
  77. ^ "Taliban Briefly Detains European Aid Official Visiting Hospital," The New York Times, September 30, 1997. ; p. A10 (1 page).
  78. ^ Rashid, Taliban (2000), p.65.
  79. ^ Aid agencies pull out of Kabul The building had "no electricity or running water."
  80. ^ Rashid, Taliban (2000), p.71-72.
  81. ^ Agence France-Presse, "Taliban reject warnings of aid pull-out", 16 July 1998.
  82. ^ Wright, Looming Towers, (2006), p.246-247, 287-288.
  83. ^ Wright, Looming Towers (2006), p.288-289.
  84. ^ Rashid, Taliban, p.139.
  85. ^ International Terrorism And the Case Of Usama bin Laden, Lebanese Army Website.
  86. ^ Lawrence Wright believes bin Laden was almost completely broke at this time, cut off from his family income and fleeced by the Sudanese. (See Wright, Looming Towers (2006), p.222-223).
  87. ^ Wright, Looming Towers (2006), p.355.
  88. ^ PDF of indictments.
  89. ^ CNN report.
  90. ^ BBC article stating that bin Laden in "a man without sin".
  91. ^ a b "Taliban Won't Turn Over Bin Laden", CBS News, 2001-09-21. Retrieved on 2007-07-07. 
  92. ^ CNN records of evidence against bin Laden.
  93. ^ Cooperative Research records of evidence against bin Laden.
  94. ^ Bin Laden, Messages to the World, (2006), p.143, from Interview published in Al-Quds Al-Arabi in London, Nov. 12, 2001 (originally published in Pakistani daily, Ausaf, Nov. 7), shortly before the Northern Alliance entry into Kabul.
  95. ^ Rashid,Taliban, (2000), p.91.
  96. ^ Rashid,Taliban, (2000), p.93
  97. ^ Source: Yousufzai, Rahimyllah, "Pakistani Taliban at work," The News, 18 December 1998. See also AFP, "Murder convict executed Taliban style in Pakistan", 14 December 1998.
  98. ^ Rashid,Taliban, (2000), p.194.
  99. ^ Agence France Presse, "Kashmir militant group issues Islamic dress order," 21 February 1999.
  100. ^ THE ASSOCIATED PRESS, Published: May 15, 2007, "Suicide Bombing Kills at Least 25 in Pakistan".
  101. ^ "Pakistan and Japan plead for Afghan statues", CNN.com, 2001-03-09. Retrieved on 2007-01-20. 
  102. ^ Rashid,Taliban, (2000), p.118-119.
  103. ^ Afghanistan, Opium and the Taliban.
  104. ^ Benjamin, Daniel, The Age of Sacred Terror by Daniel Benjamin and Steven Simon, New York : Random House, c2002, p.145) (source: Edith M. Lederer, "U.N. Panel Accuses Taliban of Selling Drugs to Finance War and Train Terrorists," Associated Press, 25 May 2001.
  105. ^ Afghanistan, Opium and the Taliban.
  106. ^ Victorious warlords set to open the opium floodgates
  107. ^ Afghanistan: Addicted To Heroin.
  108. ^ Afghanistan Opium Crop Sets Record - Washington Post December 2, 2006.
  109. ^ United States ultimatum.
  110. ^ JNV briefing
  111. ^ BISHOP, P., Pakistan Halts Secret Plan for bin Laden Trial, Daily Telegraph, 4 Oct 2001.
  112. ^ Taliban offers to try bin Laden in an Islamic court.
  113. ^ October 21, 2001 interview with Taysir Alluni of Al Jazeera.
  114. ^ The United States declares war on the Taliban.
  115. ^ Operation Enduring Freedom.
  116. ^ Intentions of U.S. military operation.
  117. ^ Taliban offers to hand bin Laden to a neutral nation for trial.
  118. ^ "Poppies for Medicine" The Senlis Council.
  119. ^ "Countering the insurgency in Afghanistan, Losing friends and making enemies" The Senlis Council.
  120. ^ Pakistan Security Research Unit (PSRU).
  121. ^ Shahzad, Syed Saleem. "Pakistan: Hello al-Qaeda, goodbye America", Asia Times Online, 2006-09-08. Retrieved on 2006-09-12. 
  122. ^ Human Rights News, Afghanistan: Civilians Bear Cost of Escalating Insurgent Attacks.
  123. ^ The Consequences of Insurgent Attacks in Afghanistan, April 2007, Volume 19, No. 6(C).
  124. ^ [2].
  125. ^ [3].
  126. ^ [4].
  127. ^ http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20070221/ap_on_re_mi_ea/iraq;_ylt=AkT3PvuzD9oUORQyhqSEX7Vn.3QA
  128. ^ [5].
  129. ^ [6].
  130. ^ [7].
  131. ^ a b [8].
  132. ^ [9].
  133. ^ a b A setback for the Neo Taliban by B Raman.
  134. ^ Suicide Bomber Kills 10 in Afghanistan. by AMIR SHAH, The Associated Press.
  135. ^ Taliban militants overrun Afghan town, destroy government center, Afghan News.
  136. ^ [10].
  137. ^ [11]
  138. ^ [12].
  139. ^ [13].
  140. ^ [14].
  141. ^ http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20070319/ap_on_re_as/afghan_violence;_ylt=AmCH1gOsp.Z4pePx6V2_VSQUewgF
  142. ^ Suicide attack on US embassy convoy, The Nation.
  143. ^ [15]
  144. ^ [16].
  145. ^ [17].
  146. ^ [18].
  147. ^ [19].
  148. ^ [20].
  149. ^ [21].
  150. ^ Taliban commander: War will go on until West leaves.
  151. ^ [22]
  152. ^ [23].
  153. ^ Taliban threaten spring offensive on Kabul.
  154. ^ US Military: Taliban spring offensive unlikely in Afghanistan.

“PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Language(s) Pashto Religion(s) Islam (predominantly Sunni) Pashtuns (Pashto: پشتون or پختون , also rendered as Pushtuns, Pakhtuns, Pukhtuns), also called Pathans (Urdu: پٹھان, Hindi: पठान ), ethnic Afghans,[10] or synonymously Afghans[11] (Persian: افغان ), are an Eastern Iranian ethno-linguistic group with populations primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan and in the North-West... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... CBS News logo, used from Sept. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... CNN.com is the news website maintained by CNN. The website debuted on August 30, 1995, and it describes itself as the first major news and information website on the Internet. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Rashid, Ahmed (2000). Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil, and Fundamentalism in Central Asia. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT. ISBN 0-300-08340-8. , republished by Pan Books with the title Taliban: The story of the Afghan warlords: including a new foreword following the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, ISBN 0-330-49221-7. Page citations are to the Pan Books edition.
  • Hosseini, Khaled (2001). The Kite Runner. Riverhead Books. ISBN 1-57322-245-3. 
  • Goodson, Larry (2001). Afghanistan's Endless War. University of Washington Press. 

See also

Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... Public execution of a woman, known as Zarmina, by the Taliban at the Ghazi Sports Stadium, Kabul, November 16, 1999. ... A Thousand Splendid Suns (Persian:دو صد خورشیدرو) is a 2007 novel by American author Khaled Hosseini, his second, following his bestselling debut, The Kite Runner (2003). ... Talibanization is a neologism coined after the rise of the Afghani Taliban describing the process by which a strict and repressive Islamist regime comes to power within which Islamist terrorism and religious persecution of non-Muslims is tolerated or encouraged, in reference to how the Taliban took control of Afghanistan... Flag of the Islamic Emirate Afghanistan (1997-2001). ... The Deobandi (Urdu: دیو بندی devbandÄ«) is a Sunni Islamic revivalist movement which started in South Asia and has more recently spread to other countries, such as Afghanistan, South Africa and the United Kingdom. ... Language(s) Pashto Religion(s) Islam (predominantly Sunni) Pashtuns (Pashto: پشتون or پختون , also rendered as Pushtuns, Pakhtuns, Pukhtuns), also called Pathans (Urdu: پٹھان, Hindi: पठान ), ethnic Afghans,[10] or synonymously Afghans[11] (Persian: افغان ), are an Eastern Iranian ethno-linguistic group with populations primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan and in the North-West... Language(s) Hazaragi/Dari (Hazaragi and Dari dialects) Religion(s) Shia, some Sunni Related ethnic groups Mongol, Turkic, Iranian The Hazara are an ethnic group who reside mainly in the central region of Afghanistan, called Hazarajat or Hazaristan. ... American Taliban is a pejorative neologism used to describe some American fundamentalists by their opponents. ... After the Soviets withdrew completely from Afghanistan in February 1989, fighting between the communist backed government and mujahideen continued. ... Flag flown by the UIF (Northern Alliance). ... Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs Opened for signature March 30, 1961 at New York Entered into force December 13, 1964[1] Conditions for entry into force 40 ratifications Parties 180[2] The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs is the international treaty against illicit drug manufacture and trafficking that forms the... United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is a United Nations agency which was founded in 1997 as the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention with the intent to fight drugs and crime on an international level. ... Opium production in Afghanistan is controlled by local Afghan and regional mafia groups of Asia, more particularly of South and Central Asia. ...

External links

Timeline of the War on Terrorism: // September 11 - September 11, 2001 attacks take place in New York City, Washington D.C., and Shanksville, United States and kill 2,993 people. ... War on Terrorism casualties: // Military casualties only United States: 4,540 killed, 4 POW/MIA, 11 ex-POW/MIA [1][2] United Kingdom: 260 killed, 25 ex-POW/MIA [1][2] Canada: 83 killed [2] Other Coalition forces: 244 killed, 1 ex-POW/MIA[1][2] Iraqi security forces: 9... // Military/diplomatic campaigns The War on Terror is broadly agreed to be taking place in the following theaters of operation. ... Criticism of the War on Terrorism addresses the issues, morals, ethics, efficiency, economics, and other questions surrounding the War on Terrorism. ... Abu Ghraib cell block The Abu Ghraib prison (Arabic: سجن أبو غريب; also Abu Ghurayb) is in Abu Ghraib, an Iraqi city 32 km (20 mi) west of Baghdad. ... For other uses, see Axis of evil (disambiguation). ... President Bush makes remarks in 2006 during a press conference in the Rose Garden about Irans nuclear ambitions and discusses North Koreas nuclear test. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Detention, Treatment, and Trial of Certain Non-Citizens in the War Against Terrorism The Salt Pit in Afghanistan Black site is a military term that has been used by United States intelligence agencies to refer to any classified facility whose existence or... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Detention, Treatment, and Trial of Certain Non-Citizens in the War Against Terrorism Wikisource has original text related to this article: Declaration of Stephen Abraham, Lieutenant Colonel, United States Army Reserve, June 14th, 2007 This is the trailer where the Combatant Status... Painting of waterboarding from Cambodias Tuol Sleng Prison Enhanced interrogation techniques is a term that the Bush administration uses to describe techniques of aggressively extracting information from captives which they say are necessary in the War on Terror. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ghost detainee. ... Extraordinary rendition and irregular rendition are terms used to describe the extrajudicial transfer of a person from one state to another with the intent of legally torturing them outside of the jurisdiction of a state which prohibits it. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Detention, Treatment, and Trial of Certain Non-Citizens in the War Against Terrorism Wikisource has original text related to this article: Statement of Alberto J Mora on interrogation abuse, July 7, 2004 Guantanamo Bay detention camp is a joint military prison and... The United States Military Commissions Act of 2006, Pub. ... An NSA electronic surveillance program that operated without judicial oversight mandated by Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) was named the Terrorist Surveillance Program by the George W. Bush administration[1] in response to the NSA warrantless surveillance controversy which followed the disclosure of the program. ... A bill to amend the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 to provide additional procedures for authorizing certain acquisitions of foreign intelligence information and for other purposes also known as the Protect America Act of 2007 (Pub. ... In American political and legal discourse, the unitary executive theory is a theory of Constitutional interpretation that is based on aspects of the separation of powers. ... The term unlawful combatant (also unlawful enemy combatant or unprivileged combatant/belligerent) denotes a person denied the privileges of prisoner of war (POW) designation, in accordance with the Geneva Conventions; one to whom protection is recognised as due is a lawful or privileged combatant. ... In the United States, the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (Public Law 107-56), known as the USA PATRIOT Act or simply the Patriot Act, is an Act of Congress which President George W. Bush signed into law...

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Taliban — Infoplease.com (2100 words)
The Taliban are one of the mujahideen ("holy warriors" or "freedom fighters") groups that formed during the war against the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan (1979-89).
Ties between the Taliban and these schools remain strong: when the Taliban were defeated in the city of Mazar-i-Sharif one of Pakistan's largest religious schools shut down for a month and sent thousands of students to Afghanistan as reinforcements.
The Taliban allowed terrorist organizations to run training camps in their territory and, from 1994 to at least 2001, provided refuge for Osama bin Laden and his al-Qaeda organization.
taliban (436 words)
Taliban publicly slit the throat of the alleged murderer of her son
The Taliban first appeared on the political scene of Afghanistan in September, 1994 in the southern Province of Kandhar, and have since taken about 90% of Afghanistan.
The bands of Taliban thugs roam the streets beating those they deem to be violators of the Shariah (Islamic code of Law) [2].
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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