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Islam
Islam (Arabic: ; ) is a monotheistic religion based on the Quran. ...

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Biographies of Muhammad // Quran Text Surahs Ayah Commentary/Exegesis Tafsir ibn Kathir (by Ibn Kathir) Tafsir al-Tabari (by Tabari) Al Kordobi Tafseer-e-kabir (by Imam Razi) Tafheem-al-Quran (by Maulana Maududi) Sunnah/Hadith Hadith (Traditions of The Prophet) The Siha-e-Sitta al-Bukhari (d. ... The , (Arabic: recitation, also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and Alcoran, Turkish Kuran), is the central text of Islam. ... Hadith (Arabic: hadÄ«th, Arabic pl. ... Sharia (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) refers to Islamic law. ... Islamic jurisprudence, Fiqh (in Arabic and Persian: فقه) is made up of the rulings of Islamic scholars to direct the lives of the Muslim faithful. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... For the river and also village in Norway named Sira, see Sira, Norway. ...

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Vocabulary of Islam
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In Shia terminology, "takfir" also refers to the practice of crossing the arms when standing upright during salat (or takattuf, called qabd by Sunnis).

In Islamic law, the term takfir or takfeer (تكفير) refers to the practice of declaring that an individual or a group previously considered Muslims are in fact kafir(s) (non-believers in God). The act which precipitates takfir is termed the mukaffir. Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish:Müslüman, Persian:مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Michelangelos depiction of God in the painting Creation of the Sun and Moon in the Sistine Chapel Krishna, the eighth incarnation of Vishnu, one of the manifestations of the ultimate reality or God in Hinduism This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...

Contents


Conditions

This declaration may be made if the alleged Muslim in question declares himself a kafir. However, more usually it applies to the judgement that an action has been taken that clearly indicate knowing abandonment of Islam. Which actions constitute sufficient justification for takfir is disputed between different schools of religious thought. The orthodox Sunni position is that sins do not in general prove that someone is not a Muslim, but that denials of fundamental religious principles do; thus a murderer, for instance, may still be a Muslim, but someone who denies that murder is a sin must be a kafir, as long as he is aware that murder is a sin in Islam. An extreme case is exemplified by the early Kharijites, some of whom concluded that any Muslim who sinned ceased to be a Muslim, while others concluded that any major sin could cause that. The opposite extreme was taken by the Murjites, who argued that anyone who called themselves Muslim should be considered Muslim. The Mu'tazilites (followed by the Zaydis) advocated what they saw as a middle way, whereby grave sinners were categorized neither as believers nor as kafirs. Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Kharijites were members of an Islamic sect in late 7th and early 8th century AD, concentrated in todays southern Iraq. ... During the early centuries of Islam, Muslim thought encountered a multitude of infuences from various ethnic and philosophical groups that it absorbed. ... Mutazili (Arabic المعتزلة al-mu`tazilah) is an extinct theological school of thought within Islam. ... Zaiddiyah (also: Zaidi, Zaydi, or in the West Fivers) refers to a sect within Shia Islam. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ...


The sentence for apostasy (irtidad), under Sharia law as traditionally interpreted, is execution. For this reason, orthodox Islamic law normally requires extremely stringent evidence for such accusations, in many cases, requiring an Islamic court or religious leader (see mullah, ayatollah) to pronounce a fatwa (legal judgement) of takfir on an individual or group; however, certain extremist movements have been much readier to practice takfir, for which they have been condemned by more mainstream Muslims. This practice is taken to its logical extreme by the earliest medieval Kharijites and by modern groups such as Takfir wal-Hijra and the GIA, who regard virtually all self-styled Muslims as kafirs whose blood may legitimately be shed. Apostasy (from Greek αποστασία, a defection or revolt from a military commander, from απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is a term generally employed to describe the formal renunciation of ones religion, especially if the motive is deemed unworthy. ... Apostasy in Islam (Arabic: ارتداد, irtidād or ridda) is commonly defined as the rejection of Islam in word or deed by a person who has been a Muslim. ... Sharia (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) refers to Islamic law. ... See also Akhoond, alternate title for such an individual Shaykh Categories: | | | | | ... Ayatollah (Arabic: آية الله; Persian: آيت‌الله) is a high rank given to major Shia clerics. ... A fatwa (Arabic: ) plural fatāwa (فتاوى), is a legal pronouncement in Islam, issued by a religious law specialist on a specific issue. ... Kharijites were members of an Islamic sect in late 7th and early 8th century AD, concentrated in todays southern Iraq. ... Takfir wal-Hijra (Arabic - Apostasy and Exile) was founded as an Egyptian terrorist group in the 1960s. ... The Armed Islamic Group (GIA, from French Groupe Islamique Armé; Arabic al-Jamaah al-Islamiyah al-Musallah) is a militant Islamist group with the declared aim of overthrowing the Algerian government and replacing it with an Islamic state. ...


History

One of the earliest examples of takfir was practiced by the first Caliph, Abu Bakr. In response to the refusal of certain Arab tribes to pay the alms-tax (zakat), he declared that "By Allah, I will fight anyone who differentiates between the prayer and the zakat." In the wars between the Umayyad Caliphate and the Kharijites, the latter's practice of takfir became the justification for their indiscriminate attacks on civilian Muslims; the more moderate Sunni view of takfir developed partly in response to this conflict. Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... Zakât (or Zakaat or Zakah) (English:tax, alms, tithe) (Arabic: زكاة, Old (Quran) Arabic: زكوة) is the third of the Five Pillars of Islam in Sunni Islam and one of the Branches of Religion in Shia Islam. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... An Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalīfah, Caliph (  listen?) is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Kharijites were members of an Islamic sect in late 7th and early 8th century AD, concentrated in todays southern Iraq. ...


In more recent times, takfir has sometimes been used against small sects, such as the Ahmadiyya or Ismailis, which describe themselves as Muslim, and sometimes even against larger groups such as the Shia. This has sometimes been used to legitimize physical attacks on such groups[1]. In the case of groups such as the GIA (as mentioned above), it has been used to legitimize attacks on any Muslim not actively fighting their governments. Ahmadi Muslims are followers of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. ... The IsmāīlÄ« (Arabic: الإسماعيليون; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmailiyan) are shia muslims which recognize the continuation of the line of imams from the descendents Imam Ismail, rather than the concept of the hidden Imam Mahdi, which is advoacted by other shia muslims and has arisen among the followers of Ismails brother... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... The Armed Islamic Group (GIA, from French Groupe Islamique Armé; Arabic al-Jamaah al-Islamiyah al-Musallah) is a militant Islamist group with the declared aim of overthrowing the Algerian government and replacing it with an Islamic state. ...


An example of takfir that has featured prominently in Western media is the case of Salman Rushdie, who was forced into hiding after Ayatollah Khomeini issued a fatwa officially declaring him to be a kafir who should be executed. Salman Rushdie Salman Rushdie (born Ahmed Salman Rushdie, Urdu: , Hindi: on June 19, 1947, in Bombay, India) is an Indian-born, ethnically Kashmiri, British essayist and author of fiction, most of which is set on the Indian subcontinent. ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political and spiritual leader of the 1979 revolution that overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the then Shah of Iran. ... A fatwa (Arabic: ) plural fatāwa (فتاوى), is a legal pronouncement in Islam, issued by a religious law specialist on a specific issue. ...


In the Qur'an and Hadith

The verse

And whoever contends with the Messenger after the guidance has been made clear to him, and he follows a path other than the path of the believers, We shall leave him in the path he has chosen and land him in Jahannam, an evil refuge (An-Nisa:115)

This verse is interpreted as indicating but that before practising takfir, one must first provide guidance to the person in question, explaining that what they are doing is wrong. Surat An-Nisa (The Women) is the 4th sura of the Quran, with 176 ayat. ...


The Qur'an emphasises that accusations of unbelief are not to be made lightly:

O ye who believe! When ye go abroad in the cause of Allah, investigate carefully, and say not to any one who offers you a salutation: "Thou art none of a believer!" Coveting the perishable goods of this life: with Allah are profits and spoils abundant. Even thus were ye yourselves before, till Allah conferred on you His favours: Therefore carefully investigate. For Allah is well aware of all that ye do. (An-Nisa:94)

while Muhammad is recorded in a hadith as saying that: Surat An-Nisa (The Women) is the 4th sura of the Quran, with 176 ayat. ... For other people named Muhammad, see Muhammad (disambiguation). ... Hadith (Arabic: hadīth, Arabic pl. ...

If a man (in a battle) is attacking a kafir with a spear, and it has reached his throat, and at that moment he says ‘There is no god but Allah’, the Muslim must immediately withdraw his spear.[2]

This is taken as emphasizing that the state of being kafir is rejection of Islam itself, and that a return to Islam is sufficient to end the status. (See repentance.) The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


See also

Al-Hallaj (c. ... Taslima Nasrin, also known as Taslima Nasreen, (born 25 August 1962 in Mymensingh, Bangladesh) is a writer. ... Dr. Turki al-Hamad Turki al-Hamad (born 1953) is a Saudi-Arabian political analyst, journalist, and novelist, best known for his trilogy about the coming-of-age of Hisham al-Abir, a Saudi Arabian teenager, the first installment of which, Adama, was published in 1998. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Takfir - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (668 words)
In Islamic law, the term takfir or takfeer (تكفير) refers to the practice of declaring that an individual or a group previously considered Muslims are in fact kafir(s) (non-believers in God).
The act which precipitates takfir is termed the mukaffir.
This is taken as emphasizing that the state of being kafir is rejection of Islam itself, and that a return to Islam is sufficient to end the status.
Takfir wal Hijra? - Ummah.com (2469 words)
Takfir arose in Egypt in the late 1960s as an offshoot of the outlawed Muslim Brotherhood, said Abul Ela Madi, an Islamic activist in Egypt and co-founder of the Wasat political party.
Takfir is part of a broader, pan-Islamic movement called Salafism, which advocates a return to the pure form of Islam practiced by Muhammad.
The Takfir movement is strongest in Morocco and Algeria, the primary sources of Muslim immigration to Western Europe.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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