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Encyclopedia > Tajikistan
Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон
Jumhūrī-yi Tojīkiston
جمهوری تاجیکستان
Republic of Tajikistan
Flag of Tajikistan Coat of Arms of Tajikistan
Flag Coat of Arms
Motto
none
Anthem
Surudi Milli
Capital
(and largest city)
Dushanbe
38°33′N, 68°48′E
Official languages Tajik
Demonym Tajik or Tajikistani
Government Unitary state
 -  President Emomali Rahmon
 -  Prime Minister spencer price
Independence
 -  Declared September 9, 1991 
 -  Completed December 25, 1991 
Area
 -  Total 143,100 km² (95th)
55,251 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0.3
Population
 -  July 2006 estimate 7,320,0001 (100th1)
 -  2000 census 6,127,000 
 -  Density 45/km² (151st)
117/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2005 estimate
 -  Total $8.802 billion (139th)
 -  Per capita $1,388 (159th)
Gini? (2003) 32.6 (medium
HDI (2004) 0.652 (medium) (122nd)
Currency Somoni (TJS)
Time zone TJT (UTC+5)
Internet TLD .tj
Calling code +992
1 Rank based on UN figures for 2005; estimate based on CIA figures for 2006.

Tajikistan (Tajik: Тоҷикистон, IPA: [tɔʤikɪsˈtɔn] or [tɒːʤikɪsˈtɒn]), officially, the Republic of Tajikistan (Tajik: ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон) is a mountainous landlocked country in Central Asia. Afghanistan borders to the south, Uzbekistan to the west, Kyrgyzstan to the north, and China to the east. Most of Tajikistan's population belongs to the Tajik ethnic group, who share culture and history with the Persian peoples and Uzbek people and speak the Tajik language. Once the location of the Samanid Empire Tajikistan became a constituent republic of the Soviet Union in the 20th century, known as the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic. Image File history File links Flag_of_Tajikistan. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Tajikistan. ... Flag ratio: 1:2 Adopted in November 1992, Tajikistan was the last of the former Soviet republics to reveal a new flag. ... Coat of arms of Tajik SSR until 1991 The coat of Arms of Tajikistan is a reinterpretation of the original Tajik SSR coat of arms that was in use until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogising the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognised either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Surudi milli is the national anthem of Tajikistan, officially adopted in 1991. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Contemporary Tajiks are the descendants of ancient Aryan also known as Iranian inhabitants of Central Asia, in particular the Soghdians and the Bactrians, and with a very small degree of possibly mixture of non-Aryan peoples. ... Location of Dushanbe in Tajikistan Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Mahmadsaid Ubaydulloyev Area  - City 100 km²  (38. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Tajik or Tadjik (тоҷикӣ, تاجیکی, tojikí) is a descendant of the Persian language spoken in Central Asia. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... A map showing the unitary states. ... The President of Tajikistan is the Head of State and highest position within the Government of Tajikistan. ... Emomalii Rahmon (Tajik: (formerly Emomali Sharifovich Rahmonov, )[1]; born October 5, 1952) has served as the head of state since 1992 and the President of Tajikistan since 1994. ... The prime minister of Tajikistan is the head of government of Tajikistan. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP The purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2006). ... Image File history File links Straight_Line_Steady. ... Coloured world map indicating Human Development Index (2006) (colour-blind compliant map) This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Programmes Human Development Report 2006, compiled on the basis of 2004 data. ... The Somoni is the currency of Tajikistan (ISO 4217 code TJS). ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... “UTC” redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .tj is the Internet country code top-level domain ( ccTLD) for Tajikistan. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... Tajik or Tadjik (тоҷикӣ, تاجیکی, tojikí) is a descendant of the Persian language spoken in Central Asia. ... IPA may refer to: The International Phonetic Alphabet or India Pale Ale ... Tajik or Tadjik (тоҷикӣ, تاجیکی, tojikí) is a descendant of the Persian language spoken in Central Asia. ... A landlocked country is one that has no coastline. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Tajiks are Central Asian Iranians or East-Iranians. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Tajik or Tadjik (тоҷикӣ, تاجیکی, tojikí) is a descendant of the Persian language spoken in Central Asia. ... The Samanid dynasty (819-999) was a Persian dynasty in Central Asia, named after its founder Saman Khuda. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... State motto: Пролетарҳои ҳамаи мамлакатҳо, як шавед! Official language None. ...


After independence, Tajikistan suffered from a devastating civil war which lasted from 1992 to 1997. Since the end of the war, newly-established political stability and foreign aid have allowed the country's economy to grow. Its natural resources such as cotton and aluminium have contributed greatly to this steady improvement, although observers have characterized the country as having few natural resources besides hydroelectric power and its strategic location.[1] Combatants Government of Tajikistan Government of Russia Peoples Democratic Party of Tajikistan Communist Party of Tajikistan Socialist Party of Tajikistan Government of Uzbekistan [2] United Tajik Opposition Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan Democratic Party of Tajikistan Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan Al-Qaeda Afghanistan Commanders Emomali Rahmonov (President of Tajikistan... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... Aluminum redirects here. ...

Contents

Etymology

"Tajikistan" means the "Land of the Tajiks" in Persian. Some believe the name Tajik is a geographic reference to the crown (Taj) of the Pamir Knot, but this is a folk etymology. The word "Tajik" was used to differentiate Iranians from Turks in Central Asia, starting as early as the 10th century. The addition of 'k' might have been for the purpose of euphony in the set phrase "Turk-o Tajik" ("Turks and Tajiks") which in Persian-language histories is found as an idiomatic expression meaning "everyone." According to some other sources, the name Tajik (also spelled Tadjik, Tajik) refers to a group of people who are believed to be one of the pure and close decedents of the ancient Aryans. Their country was called Aryana Vajeh and the name "Taa-jyaan" from which came the word Tajik is mentioned in The Avesta. The Zoroaster's Gathas were also directed to an Aryan audience and there are several references to this community as being situated in the "home" of the Aryans. A photograph of Ismail Samani Peak (then known as Peak Communism) taken in 1989. ... The Airyanem Vaejah or Airyana Waejah (Aryan Expanse) was the legendary home of the Aryan (Indo-Iranian) people, as described in writings in the Avesta, the holy book of Zoroastrians. ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ...


Tajikistan frequently appeared as Tadjikistan or Tadzhikistan in English. This former transliteration of Tadjikistan or Tadzhikistan is from the Russian Таджикистан. (In Russian there is no single letter j to represent the phoneme /ʤ/ and дж, or dzh, is used.) Tadzhikistan is the most common alternate spelling and is widely used in English literature derived from Russian sources. Tadjikistan is the spelling in French and can occasionally be found in English language texts. In the Perso-Arabic script, "Tajikistan" is written تاجیکستان. The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing the Arabic language, which is the language of the Quran, the holy book of Islam. ...


Controversy surrounds the correct term used to identify people from Tajikistan. The word Tajik has been the traditional term used to describe people from Tajikistan and appears widely in literature. But the ethnic politics of Central Asia have made the word Tajik a controversial word, as it implies that Tajikistan is only a nation for ethnic Tajiks and not ethnic Uzbeks, Russians, etc. Likewise, ethnic Tajiks live in other countries, such as China, making the term ambiguous. In addition, the Pamiri population in Gorno-Badakhshan also have sought to create an ethnic identity separate from that of the Tajiks. There is a growing consensus that Tajikistani, which is not ethnic specific and is inclusive of ethnic Tajiks and non-Tajiks alike, is the correct term to call people[citation needed]. The term 'tajik' has been widely used as a synonym for 'Persian' and 'Iranian' up to the beginning of the 21 century.[citation needed] Pamiri is the name of an ethnic group that live in Central Asia, primarily in Tajikistan (especially in the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province) and in Afghanistan. ... Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region (GBAR) is a mountainous province (region) of Tajikistan. ...


History

Main article: History of Tajikistan

This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ...

Early history

See also: Samanid dynasty

The territory of what is now Tajikistan has been inhabited continuously since 4,000 BCE [citation needed]. It has been under the rule of various empires throughout history, for the longest the period under the Persian Empire. Before the Common Era, it was part of the Bactrian Empire. Arabs brought Islam in the 7th century CE. The Samanid Empire Persians supplanted the Arabs and built the cities of Samarkand and Bukhara, which became the cultural centers of Tajiks (both of which are now in Uzbekistan). The Mongols would later take partial control of Central Asia, and later the land that today comprises Tajikistan became a part of the emirate of Bukhara. A small community of Jews, displaced from the Middle East after the Babylonian captivity, migrated to the region and settled there after 600 BCE, though the majority of the recent Jewish population did not migrate to Tajikistan until the 20th century. The Samanid dynasty (819-999) was a Persian dynasty in Central Asia, named after its founder Saman Khuda. ... AD redirects here. ... Persia redirects here. ... BCE redirects here. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Samanid dynasty (819-999) was a Persian dynasty in Central Asia, named after its founder Saman Khuda. ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... Bukhara (Tajik: Бухоро; Persian: , Buxârâ; Uzbek: ; Russian: ), from the Soghdian βuxārak (lucky place), is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat). ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... Etymologically an emirate or amirate (Arabic: إمارة Imarah, plural: إمارات Imarat) is the quality, dignity, office or territorial competence of any Emir (prince, governor etc. ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC - 600s BC - 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC 550s BC Events and Trends Fall of the Assyrian Empire and Rise of Babylon 609 BC _ King Josiah...


Russian presence

See also: The Great Game

In the 19th century, the Russian Empire began to spread into Central Asia during the Great Game, and it took control of Tajikistan. After the overthrow of Imperial Russia in 1917, guerillas throughout Central Asia, known as basmachi waged a war against Bolshevik armies in a futile attempt to maintain independence. The Bolsheviks prevailed after a four-year war, in which mosques and villages were burned down and the population heavily suppressed. Soviet authorities started a campaign of secularization, practicing Muslims, Jews, and Christians were persecuted[citation needed], and mosques, churches, and synagogues were closed. Central Asia, circa 1848. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The Great Game is a term, usually attributed to Arthur Connolly, used to describe the rivalry and strategic conflict between the British Empire and the Tsarist Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... The Basmachi Revolt, or Basmachestvo as it is called in the Russian language, was an uprising against Soviet rule in Central Asia. ... For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ...


Soviet Tajikistan

Main article: Tajik SSR

In 1924, the Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was created as a part of Uzbekistan, but in 1929 the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic was made a separate constituent republic. The predominantly ethnic Tajik cities of Samarkand and Bukhara remained in the Uzbek SSR. In terms of living conditions, education and industry Tajikistan was somewhat behind the other Soviet Republics.[citation needed] By the late 1980s Tajik nationalists were calling for increased rights. Real disturbances did not occur within the republic until 1990. The following year, the Soviet Union collapsed, and Tajikistan declared its independence. State motto: Пролетарҳои ҳамаи мамлакатҳо, як шавед! Official language None. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... State motto: Пролетарҳои ҳамаи мамлакатҳо, як шавед! Official language None. ... State motto: Пролетарҳои ҳамаи мамлакатҳо, як шавед! Official language None. ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... Bukhara (Tajik: Бухоро; Persian: , Buxârâ; Uzbek: ; Russian: ), from the Soghdian βuxārak (lucky place), is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat). ... State motto: Uzbek: Бутун дунё пролетарлари, бирлашингиз! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Tashkent Official language None. ... Soviet Union administrative divisions, 1989 In its final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR), often called simply Soviet republics. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ...


Independence

The nation almost immediately fell into a civil war that involved various factions fighting one another, these factions were often distinguished by clan loyalties. The non-Muslim population, particularly Russians and Jews, fled the country during this time because of persecution, increased poverty and better economic opportunities in the West or in other former Soviet republics. Emomali Rahmonov came to power in 1992, and continues to rule to this day. However, he has been accused of ethnic cleansing against other ethnicities and groups during the Civil war in Tajikistan[citation needed]. In 1997, a ceasefire was reached between Rahmonov and opposition parties (United Tajik Opposition). Peaceful elections were held in 1999, but they were reported by the opposition as unfair, and Rahmonov was re-elected by almost unanimous vote. Russian troops were stationed in southern Tajikistan, in order to guard the border with Afghanistan, until summer 2005. Since the September 11, 2001 attacks, American and French troops have also been stationed in the country. Combatants Government of Tajikistan Government of Russia Peoples Democratic Party of Tajikistan Communist Party of Tajikistan Socialist Party of Tajikistan Government of Uzbekistan [2] United Tajik Opposition Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan Democratic Party of Tajikistan Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan Al-Qaeda Afghanistan Commanders Emomali Rahmonov (President of Tajikistan... Emomali Sharifovich Rahmonov (Tajik: Эмомалӣ Шарифович Раҳмонов or امامعلی شريفويچ رحمانف, Russian: Рахмонов Эмомали Шарипович; name also appears as Imamali Rakhmonov in literature. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Combatants Government of Tajikistan Government of Russia Peoples Democratic Party of Tajikistan Communist Party of Tajikistan Socialist Party of Tajikistan Government of Uzbekistan [2] United Tajik Opposition Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan Democratic Party of Tajikistan Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan Al-Qaeda Afghanistan Commanders Emomali Rahmonov (President of Tajikistan... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... A ceasefire is a temporary stoppage of a war or any armed conflict, where each side of the conflict agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions. ... The United Tajik Opposition (UTO) was an alliance of democratic, liberal and Islamist forces in the Tajik Civil War of 1992 to 1997, united against the Moscow backed government of Emomali Rahmonov. ... This article is about the year. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly...


Politics

See also: Human rights in Tajikistan
Modern Tajiks proudly view the Persian Samanid Empire as being the first Tajik state in history. This monument located in Tajikistan's capital of Dushanbe honors Saman Khuda, ancestor of the Samanids and a source of Tajik nationalism.
Modern Tajiks proudly view the Persian Samanid Empire as being the first Tajik state in history. This monument located in Tajikistan's capital of Dushanbe honors Saman Khuda, ancestor of the Samanids and a source of Tajik nationalism.

Almost immediately after independence, Tajikistan was plunged into a civil war that saw various factions, allegedly backed by Russia and Iran, fighting one another. All but 25,000 of the more than 400,000 ethnic Russians, who were mostly employed in industry, fled to Russia. By 1997, the war had cooled down, and a central government began to take form, with peaceful elections in 1999. The Republic of Tajikistan gained its independence during the breakup of the Soviet Union on September 9, 1991 and promptly fell into a civil war from 1992-97 between old-guard regionally based ruling elites and disenfranchised regions, democratic liberal reformists, and Islamists loosely organized in a United Tajik Opposition... Human Rights in Tajikistan The approach of the 2005 parliamentary elections brought increased closures of independent and opposition newspapers and attacks on journalists. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1728 × 2304 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1728 × 2304 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Samanids (875-999) (in Persian: Samanian) were a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and eastern Iran, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ... Location of Dushanbe in Tajikistan Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Mahmadsaid Ubaydulloyev Area  - City 100 km²  (38. ... Ismail Saman Khuda (Saman Khoda, Saman-khudat) or Ismail Samani was the ancestor of the Samanid dynasty and considered to be the father of the Tajik nation. ... The Tajikistan Civil War was a civil war fought from 1992 to 1997 in Tajikistan. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... This article is about the year. ...


"Longtime observers of Tajikistan often characterize the country as profoundly averse to risk and skeptical of promises of reform, a political passivity they trace to the country’s ruinous civil war," Ilan Greenberg wrote in a news article in The New York Times just before the country's November 2006 presidential election.[1] The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... For other uses, see November (disambiguation). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Tajikistan is officially a republic, and holds elections for the President and Parliament. The latest elections occurred in 2005, and as all previous elections, international observers believe them to have been corrupt, arousing many accusations from opposition parties that President Emomali Rahmon manipulates the election process. Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... The President of Tajikistan is the Head of State and highest position within the Government of Tajikistan. ... The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Emomalii Rahmon (Tajik: (formerly Emomali Sharifovich Rahmonov, )[1]; born October 5, 1952) has served as the head of state since 1992 and the President of Tajikistan since 1994. ...


The November 6, 2006 election was boycotted by "mainline" opposition parties, including the 23,000-member Islamist Islamic Renaissance Party. Four remaining opponents "all but endorsed the incumbent", Rakhmon.[1] After November 2006 presidential elections, it is widely speculated that Rahmon has secured his seat for at least another two terms, which will allow him rule till 2020. [citation needed] is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... The Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan (IRP; Tajik: Нашрияи Ҳизби Наҳзати Исломии Тоҷикистон; also known as the Islamic Renaissance of Tajikistan, the Islamic Revival Party of Tajikistan, the Islamic Party of Revival, or simply the Islamic Renaissance Party) is an Islamist political party in Tajikistan. ...


Tajikistan to this date is one of the few countries in Central Asia to have included an active opposition in its government. In the Parliament, opposition groups have often clashed with the ruling party, but this has not led to great instability.


Administrative divisions

Tajikistan consists of 4 administrative divisions: 2 provinces (viloyat) (Sughd and Khatlon), 1 autonomous province (Gorno-Badakhshan), and the Region of Republican Subordination (formerly known as Karotegin Province). Tajikistan is divided into regions, or provinces (singular: viloyat, plural: viloyatho) (capitals in parentheses)- Khatlon Viloyati Khatlon (Qurghonteppa) Sughd Viloyati Sughd (Khujand) Karotegin (Kofarnihon) and one autonomous province (viloyati mukhtor)- Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region (GBAR) Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon (Khorugh). ... A wilaya is an administrative subdivision usually translated as province. ... Sughd is one of the four provinces which make up Tajikistan and is located in the northwest of the country. ... Khatlon is a province of Tajikistan. ... Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province (GBAP) (Tajik: Вилояти Мухтори Кҳистони Бадахшон/Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon) is a mountainous province of Tajikistan. ... Region of Republican Subordination (Tajiki: Ноҳияҳои тобеи Ҷумҳурии), or Karotegin is a province in Tajikistan. ...

Division ISO 3166-2 Capital Area (sq. km) Pop (2000) Key
Sughd TJ-SU Khujand 26,100 1,870,000 1
Region of Republican Subordination TJ-RR Dushanbe 28,400 1,338,000 2
Khatlon TJ-KT Qurghonteppa 24,600 2,150,000 3
Gorno-Badakhshan TJ-BG Khorugh 63,700 206,000 4

Each region consists of several districts (called "nohiya"). ISO 3166-2 is the second part of the ISO 3166 standard. ... Sughd is one of the four provinces which make up Tajikistan and is located in the northwest of the country. ... Khujand (Tajik Хуҷанд or خجند, also transliterated as Khudzhand, Russian: , formerly Khodjend or Khodzhent until 1939 and Leninabad until 1992), is the second largest city of Tajikistan. ... Region of Republican Subordination (Tajiki: Ноҳияҳои тобеи Ҷумҳурии), or Karotegin is a province in Tajikistan. ... Location of Dushanbe in Tajikistan Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Mahmadsaid Ubaydulloyev Area  - City 100 km²  (38. ... Khatlon is a province of Tajikistan. ... Qurghonteppa (formerly known as Kurgan-Tyube, from the Persian word گرگان تپه meaning Hills of Gurgan) is a city in southwestern Tajikistan. ... Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province (GBAP) (Tajik: Вилояти Мухтори Кҳистони Бадахшон/Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon) is a mountainous province of Tajikistan. ... Khorugh (Хорӯғ) is the administrative centre of the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region of Tajikistan, situated on the border between Tajikistan and Afghanistan. ...


Geography

Satellite photograph of Tajikistan
Satellite photograph of Tajikistan
Mountains of Tajikistan
Mountains of Tajikistan

Tajikistan is landlocked, and is the smallest nation in Central Asia by area. It is covered by mountains of the Pamir range, and more than fifty percent of the country is over 3,000 meters (approx. 10,000 ft) above sea level. The only major areas of lower land are in the north which is part of the Fergana Valley, and in the southern Kafirnigan and Vakhsh valleys which form the Amu Darya and have much higher rainfall. Dushanbe is located on the southern slopes above the Kafirnigan valley. At 3640 northern latitude and 4114 eastern longitude, Tajikistan is nestled between Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan to the north and west, China to the east, and Afghanistan to the south. ... Image File history File links Tajikistan_satellite_photo. ... Image File history File links Tajikistan_satellite_photo. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2304 × 1728 pixel, file size: 941 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Tajik mountains File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tajikistan Metadata This... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2304 × 1728 pixel, file size: 941 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Tajik mountains File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tajikistan Metadata This... A photograph of Ismail Samani Peak (then known as Peak Communism) taken in 1989. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... Location of Dushanbe in Tajikistan Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Mahmadsaid Ubaydulloyev Area  - City 100 km²  (38. ...


The Amu Darya and Panj rivers mark the border with Afghanistan, and Tajikistan's mountains are the major source of runoff for the Aral Sea The Amu Darya (Darya means river) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large delta. ... The Panj River also called the Pyandzh River is a tributary of the Amu Darya, in Afghanistan. ... Run-off, composed of a mixture of water and soil along with any other organic or inorganic substances that may exist in the land, is the product of precipitation, snowmelt, over-irrigation, or other water coming in contact with the earth and carrying matter to streams, rivers, lakes, and other... The Aral Sea (Kazakh: Арал Теңізі, Aral Tengizi, Uzbek: , Russian: Аральскοе мοре) is a landlocked endorheic sea in Central Asia; it lies between Kazakhstan in the north and Karakalpakstan, an autonomous region of Uzbekistan, in the south. ...


About 1% of the country's area is covered by lakes:

Mountain Height Location
Independence Peak 7,174 m 23,537 ft     Northern border in the Trans-Alay Range
Kyzylart Pass 4,280 m 14,042 ft     Northern border in the Trans-Alay Range
Ismoil Somoni Peak (highest) 7,495 m 24,590 ft     North of the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province
Avicenna Peak 6,974 m 22,881 ft     North of Ismoil Somoni Peak
Peak Korzhenievski 7,105 m 23,310 ft     Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province
Revolution Peak 6,973 m 22,880 ft     Gorno-Badakhshan autonomous oblast (province)
Qatorkuhi Akademiyai Fanho 6,785 m 22,260 ft     Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province
Concord Peak 5,469 m 17,943 ft     Southern border in the northern ridge of the Karakoram Range
Qullai Karl Marks 6,726 m 22,067 ft     Southern border in the northern ridge of the Karakoram Range
Qullai Mayakovskiy 6,096 m 20,000 ft     Along the border to Afghanistan.

Kara-Kul Kara-Kul is a lake formed inside a meteor crater in Tajikistan. ... Zorkul (37°27′ N 73°42′ E) is a lake in the Pamir Mountains, Hindu Kush. ... Independence Peak (Qulla-i Istiqlol), known as Lenin Peak before July 2006 and Mount Kaufmann in the 1920es, is the highest mountain in the Trans-Alay Range of central Asia and the third highest peak in the Pamir Mountains, exceeded only by Ismail Samani Peak (7,495m) and and Pobeda... The Trans-Alay Range is a mountain range. ... The Trans-Alay Range is a mountain range. ... Ismoil Somoni Peak (Tajik: Қуллаи Исмоили Сомонӣ, Qullai Ismoili SomonÄ«, Russian: пик имени Исмаила Самани) is the highest mountain in Tajikistan and in the former Soviet Union, named after Ismoil Somoni, the ancestor of the Samanid dynasty. ... Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province (GBAP) (Tajik: Вилояти Мухтори Кҳистони Бадахшон/Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon) is a mountainous province of Tajikistan. ... Avicenna Peak, formerly known as Revolution Peak and Dreispitz, is the fourth highest mountain in the Pamirs range of Tajikistan. ... Ismoil Somoni Peak (Tajik: Қуллаи Исмоили Сомонӣ, Qullai Ismoili SomonÄ«, Russian: пик имени Исмаила Самани) is the highest mountain in Tajikistan and in the former Soviet Union, named after Ismoil Somoni, the ancestor of the Samanid dynasty. ... Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province (GBAP) (Tajik: Вилояти Мухтори Кҳистони Бадахшон/Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon) is a mountainous province of Tajikistan. ... Revolution Peak (in Russian Pik Revolyutsii and also known as Dreispitz) is a mountain in Tajikistan. ... Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province (GBAP) (Tajik: Вилояти Мухтори Кҳистони Бадахшон/Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon) is a mountainous province of Tajikistan. ... Concord Peak (37. ... Karakoram- In the mountainious region of Gilgit-Baltistan or the Northern Areas of Pakistan, the Karakoram is one of the great Himalayan mountain ranges, with many of the highest and most daunting peaks of the world. ... Karakoram- In the mountainious region of Gilgit-Baltistan or the Northern Areas of Pakistan, the Karakoram is one of the great Himalayan mountain ranges, with many of the highest and most daunting peaks of the world. ...

Economy

Main article: Economy of Tajikistan

Tajikistan was the poorest country in Central Asia as well in the former Soviet Union following a civil war after it became independent in 1991. With foreign revenue precariously dependent upon exports of cotton and aluminum, the economy is highly vulnerable to external shocks. In FY 2000, international assistance remained an essential source of support for rehabilitation programs that reintegrated former civil war combatants into the civilian economy, thus helping keep the peace. International assistance also was necessary to address the second year of severe drought that resulted in a continued shortfall of food production. On August 21, 2001, the Red Cross announced that a famine was striking Tajikistan, and called for international aid for Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Tajikistan's economy grew substantially after the war. The GDP of Tajikistan expanded at an average rate of 9.6% over the period of 2000-2004 according to the World Bank data. This improved Tajikistan's position among other Central Asian countries (namely Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan), which seem to have degraded economically ever since.[2] Tajikistan is an active member of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO). Tajikistan is the poorest CIS country and one of the poorest countries in the world. ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... The Anarchist Black Cross was originally called the Anarchist Red Cross. The band Redd Kross was originally called Red Cross. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... Map of the ECO member states The Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) is an intergovernmental international organization involving ten Asian nations. ...


A new bridge between Afghanistan and Tajikistan has been built which will help the country have access to trade lines with South Asia. The bridge was built by the United States.[3] Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ...


Drug trafficking is a major source of income in Tajikistan[4] as it is an important transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; some opium poppy is also raised locally for the domestic market. Tajikistan holds the third place in the world for heroin and raw opium confiscations[5] (1216.3 kg of heroine and 267.8 kg of raw opium in the first half of 2006[6]). Drug money corrupts the country's government; according to some experts the well-known personalities that fought on both sides of the civil war and have held the positions in the government after the armistice was signed are now involved in the drug trade.[4] UNODC is working with Tajikistan to strengthen border crossings, provide training, and set up joint interdiction teams. It also helped to establish Tajikistani Drug Control Agency.[7] The term narcotic, derived from the Greek word for stupor, originally referred to a variety of substances that induced sleep (such state is narcosis). ... Binomial name L. The opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, is the type of poppy from which opium and all refined opiates such as morphine, thebaine, codeine, papaverine, and noscapine are extracted. ... For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the drug. ... Combatants Government of Tajikistan Government of Russia Peoples Democratic Party of Tajikistan Communist Party of Tajikistan Socialist Party of Tajikistan Government of Uzbekistan [2] United Tajik Opposition Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan Democratic Party of Tajikistan Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan Al-Qaeda Afghanistan Commanders Emomali Rahmonov (President of Tajikistan... United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is a United Nations agency which was founded in 1997 as the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention with the intent to fight drugs and crime on an international level. ...


Demographics

A boy sells nuts and dried fruits at a market in Tajikistan

Tajikistan has a population of 7,320,716 (July 2006 est.). Tajiks who speak the Tajik language are the main ethnic group, although there is a sizable minority of Uzbeks and a small population of Russians, whose numbers are declining due to emigration. Pamiris of Badakhshan are considered to belong to larger group of Tajiks. Likewise, the official language of Tajikistan is the Tajik language, while Russian is largely spoken in business and for government purposes. Despite its poverty, Tajikistan has a high rate of literacy with an estimated 98% of the population having the ability to read and write. Most of the population follows Sunni Islam, although a sizable number of Shi'a are present as well. Bukharian Jews had lived in Tajikistan since the 2nd century BC, but today only a few hundred remain. There is also a small population of Yaghnobi people who have lived in the mountainous district of Sughd Viloyat for many centuries. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1080 × 720 pixel, file size: 161 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tajikistan Metadata This file contains additional... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1080 × 720 pixel, file size: 161 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tajikistan Metadata This file contains additional... Contemporary Tajiks are the descendants of ancient Aryan also known as Iranian inhabitants of Central Asia, in particular the Soghdians and the Bactrians, and with a very small degree of possibly mixture of non-Aryan peoples. ... Tajiks are Central Asian Iranians or East-Iranians. ... Tajik or Tadjik (тоҷикӣ, تاجیکی, tojikí) is a descendant of the Persian language spoken in Central Asia. ... Pamiri is the name of an ethnic group that live in Central Asia, primarily in Tajikistan (especially in the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province) and in Afghanistan. ... Badakhshan is a region comprising parts of northeastern Afghanistan and of Tajikistan. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... Languages Traditionally Bukhari, Russian and Hebrew spoken in addtion. ... Yaghnobi people (or Yagnobian people) is the name of a people who live in mountainous Tajikistan. ... Sughd is one of the four provinces which make up Tajikistan and is located in the northwest of the country. ... A wilaya is an administrative subdivision usually translated as province. ...


The Tajik Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare reported that 104,272 disabled people are registered in Tajikistan (2000). This group of people suffers most from poverty in Tajikistan. The Tajik government and the World Bank considered activities to support this part of the population described in the World Bank's Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper.[8]


Culture

Main article: Culture of Tajikistan
Statue of Persian poet Rudaki in Panjakent, Tajikistan. Poetry is an important element in the culture of Tajikistan
Statue of Persian poet Rudaki in Panjakent, Tajikistan. Poetry is an important element in the culture of Tajikistan

Historically, Tajiks and Persians come from very similar stock, speaking variants of the same language and are related as part of the larger group of Iranian peoples. The Tajik language is the mother tongue of around two-thirds of the citizens of Tajikistan. Ancient towns such as Bukhara, Samarkand, Herat, Balkh and Khiva are no longer part of the country. The main urban centers in today's Tajikistan include Dushanbe (the capital), Khujand, Kulob, Panjakent and Istaravshan. The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 494 × 599 pixels Full resolution (516 × 626 pixel, file size: 44 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Rudakis statue in Panjakent, Tajikistan. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 494 × 599 pixels Full resolution (516 × 626 pixel, file size: 44 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Rudakis statue in Panjakent, Tajikistan. ... Rudaki depicted as a blind poet, here on this Iranian stamp. ... Tajik or Tadjik (тоҷикӣ, تاجیکی, tojikí) is a descendant of the Persian language spoken in Central Asia. ...


The Pamiri people of Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region in the southeast, bordering Afghanistan and China, though considered part of the Tajik ethnicity, nevertheless are distinct linguistically and culturally from most Tajiks. In contrast to the mostly Sunni Muslim residents of the rest of Tajikistan, the Pamiris overwhelmingly follow the Ismaili sect of Islam, and speak a number of Eastern Iranian languages, including Shughni, Rushani, Khufi and Wakhi. Isolated in the highest parts of the Pamir Mountains, they have preserved many ancient cultural traditions and folk arts that have been largely lost elsewhere in the country. Pamiri is the name of an ethnic group that live in Central Asia, primarily in Tajikistan (especially in the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province) and in Afghanistan. ... Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region (GBAR) is a mountainous province (region) of Tajikistan. ... Tajikmay refer to: Tajiks, an ethnic group living in Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran, and China The Tajik language, the official language of Tajikistan The Arabic-schooled, ethnically Persian administrative caste of the Turco-Persian society. ... Tajikmay refer to: Tajiks, an ethnic group living in Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran, and China The Tajik language, the official language of Tajikistan The Arabic-schooled, ethnically Persian administrative caste of the Turco-Persian society. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic &#1587;&#1606;&#1617;&#1577;) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Pamiri could refer to: Pamiri languages spoken in Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and China. ... The Ismāʿīlī (Urdu: اسماعیلی Ismāʿīlī, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-Ismāʿīliyyūn; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the Shīa community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Northeastern Iranian languages Southeastern Iranian languages See also: List of Iranian languages, Western Iranian languages. ... Shughni, Shighni (In the local language Khughni) is the commonly used but the short form of Shughnani, Shighnani (In the local language Khughnoni) may refer to: Shughni language, spoken in Afghanistan and Tajikistan. ... Wakhi may be: The Wakhi language; the language of the majority of the people of Wakhan, also spoken by some Tajiks in China Wakhi (ethnic group), an ethnic group in Pakistan and Tajikistan An adjective; of or relating to Wakhan, the extreme northeastern region of Afghanistan that borders China, Tajikistan... Located in Central Asia, the Pamir Mountains are formed by the junction of the worlds greatest mountain ranges, a geologic structural knot from which the great Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, and Hindu Kush mountain systems radiate. ...


The Yaghnobi people live in mountainous areas of northern Tajikistan. The estimated number of Yaghnobis is now about 25,000. Forced migrations in the 20th century decimated their numbers. They speak the Yaghnobi language, which is the only direct modern descendant of the ancient Sogdian language. Yaghnobi people (or Yagnobian people) is the name of a people who live in mountainous Tajikistan. ... The Yaghnobi language [1] is a living Northeastern Iranian language (the only other living member being the Ossetic), and is spoken in high valley of the Yaghnob River in the Zarafshan area of Tajikistan by Yaghnobi people. ... The Sogdian language is a Middle Iranian language spoken in Sogdiana (Zarafshan River Valley) in the modern day republics of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan (chief cities: Samarkand, Panjikent, Ferghana). ...

Tajik music is closely related to Uzbek music and other Central Asian forms. ... Islam in Tajikistan. ... Holidays in Tajikistan: Categories: Tajikistan ... Traditional Tajik cuisine has much in common with Persian cuisine, and features such dishes as kabuli pulao, qabili palau, shashlik and samanu. ...

See also

Proposed Central Asian Union A Central Asian Union was proposed by Kazakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbaev on April 26, 2007, consisting of the five Central Asian republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. ... Telephones - main lines in use: 363,000 (1997) Telephones - mobile cellular: 2,500 (1997) Telephone system: poorly developed and not well maintained; many towns are not reached by the national network domestic: cable and microwave radio relay international: linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other Commonwealth of Independent... At the time of independence, portions of the Tajik boundary with the Peoples Republic of China were not defined; this boundary dispute was settled in agreements signed in 2002 that would cede 1,000 km² of Pamir mountain range to China in return for China relinquishing claims to 28... Membership badge of Ittihodi Scouthoi Tojikiston Tajikistan Scouting is served by the Ittihodi Scouthoi Tojikiston (in Russian Ассоциация Скаутов Таджикистана), the Tajikistan Scout Association. ... Military branches: Army, Air Force, Air Defense Forces, Presidential National Guard, Security Forces (internal and border troops) Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2003 est. ... Railways: total: 482 km (2002) broad gauge: 482 km 1. ... This is a list of cities in Tajikistan. ... Agriculture in Tajikistan comprises 23. ... The Dushanbe Synagogue of Tajikistan functioned between early in the 1900s and February 2006. ...

References and footnotes

  1. ^ a b c Greenberg, Ilan, "Media Muzzled and Opponents Jailed, Tajikistan Readies for Vote," The New York Times, November 4, 2006 (article dateline November 3, 2006), page A7, New York edition
  2. ^ BBC's Guide to Central Asia. BBC News. Retrieved on 2006-11-01.
  3. ^ US Army Corps of Engineer, Afghanistan-Tajikistan Bridge
  4. ^ a b Silk Road Studies, COUNTRY FACTSHEETS, EURASIAN NARCOTICS: TAJIKISTAN 2004
  5. ^ CIA World Factbook. Tajikistan, transnational issues
  6. ^ Overview of the drug and crime situation in Central Asia. Factsand Figures, Coordination and Analysis Unit of the UNODC Regional Office for Central Asia
  7. ^ Fighting Drugs, Crime and Terrorism in the CIS Dushanbe, 4 October 2007
  8. ^ Tajikistan - Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) and joint assessment. World Bank. Retrieved on 2006-11-01.

The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is a United Nations agency which was founded in 1997 as the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention with the intent to fight drugs and crime on an international level. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Historical Dictionary of Tajikistan by Kamoludin Abdullaev and Shahram Akbarzadeh
  • Land Beyond the River: The Untold Story of Central Asia by Monica Whitlock
  • Tajikistan: Disintegration or Reconciliation by Shirin Akiner
  • Tajikistan: The Trials of Independence by Shirin Akiner, Mohammad-Reza Djalili and Frederic Grare

Dr. Shirin Akiner is an internationally recognised specialist on the Central Asia region at London Universitys School of Oriental and African Studies. ... Dr. Shirin Akiner is an internationally recognised specialist on the Central Asia region at London Universitys School of Oriental and African Studies. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Tajikistan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1745 words)
Tajikistan is officially a republic, and holds elections for the President and Parliament.
Tajikistan is landlocked, and is the smallest nation in Central Asia by area.
The culture of Tajikistan was originally shared with that of Uzbekistan, but during Communist rule, the cultural fabric of the region was disrupted by the Soviet leadership imposing artificial boundaries and the notion of nation-state - alien to the region - on the area.
Politics of Tajikistan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (839 words)
Politics of Tajikistan takes place in a framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of Tajikistan is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system.
The Republic of Tajikistan gained its independence during the breakup of the Soviet Union on September 9, 1991 and promptly fell into a civil war from 1992–1997 between old-guard regionally based ruling elites and disenfranchised regions, democratic liberal reformists, and Islamists loosely organized in a United Tajik Opposition (UTO).
Tajikistan is slowly rebuilding itself with an integrated government and continues to permit a Russian military presence to guard their border with Afghanistan and the basing of the Russian 201st Motorized Rifle Division that never left Tajikistan when it became independent.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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