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Encyclopedia > Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

State Party Flag of India India
Type Cultural
Criteria i
Reference 252
Region Asia-Pacific
Inscription history
Inscription 1983  (7th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
Region as classified by UNESCO.

Coordinates: 27°10′27″N, 78°02′32″E A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2040x1681, 2396 KB) Description: Taj Mahal Source: Dhirad, picture edited by J. A. Knudsen Uploaded to en: on March 1, 2005, 14:30, by Deep750 who added the following comment On April 9, 2005, 19:22 Nichalp added that heemailed Deep750... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Asia, Australia and the Pacific (Australasia). ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

The Taj Mahal (pronounced /tɑʒ mə'hɑl/) (Persian: تاج محل, Devanagari: ताज महल) is a mausoleum located in Agra, India, that was built under Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his favorite wife, Mumtaz Mahal. Taj Mahal may be: Taj Mahal, Indian burial monument People: Taj Mahal (musician), American blues musician Taj Mahal (porn star), pornographic actress and bondage model of Indian appearance Titled works: Taj Mahal (1941 film), by Vakil with Nazir & Suraiya Taj Mahal (1963 film), by Sadiq with Kumar & Rai Taj Mahal... Look up Persian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century) DevanāgarÄ« (देवनागरी — in English pronounced ) (ISCII – IS13194:1991) [1] is an abugida alphabet used to write several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali from Nepal. ... St. ... For other uses, see Agra (disambiguation). ... Capital Delhi / Agra Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai, Turkish; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707 Aurangzeb History  - Established April 21, 1526  - Ended September 21, 1857 Area... The Mughal Empire was the dominant power in the Indian subcontinent between the mid-16th century and the end of the 17th century. ... Shahabuddin Mohammed Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan. ... Artistic depiction of Mumtaz Mahal Mumtāz Mahal (Persian: ممتاز محل, meaning beloved ornament of the palace; pronunciation //) is the common nickname of Arjumand Banu Begum, who was born in April of 1593 in Agra, India. ...


The Taj Mahal (also "the Taj") is considered the finest example of Mughal architecture, a style that combines elements from Persian, Turkish, Indian, and Islamic architectural styles. In 1983, the Taj Mahal became a UNESCO World Heritage Site and was cited as "the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world's heritage." Mughal architecture is the distinctive style of Islamic, Persian and Indian architecture, developed by the Mughal Empire in India in the 16th century. ... The Baháí House of Worship by Fariborz Sahba, also known as the Lotus Temple. ... The interior of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... The Taj Mahal, Agra. ...


While the white domed marble and tile mausoleum is most familiar, Taj Mahal is an integrated symmetric complex of structures that was completed around 1648. Ustad Ahmad Lahauri is generally considered as the principal designer of Taj Mahal.[1] For other uses, see Dome (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Marble (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Architecture

Main article: Origins and architecture of the Taj Mahal

The tomb

The focus of Taj Mahal is the white marble tomb, which stands on a square plinth consisting of a symmetrical building with an iwan, an arch-shaped doorway, topped by a large dome. Like most Mughal tombs, basic elements are Persian in origin. Plinth of the Sign of the Kiwi, Dyers Pass, Port Hills, Christchurch (NZ) c 1917 - Collection: Christchurch City Libraries Hoysala temple on plinth Look up Plinth in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An Iwan is a large, vaulted chamber with a monumental arched opening on one side. ...

The base of the Taj is a large, multi-chambered structure
The base of the Taj is a large, multi-chambered structure

The base structure is a large, multi-chambered structure. The base is essentially a cube with chamfered edges and is roughly 55 meter on each side (see floor plan, right). On the long sides, a massive pishtaq, or vaulted archway, frames the iwan with a similar arch-shaped balcony. Example of a chamfer A Chamfer is a beveled edge connecting two surfaces. ...


On either side of main arch, additional pishtaqs are stacked above and below. This motif of stacked pishtaqs is replicated on chamfered corner areas as well. The design is completely symmetrical on all sides of the building. Four minarets, one at each corner of the plinth, facing the chamfered corners, frame the tomb. The main chamber houses the cenotaphs of Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan with their graves located on lower level. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Cenotaph, London A ceremony at the Cenotaph, London, on Sunday 12th June 2005, remembering Irish war dead Memorial Cenotaph, Hiroshima, Japan A cenotaph is a tomb or a monument erected in honor of a person or group of persons whose remains are elsewhere. ...


The marble dome that surmounts the tomb is its most spectacular feature. Its height is about the same size as the base of the building, about 35 meters and is accentuated as it sits on a cylindrical "drum" of about 7 metre high. Because of its shape, the dome is often called an onion dome (also called an amrud or guava dome). The top is decorated with a lotus design, which serves to accentuate its height as well. The shape of the dome is emphasised by four smaller domed chattris (kiosks) placed at its corners. The chattri domes replicate the onion shape of main dome. Their columned bases open through the roof of the tomb and provide light to the interior. Tall decorative spires (guldastas) extend from edges of base walls,and provide visual emphasis to the height of the dome. The lotus motif is repeated on both the chattris and guldastas. The dome and chattris are topped by a gilded finial, which mixes traditional Persian and Hindu decorative elements. Detail of onion domes on Saint Basils Cathedral in Moscow An onion dome (Russian: луковичная глава, lúkovichnaya glava) is a type of architectural dome usually associated with Russian Orthodox churches. ... Binomial name Gaertn. ... Binomial name Gaertn. ... Finial at Aachen town hall Illustration by Viollet-le-Duc, 1856 The finial is an architectural device, typically carved in stone and employed to decoratively emphasise the apex of a gable, or any of various distinctive ornaments at the top, end, or corner of a building or structure. ...


The main dome is crowned by a gilded spire or finial. The finial, made of gold until the early 1800s, is now made of bronze. The finial provides a clear example of integration of traditional Persian and Hindu decorative elements. The finial is topped by a moon, a typical Islamic motif, whose horns point heavenward. Because of its placement on the main spire, the horns of moon and finial point combine to create a trident shape, reminiscent of traditional Hindu symbols of Shiva.[2] A modern spire on the Lancaster University Chaplaincy Centre A spire is a tapering conical or pyramidal structure on the top of a building, particularly a church tower. ... Finial at Aachen town hall Illustration by Viollet-le-Duc, 1856 The finial is an architectural device, typically carved in stone and employed to decoratively emphasise the apex of a gable, or any of various distinctive ornaments at the top, end, or corner of a building or structure. ... This article is about the metal alloy. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... For other uses, see Heaven (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Shiva (disambiguation). ...


At the corners of plinth stand minarets, the four large towers each more than 40 meters tall. The minarets display Taj Mahal's penchant for symmetry. These towers are designed as working minarets, a traditional element of mosques as a place for a muezzin to call the Islamic faithful to prayer. Each minaret is effectively divided into three equal parts by two working balconies that ring the tower. At the top of the tower is a final balcony surmounted by a chattri that mirrors the design of those on the tomb. The minaret chattris share the same finishing touches, a lotus design topped by a gilded finial. Each of the minarets were constructed slightly outside of the plinth, so that in the event of collapse, a typical occurrence with many such tall constructions of the period, the material from the towers would tend to fall away from the tomb. The müezzin (the word is pronounced this way Turkish, Urdu, etc. ...

Exterior decoration

Calligraphy on large pishtaq
Calligraphy on large pishtaq

The exterior decorations of Taj Mahal are among the finest to be found in Mughal architecture. As the surface area changes, a large pishtaq has more area than a smaller, the decorations are refined proportionally. The decorative elements were created by applying paint or stucco, or by stone inlays or by carvings. In line with the Islamic prohibition of the use of anthropomorphic forms, the decorative elements can be grouped into either calligraphy, abstract forms or vegetative motifs. Image File history File links TajCalligraphy3. ... Image File history File links TajCalligraphy3. ... Stucco is a material made of an aggregate, a binder, and water which is applied wet, and hardens when it dries. ... Contemporary Western Calligraphy. ...


The calligraphy found in Taj Mahal are of florid thuluth script, created by Persian calligrapher, Amanat Khan, who signed several of the panels. The calligraphy is made by jasper inlaid in white marble panels and the work found on the marble cenotaphs in the tomb is extremely detailed and delicate. Higher panels are written slightly larger to reduce skewing effect from viewing below. Throughout the complex, passages from the Qur'an are used as decorative elements. Recent scholarship suggests that Amanat Khan chose the passages as well.[3][4] The texts refer to themes of judgment and include: Surah 91 - The Sun, Surah 112 - The Purity of Faith, Surah 89 - Daybreak, Surah 93 - Morning Light, Surah 95 - The Fig, Surah 94 - The Solace, Surah 36 - Ya Sin, Surah 81 - The Folding Up, Surah 82 - The Cleaving Asunder, Surah 84 - The Rending Asunder, Surah 98 - The Evidence, Surah 67 - Dominion, Surah 48 - Victory, Surah 77 - Those Sent Forth and Surah 39 - The Crowds. As one enters through Taj Mahal Gate, the calligraphy reads "O Soul, thou art at rest. Return to the Lord at peace with Him, and He at peace with you."[5][4] Polished jasper pebble, one inch (2. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... See also: Sura (disambiguation). ... Surat Ash-Shams (Arabic: , The Sun) is the 91st sura of the Quran with 15 ayat. ... Al-Ikhlas is the 112th Sura of the Quran, a short 4_verse declaration of Gods absolute unity (tawhid), rejecting the doctrines of polytheism and trinitarianism. ... Surat Al-Fajr (Arabic: , The Dawn, Daybreak) is the 89th sura of the Quran with 30 ayat. ... Surat Ad-Dhuha (Arabic: , The Morning Hours, Morning Bright) is the 93rd sura of the Quran with 11 ayat. ... Surat At-Tin (Arabic: , The Fig, The Figtree) is the 95th sura of the Quran with 8 ayat. ... Surat Al-Inshirah (Arabic: , Expansion) is the 94th sura of the Quran with 8 ayat. ... Surah Ya-Seen (Arabic: سورة يس ) is the 36th chapter of the Quran with 83 ayat, and was revealed in the holy city of Makkah. ... Surat At-Takwir (The Overthrowing) is the 81st sura of the Quran with 29 ayat. ... Surat Al-Infitar (The Cleaving, Bursting Apart) is the 82nd sura of the Quran with 19 ayat. ... Surat Al-Inshiqaq (The Sundering, Splitting Open) is the 84th sura of the Quran with 25 ayat. ... Surat Al-Bayyina (Arabic: سورة البينة ) (The Clear Proof, Evidence) is the 98th sura of the Quran with 8 ayat. ... Surat Al-Mulk (The Sovereignty, Control) is the 67th sura of the Quran with 30 ayat. ... Surat Al-Fath (Victory, Conquest) is the 48th sura of the Quran with 29 ayat. ... Surat Al-Mursalat (The Emissaries, Winds Sent Forth) is the 77th sura of the Quran with 50 ayat. ... Surat Az-Zumar (The Troops, Throngs) is the 39th sura of the Quran with 75 ayat. ...


Abstract forms are used especially in plinth, minarets, gateway, mosque, jawab, and to a lesser extent, on the surfaces of the tomb. The domes and vaults of sandstone buildings are worked with tracery of incised painting to create elaborate geometric forms. On most joining areas, herringbone inlays define the space between adjoining elements. White inlays are used in sandstone buildings and dark or black inlays on the white marbles. Mortared areas of marble buildings have been stained or painted dark and thus creating a geometric patterns of considerable complexity. Floors and walkways use contrasting tiles or blocks in tessellation patterns. Tracery is implementation of net-like decorations in a building used especially in Gothic architecture. ... Opus spicatum is a type of masonry construction used in Roman and medieval times. ... Mission, or barrel, roof tiles A tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, stone, porcelain, metal or even glass. ... A tessellated plane seen in street pavement. ...


Vegetative motifs are found at the lower walls of the tomb. They are white marble dados that have been sculpted with realistic bas relief depictions of flowers and vines. The marble has been polished to emphasise exquisite detailing of these carvings. The dado frames and archway spandrels have been decorated with pietra dura inlays of highly stylised, almost geometric vines, flowers and fruits. The inlay stones are yellow marble, jasper and jade, leveled and polished to the surface of the walls. The lower part of a wall, below the dado rail and above the skirting board. ... Bas-relief (pronounced bah-relief, French for low relief) is a method of sculpting which entails carving or etching away the surface of a flat piece of stone or metal creating a sculpture portrayed as a picture. ... A spandrel is originally a term from Architecture, but has more recently been given an analogous meaning in Evolutionary biology. ...

Interior decoration

Jali screen surrounding the cenotaphs
Jali screen surrounding the cenotaphs
Tombs of Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal
Cenotaphs, interior of Taj Mahal
Cenotaphs, interior of Taj Mahal

The interior chamber of Taj Mahal steps far beyond traditional decorative elements. Here the inlay work is not pietra dura, but lapidary of precious and semiprecious gemstones. The inner chamber is an octagon with the design allowing for entry from each face, though, only the south garden-facing door is used. The interior walls are about 25 metre high and topped by a "false" interior dome decorated with a sun motif. Eight pishtaq arches define the space at ground level. As with the exterior, each lower pishtaq is crowned by a second pishtaq about midway up the wall. The four central upper arches form balconies or viewing areas and each balcony's exterior window has an intricate screen or jali cut from marble. In addition to the light from the balcony screens, light enters through roof openings covered by chattris at the corners. Each chamber wall has been highly decorated with dado bas relief, intricate lapidary inlay and refined calligraphy panels, reflecting in miniature detail of the design elements seen throughout the exterior of the complex. The octagonal marble screen or jali which borders the cenotaphs is made from eight marble panels. Each panel has been carved through with intricate pierce work. The remaining surfaces have been inlaid with semiprecious stones in extremely delicate detail, forming twining vines, fruits and flowers. Image File history File links TajJoli1. ... Image File history File links TajJoli1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links TajCenotaphs3. ... Image File history File links TajCenotaphs3. ... Pietra dura (Italian for hard stone) is marble inlaid with designs in precious or semi-precious stonework. ... A lapidary (the word means concerned with stones) is an artisan who practices the craft of working, forming and finishing stone, mineral, gemstones, and other suitably durable materials (amber, shell, jet, pearl, copal, coral, horn and bone, glass and other synthetics) into functional and/or decorative, even wearable, items (e. ... For other uses, see Gemstone (disambiguation). ... One of the famous intricate jaalis from the Sidi Saiyyed mosque in Ahmedabad, India A jaali is the term for a perforated stone screen, usually with an ornamental pattern, as used in Indian architecture. ...


Muslim tradition forbids elaborate decoration of graves and hence Mumtaz and Shah Jahan are laid in a relatively plain crypt beneath the inner chamber with faces turned right and towards Mecca. Mumtaz Mahal's cenotaph is placed at the precise center of the inner chamber with a rectangular marble base of 1.5 meters by 2.5 meters. Both the base and casket are elaborately inlaid with precious and semiprecious gems. Calligraphic inscriptions on the casket identify and praise Mumtaz. On the lid of the casket is a raised rectangular lozenge meant to suggest a writing tablet. Shah Jahan's cenotaph is beside Mumtaz's to the western side. It is the only visible asymmetric element in the entire complex. His cenotaph is bigger than his wife's, but reflects the same elements: A larger casket on slightly taller base, again decorated with astonishing precision with lapidary and calligraphy that identifies Shah Jahan. On the lid of this casket is a traditional sculpture of a small pen box. The pen box and writing tablet were traditional Mughal funerary icons decorating men's and women's caskets respectively. Ninety Nine Names of God are to be found as calligraphic inscriptions on the sides of the actual tomb of Mumtaz Mahal, in the crypt including "O Noble, O Magnificent, O Majestic, O Unique, O Eternal, O Glorious... ". The tomb of Shah Jahan bears a calligraphic inscription that reads; "He traveled from this world to the banquet-hall of Eternity on the night of the twenty-sixth of the month of Rajab, in the year 1076 Hijri." This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... The Cenotaph, London A ceremony at the Cenotaph, London, on Sunday 12th June 2005, remembering Irish war dead Memorial Cenotaph, Hiroshima, Japan A cenotaph is a tomb or a monument erected in honor of a person or group of persons whose remains are elsewhere. ... An open coffin A coffin is a box used for the display and burial or cremation of a dead human body. ... Rajab (Arabic: ) is the seventh month of the Islamic calendar. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar is the calendar used to date events in predominately Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Muslim holy days. ...

The garden

360° panoramic view of the Chahar Bagh gardens

The complex is set around a large 300 meters square charbagh, a Mughal garden. The garden uses raised pathways that divide each of the four quarters of the garden into 16 sunken parterres or flowerbeds. A raised marble water tank at the center of the garden, halfway between the tomb and gateway, with a reflecting pool on North-South axis reflect the image of Taj Mahal. Elsewhere, the garden is laid out with avenues of trees and fountains.[6] The raised marble water tank is called al Hawd al-Kawthar, in reference to "Tank of Abundance" promised to Muhammad.[7] The charbagh garden, a design inspired by Persian gardens, was introduced to India by the first Mughal emperor Babur. It symbolizes four flowing rivers of Paradise and reflects the gardens of Paradise and derived from the Persian paridaeza, meaning 'a walled garden'. In mystic Islamic texts of Mughal period, paradise is described as an ideal garden of abundance with four rivers source from a central spring or mountain and separate the garden into north, west, south and east. Charbagh is a Mughal Empire style garden in Taj Mahal, divided into four parts. ... Mughal Gardens are a group of styles in garden design which originate from the Islamic Mughal Empire. ... For other uses, see Garden (disambiguation). ... A parterre is a formal garden construction on a level surface consisting of planting beds, edged in stone or tightly clipped hedging and gravel paths arranged to form a pleasing pattern. ... A gate is a point of entry to a space enclosed by walls, or an opening in a fence. ... One famous reflecting pool lies between the Lincoln Memorial and the Washington Monument in Washington, D.C.. A reflecting pool is a structure often used in memorials. ... The worlds highest fountain: King Fahds Fountain in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Three traditional fountain features: a low jet, a pair of raised basins, and sculpture with a water theme, here hippocamps (Villa Borghese, Rome) A traditional fountain is an arrangement where water issues from a source (Latin fons... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Art depicting two men in a Persian Garden Persian Gardens refers to a tradition and style of garden design which originated in Persia (more commonly known today as Iran). ... Zāhir ud-Dīn Mohammad, commonly known as Bābur (February 14, 1483 – December 26, 1530) (Chaghatay/Persian: ; also spelled ), was a Muslim Emperor from Central Asia who founded the Mughal dynasty of India. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Paradise garden is a form of garden, originally just paradise, a word derived from the Avestan language, or Old Persian. ... Persian Mysticism or Persian Love tradition is a traditional interpretation of existence, life and love in Iran. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...

Walkways beside reflecting pool
Walkways beside reflecting pool

Most Mughal charbaghs are rectangular with a tomb or pavilion in the center. The Taj Mahal garden is unusual as the main element, the tomb, is rather located at the end of the garden. With the discovery of Mahtab Bagh or "Moonlight Garden" on the other side of the Yamuna, Archaeological Survey of India interprets that the Yamuna itself was incorporated into the garden's design and was meant to be seen as one of the rivers of Paradise.[8] The similarity in layout of the garden and its architectural features such as fountains, brick and marble walkways, and geometric brick-lined flowerbeds with Shalimar's suggest that the garden may have been designed by the same engineer, Ali Mardan.[9] Early accounts of the garden describe its profusion of vegetation, including roses, daffodils, and fruit trees in abundance.[10] As the Mughal Empire declined, the tending of the garden declined as well. When the British took over the management of Taj Mahal, they changed the landscaping to resemble that of lawns of London.[11] Image File history File links TajGardenWide. ... Image File history File links TajGardenWide. ... A free-standing garden pavilion, Hofgarten in Munich, Bavaria In architecture a pavilion (from French, pavillon) has two main significations. ... Not to be confused with the nearby Jamuna River a tributary of the Meghna River, which is sometimes confused both in older historical literature, and by translations of the local dialects. ... The Archaeological Survey of India is an Indian government agency in the Department of Culture that is responsible for archaeological studies and the preservation of cultural monuments. ... For other uses, see Brick (disambiguation). ... The Shalimar Gardens in Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India during the summer The Shalimar Gardens (Urdu: شالیمار باغ) are the largest of the three Mughal gardens built by the Mughal emperor Jahangir, in the lake city of Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... For other uses, see Rose (disambiguation). ... Species ????? Daffodils are a group of large flowered members of the genus Narcissus. ... A plum tree Flowering almond tree A fruit tree is a tree bearing fruit — the structures formed by the ripened ovary of a flower containing one or more seeds. ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George... A lawn is an area of recreational or amenity land planted with grass, and sometimes clover and other plants, which are maintained at a low, even height. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...

Outlying buildings

Gateway to the Taj Mahal

The Taj Mahal complex is bounded by crenellated red sandstone walls on three sides with river-facing side open. Outside these walls are several additional mausoleums, including those of Shah Jahan's other wives, and a larger tomb for Mumtaz's favorite servant. These structures, composed primarily of red sandstone, are typical of the smaller Mughal tombs of the era. The garden-facing inner sides of the wall is fronted by columned arcades, a feature typical of Hindu temples later incorporated into Mughal mosques. The wall is interspersed with domed kiosks (chattris), and small buildings that may have been viewing areas or watch towers like the Music House, which is now used as a museum. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1206x904, 644 KB) Summary clicked by me - Srikeit ¦ 04:21, 15 May 2006 (UTC) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1206x904, 644 KB) Summary clicked by me - Srikeit ¦ 04:21, 15 May 2006 (UTC) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation... Crenellation (or crenelation) is the name for the distinctive pattern that framed the tops of the walls of many medieval castles, often called battlements. ... Wives are a hardcore/punk trio from Los Angeles, California, USA consisting of guitarist Randy Randall, bassist/vocalist Dean Spunt, and drummer Jeremy Villalobos. ... For other uses, see Arcade. ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... a pagoda-like kiosk in Lausanne. ...


The main gateway (darwaza) is a monumental structure built primarily of marble and is reminiscent of Mughal architecture of earlier emperors. Its archways mirror the shape of tomb's archways, and its pishtaq arches incorporate calligraphy that decorates the tomb. It utilizes bas-relief and pietra dura (inlaid) decorations with floral motifs. The vaulted ceilings and walls have elaborate geometric designs, like those found in the other sandstone buildings of the complex. Archway Bridge Archway is an area in North London in the London Borough of Islington. ... Contemporary Western Calligraphy. ... Pietra dura (Italian for hard stone) is marble inlaid with designs in precious or semi-precious stonework. ...

Taj Mahal mosque or masjid
Taj Mahal mosque or masjid

At the far end of the complex, there are two grand red sandstone buildings that are open to the sides of the tomb. Their backs parallel western and eastern walls and these two buildings are precise mirror images of each other. The western building is a mosque and its opposite is the jawab (answer) whose primary purpose was architectural balance and may have been used as a guesthouse. The distinctions between these two buildings include the lack of mihrab, a niche in a mosque's wall facing Mecca, in the jawab and that the floors of jawab have a geometric design, while the mosque floor was laid with outlines of 569 prayer rugs in black marble. The mosque's basic design is similar to others built by Shah Jahan, particularly to his Masjid-Jahan Numa, or Jama Masjid of Delhi, a long hall surmounted by three domes. The Mughal mosques of this period divide the sanctuary hall into three areas with a main sanctuary and slightly smaller sanctuaries on either side. At Taj Mahal, each sanctuary opens onto an enormous vaulting dome. These outlying buildings were completed in 1643. Image File history File links TajMosque. ... Image File history File links TajMosque. ... Mihrab (in Persian مهراب or محراب, in Arabic ألمحراب pl. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Ajax prepares to violate the sanctuary of Athena by abducting Cassandra by force: red-figure vase, c. ...


Construction

Ground layout of the Taj Mahal
Ground layout of the Taj Mahal

The Taj Mahal was built on a parcel of land to the south of the walled city of Agra. Shah Jahan presented Maharajah Jai Singh with a large palace in the center of Agra in exchange for the land.[12] An area of roughly three acres was excavated, filled with dirt to reduce seepage and leveled at 50 meters above riverbank. In the tomb area, wells were dug and filled with stone and rubble as the footings of the tomb. Instead of lashed bamboo, workmen constructed a colossal brick scaffold that mirrored the tomb. The scaffold was so enormous that foremen estimated it would take years to dismantle. According to the legend, Shah Jahan decreed that anyone could keep the bricks taken from the scaffold and thus was dismantled by peasants overnight. A fifteen kilometer tamped-earth ramp was built to transport marble and materials to the construction site. Teams of twenty or thirty oxen were strained to pull blocks on specially constructed wagons. An elaborate post-and-beam pulley system was used to raise the blocks into desired position. Water was drawn from the river by a series of purs, an animal-powered rope and bucket mechanism into a large storage tank and raised to large distribution tank. It was passed into three subsidiary tanks, from which it was piped to the complex. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 430 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (571 × 796 pixel, file size: 135 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Taj Mahal ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 430 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (571 × 796 pixel, file size: 135 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Taj Mahal ... An acre is the name of a unit of area in a number of different systems, including Imperial units and United States customary units. ... Shallow foundations of a house A foundation is a structure that transfers loads to the ground. ... For other uses, see Bamboo (disambiguation). ... Timber framing is the modern term for the traditional half-timbered construction in which timber provides a visible skeletal frame that supports the whole building. ...


The plinth and tomb took roughly 12 years to complete. The remaining parts of the complex took an additional 10 years and were completed in order of minarets, mosque and jawab and gateway. Since the complex was built in stages, discrepancies exist in completion dates due to differing opinions on "completion". For example, the mausoleum itself was essentially complete by 1643, but work continued on the rest of the complex. Estimates of the cost of the construction of Taj Mahal vary due to difficulties in estimating construction costs across time. The total cost of construction has been estimated to be about 32 million Rupees.[13]


The Taj Mahal was constructed using materials from all over India and Asia. Over 1,000 elephants were used to transport building materials during the construction. The translucent white marble was brought from Rajasthan, the jasper from Punjab, jade and crystal from China. The turquoise was from Tibet and the Lapis lazuli from Afghanistan, while the sapphire came from Sri Lanka and the carnelian from Arabia. In all, twenty eight types of precious and semi-precious stones were inlaid into the white marble. For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea... For other uses, see Construction (disambiguation). ... , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... A selection of antique, hand-crafted Chinese jade (jadeite) buttons Unworked Jade Jade is used as an ornamental stone, the term jade is applied to two different rocks that are made up of different silicate minerals. ... For other uses, see Crystal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Turquoise (disambiguation). ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... A block of lapis lazuli Lapis lazuli is one of the oldest of all gems, with a history of use stretching back 7,000 years. ... For other uses, see Sapphire (disambiguation). ... Imprint of a carnelian seal with Brahmi inscription Kusumadasasya (Flowers servant). 4-5th century CE, probably Punjab. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ...

An Artist's impression of A Bird's View of the Taj Mahal, from the Smithsonian Institution

A labour force of twenty thousand workers was recruited across northern India. Sculptors from Bukhara, calligraphers from Syria and Persia, inlayer from southern India, stonecutters from Baluchistan, a specialist in building turrets, another who carved only marble flowers were part of the thirty-seven men who formed the creative unit. Some of the builders involved in construction of Taj Mahal are: The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... Bukhara (Tajik: Бухоро; Persian: , Buxârâ; Uzbek: ; Russian: ), from the Soghdian βuxārak (lucky place), is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat). ... Sistān and Balūchestān is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ...

  • The main dome was designed by Ismail Afandi (a.ka. Ismail Khan),[14] of the Ottoman Empire and was considered as a premier designer of hemispheres and domes.
  • Ustad Isa of Persia (Iran) and Isa Muhammad Effendi of Persia (Iran), trained by Koca Mimar Sinan Agha of Ottoman Empire, are frequently credited with a key role in the architectural design,[15][16] but there is little evidence to support this claim.
  • 'Puru' from Benarus, Persia (Iran) has been mentioned as a supervising architect.[17]
  • Qazim Khan, a native of Lahore, cast the solid gold finial.
  • Chiranjilal, a lapidary from Delhi, was chosen as the chief sculptor and mosaicist.
  • Amanat Khan from Shiraz, Iran was the chief calligrapher. His name has been inscribed at the end of the inscription on the Taj Mahal gateway.[18]
  • Muhammad Hanif was a supervisor of masons and Mir Abdul Karim and Mukkarimat Khan of Shiraz, Iran (Persia) handled finances and management of daily production.

Ustad Isa (Master Isa) is the assumed architect of the Taj Mahal, which was ordered to be built by Shah Jahan as a burial place for himself and his wife Arjumand Banu Begum. ... For other uses, see Sinan (disambiguation). ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... Sculptor redirects here. ... This article is about a decorative art. ... Eram Garden, Shiraz most popular garden. ...

History

Taj Mahal by Samuel Bourne, 1860.
Taj Mahal by Samuel Bourne, 1860.

Soon after Taj Mahal's completion, Shah Jahan was deposed and put under house arrest at nearby Agra Fort by his son Aurangzeb. Upon Shah Jahan's death, Aurangzeb buried him in the Taj Mahal next to his wife. By late 19th century, parts of Taj Mahal had fallen badly into disrepair. Samuel Bourne (1834–1912) was a British photographer known for his work in India. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Aurangzeb (Persian: (full title Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Abdul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I, Padshah Ghazi) (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707), also known by his chosen Imperial title Alamgir I (Conqueror of the Universe) (Persian: ), was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from...

Protective wartime scaffolding
Protective wartime scaffolding

During the time of Indian rebellion of 1857, Taj Mahal faced defacement by British soldiers and government officials, who chiseled out precious stones and lapis lazuli from its walls. At the end of 19th century British viceroy Lord Curzon ordered a massive restoration project, completed in 1908. He also commissioned the large lamp in the interior chamber, modeled on one in a Cairo mosque. It was during this time the garden was remodeled with British looking lawns that are visible today. Image File history File links Taj_protective_scaffold. ... Image File history File links Taj_protective_scaffold. ... Belligerents Rebellious East India Company Sepoys, 7 Indian princely states, deposed rulers of the independent states of Oudh, Jhansi Some Indian civilians. ... A block of lapis lazuli Lapis lazuli is one of the oldest of all gems, with a history of use stretching back 7,000 years. ... A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. ... George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, British statesman The Most Honourable George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston (January 11, 1859 – March 20, 1925), was a conservative British statesman who served as Viceroy of India. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ...


In 1942, the government erected a scaffolding in anticipation of an air attack by German Luftwaffe and later by Japanese Air Force. During the India-Pakistan wars of 1965 and 1971, scaffoldings were erected to mislead bomber pilots. Its recent threats came from environmental pollution on the banks of Yamuna River including acid rain due to Mathura oil refinery, which was opposed by Supreme Court of India directives. In 1983, Taj Mahal was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... The Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service or Dai Nippon Teikoku Kaigun Koku Hombu was a major force in the Pacific War during World War II. The Japanese military acquired their first aircraft in 1910 and followed the development of air combat during World War I with great interest. ... Since both nations achieved independence in August 1947, there have been three major wars between India and Pakistan: Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 In addition, the 1999 Kargil Conflict is regarded by some as a fourth war between the two... The Lachine Canal, in Montreal, is badly polluted Pollution is the release of harmful environmental contaminants, or the substances so released. ... The river Yamuna is a major river of northern India, with a total length of around 1370 km. ... The term acid rain is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, fog, dew, or dry particles. ... , Mathura   (Hindi: मथुरा, Urdu: متھرا) is a holy city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... The Supreme Court of India is the highest court of the land as established by Part V, Chapter IV of the Constitution of India. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...


Tourism

The Taj at dusk
The Taj at dusk

The Taj Mahal attracts 2 to 3 million visitors every year with more than 200,000 from overseas. Most tourists visit during the cooler months of October, November and February. Polluting traffic is not allowed near the complex and tourist must either walk from the carparks or catch an electric bus. The Khawasspuras are currently being restored for use as a new visitors centre.[19][20] The small town to the South of the Taj known as Taj Ganji or Mumtazabad was originally constructed with caravanserais, bazaars and markets to serve the needs of visitors and workmen.[21] Lists of recommended travel destinations often feature Taj Mahal, which also appears in several listings of seven wonders of the modern world, including the recently announced New Seven Wonders of the World, a recent poll[22] with 100 million votes Image File history File links Size of this preview: 605 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 1015 pixel, file size: 537 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Taj Mahal Author: Amal Mongia. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 605 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 1015 pixel, file size: 537 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Taj Mahal Author: Amal Mongia. ... The Grand Timcheh of Qoms Bazaar. ... For other uses, see Wonders of the World (disambiguation). ... Location of the New Seven Wonders winners. ...


For security reasons [2], only five items - water in transparent bottles, small video camera, still camera, switched off mobile phone and small ladies purse - are allowed inside the Taj Mahal.


Myths

Since its construction the building has been the source of an admiration that has transcended cultures and geography to the extent that the personal and emotional responses to the building have consistently eclipsed scholastic appraisals of the monument.[23]

Jean-Baptiste Tavernier, one of the first European visitors to the Taj Mahal
Jean-Baptiste Tavernier, one of the first European visitors to the Taj Mahal

A longstanding myth holds that Shah Jahan planned a mausoleum to be built in black marble across the Yamuna river.[24] The idea originates from fanciful writings of Jean-Baptiste Tavernier, a European traveller who visited Agra in 1665. It was suggested that Shah Jahan was overthrown by his son Aurangzeb before it could be built. Ruins of blackened marble across the river in Moonlight Garden, Mahtab Bagh, seemed to support this legend. However, excavations carried out in the 1990s found that they were discolored white stones that turned into black.[25] A more credible theory for the origins of the black mausoleum was demonstrated in 2006 by archeologists who resconstructed part of the pool in the Moonlight Garden. A dark reflection of the white mausoleum could clearly be seen, befitting Shah Jahan's obsession with symmetry and the positioning of the pool itself.[26] Download high resolution version (818x933, 134 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (818x933, 134 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Jean-Baptiste Tavernier. ... Jean-Baptiste Tavernier. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


No evidence exist for claims that describe, often in horrific detail, the deaths, dismemberments and mutilations which Shah Jahan inflicted on various architects and craftsmen associated with the tomb. Some stories claim that those involved in construction signed contracts committing to have no part in any similar design. Similar claims are made for many famous buildings.[27] No evidence exist on claims that Lord William Bentinck, governor of India in the 1830s, supposedly planned to demolish Taj Mahal and auction off the marble. Bentinck's biographer John Rosselli says that the story arose from Bentinck's fund-raising sale of discarded marble from Agra Fort.[28] The Lord William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck, known as Lord William Bentinck (14 September 1774 - 17 June 1839) was a British statesman who served as Governor-General of India from 1828 to 1835. ...


In 2000, India's Supreme Court dismissed P.N. Oak's petition to declare that a Hindu king built the Taj Mahal and reprimanded him for bringing the action.[29][27]. Oak claimed that origins of the Taj, together with other historic structures in the country currently ascribed to Muslim sultans pre-date Muslim occupation of India and thus, have a Hindu origin.[30] A more poetic story relates that once a year, during the rainy season, a single drop of water falls on the cenotaph as inspired by Rabindranath Tagore's description of the tomb as "one tear-drop...upon the cheek of time". Another myth suggests that beating the silhouette of finial will cause water to come forth. To this day, officials find broken bangles surrounding the silhouette.[31] Purushottam Nagesh Oak (born 2 March 1917), commonly referred to as P. N. Oak, is an Indian writer associated with claims such as Christianity and Islam are both derivatives of Hinduism, and that the Kaaba and the Taj Mahal were once Hindu temples to Shiva. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... (Bengali: , IPA: ) (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), also known by the sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali poet, Brahmo Samaj philosopher, visual artist, playwright, novelist, and composer whose works reshaped Bengali literature and music in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Bangles in Laad Bazaar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Iranian architecture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Humayuns tomb is a complex of buildings of Mughal architecture located in Nizamuddin east, New Delhi. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... View across Fatehpur Sikri Fatehpur Sikri (Hindi: ) was the political capital of Indias Mughal Empire under Akbars reign, from 1571 until 1585, when it was abandoned, ostensibly due to lack of water. ... Bibi Ka Maqbara Bibi Ka Maqbara was built by Prince Azam Shah, son of Emperor Aurangzeb, in the late 17th century as a loving tribute to his mother, Dilras Bano Begam. ... See these examples of Ottoman Architecture: The Topkapi Palace The Dolmabahçe Palace The Sultan Ahmed Mosque (Sultanahmet Camii; also known as the Blue Mosque) The Suleiman Mosque (Süleymaniyye Camii) The Ottoman residential buildings, Yalıs See also: Islamic architecture Mosques. ...

Notes

  1. ^ UNESCO advisory body evaluation
  2. ^ Tillitson, G.H.R. (1990). Architectural Guide to Mughal India, Chronicle Books
  3. ^ http://www.tajmahal.org.uk/calligraphy.html
  4. ^ a b Koch, p.100
  5. ^ pbs.org
  6. ^ taj-mahal-travel-tours.com
  7. ^ Begley, Wayne E. (Mar, 1979). "The Myth of the Taj Mahal and a New Theory of Its Symbolic Meaning". The Art Bulletin 61 (1): 14. Retrieved on 2007-07-09.
  8. ^ Wright, Karen (July), "Moguls in the Moonlight - plans to restore Mehtab Bagh garden near Taj Mahal", Discover, <http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1511/is_7_21/ai_63035788>
  9. ^ Allan, John [1958]. The Cambridge Shorter History of India (in English). Cambridge: S. Chand, 288 pages. , p.318
  10. ^ The Taj by Jerry Camarillo Dunn Jr
  11. ^ Koch, p. 139
  12. ^ Chaghtai Le Tadj Mahal p54; Lahawri Badshah Namah Vol.1 p403
  13. ^ Dr. A. Zahoor and Dr. Z. Haq
  14. ^ Who designed the Taj Mahal
  15. ^ William J. Hennessey, Ph.D., Director, Univ. of Michigan Museum of Art. IBM 1999 WORLD BOOK
  16. ^ Marvin Trachtenberg and Isabelle Hyman. Architecture: from Prehistory to Post-Modernism. p223
  17. ^ ISBN 964-7483-39-2
  18. ^ [1]
  19. ^ Koch, p.120
  20. ^ Koch, p.254
  21. ^ Koch, p.201-208
  22. ^ Travel Correspondent (2007-07-09). New Seven Wonders of the World announced (English). The Telegraph. Retrieved on 2007-07-06.
  23. ^ Koch, p.231
  24. ^ Asher, p.210
  25. ^ Koch, p.249
  26. ^ Warrior Empire: The Mughals of India (2006) A+E Television Network
  27. ^ a b Koch, p.239
  28. ^ Rosselli, J., Lord William Bentinck the making of a Liberal Imperialist, 1774-1839, London Chatto and Windus for Sussex University Press 1974, p.283
  29. ^ Supreme Court Dismisses Oak's Petition
  30. ^ Oak, Purushottam Nagesh. The True Story of the Taj Mahal (English). Stephen Knapp. Retrieved on 2007-02-23.
  31. ^ Koch, p.240

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Discover is a science magazine that publishes articles about science for a general audience. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Asher, Catherine B. Architecture of Mughal India New Cambridge History of India I.4 (Cambridge University Press) 1992 ISBN 0-521-26728-5
  • Bernier, Françoi' Travels in the Moghul Empire A.D. 1657-1668 (Westminster: Archibald Constable & Co.) 1891
  • Carroll, David (1971). The Taj Mahal, Newsweek Books ISBN 0-88225-024-8
  • Chaghtai, Muhammad Abdullah Le Tadj Mahal d'Agra (Inde). Histoire et description (Brussels: Editions de la Connaissance) 1938
  • Copplestone, Trewin. (ed). (1963). World architecture - An illustrated history. Hamlyn, London.
  • Gascoigne, Bamber (1971). The Great Moguls, Harper & Row
  • Havel, E.B. (1913). Indian Architecture: Its Psychology, Structure and History, John Murray
  • Kambo, Muhammad Salih Amal-i-Salih or Shah Jahan Namah Ed. Ghulam Yazdani (Calcutta: Baptist Mission Press) Vol.I 1923. Vol. II 1927
  • Koch, Ebba [Aug 2006]. The Complete Taj Mahal: And the Riverfront Gardens of Agra (Paperback), First (in English), Thames & Hudson Ltd, 288 pages. ISBN 0500342091. 
  • Lahawri, 'Abd al-Hamid Badshah Namah Ed. Maulawis Kabir al-Din Ahmad and 'Abd al-Rahim under the superintendence of Major W.N. Lees. (Calcutta: College Press) Vol. I 1867 Vol. II 1868
  • Lall, John (1992). Taj Mahal, Tiger International Press
  • Rothfarb, Ed (1998). In the Land of the Taj Mahal, Henry Holt ISBN 0-8050-5299-2
  • Saksena, Banarsi Prasad History of Shahjahan of Dihli (Allahabad: The Indian Press Ltd.) 1932
  • Stall, B (1995). Agra and Fathepur Sikri, Millennium
  • Stierlin, Henri [editor] & Volwahsen, Andreas (1990). Architecture of the World: Islamic India, Taschen
  • Tillitson, G.H.R. (1990). Architectural Guide to Mughal India, Chronicle Books

External links

Coordinates: 27°10′30″N, 78°02′32″E Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Capital Delhi / Agra Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai, Turkish; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707 Aurangzeb History  - Established April 21, 1526  - Ended September 21, 1857 Area... The Mughal Empire was the dominant power in the Indian subcontinent between the mid-16th century and the end of the 17th century. ... Zāhir ud-DÄ«n Mohammad, commonly known as Bābur (February 14, 1483 – December 26, 1530) (Chaghatay/Persian: ; also spelled ), was a Muslim Emperor from Central Asia who founded the Mughal dynasty of India. ... Nasiruddin Humayun (March 6, 1508 – February 22, 1556), second Mughal Emperor, ruled in India from 1530–1540 and 1555–1556. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... n ... Shahabuddin Mohammed Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan. ... Aurangzeb (Persian: (full title Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Abdul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I, Padshah Ghazi) (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707), also known by his chosen Imperial title Alamgir I (Conqueror of the Universe) (Persian: ), was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from... Capital Delhi / Agra Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai, Turkish; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707 Aurangzeb History  - Established April 21, 1526  - Ended September 21, 1857 Area... Combatants Mughal dynasty Delhi Sultanate Commanders Babur Sultan Ibrahim Lodhi Strength 10,000 Mughals & Pathans 5,000 allied Indian troops 30,000-40,000 troops 100 war elephants Casualties Low 15,000 - 20,000 The first battle of Panipat took place in northern India, and marked the beginning of the... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants Maratha Empire Durrani Empire Commanders Sadashivrao Bhau, Ibrahim Khan Gardi Ahmed Shah Durrani, Najib-ud-Daula, Shuja-ud-Daula Strength 40,000 cavalry, 200 pieces of artillery, 15,000 infantry, 15,000 Pindaris accompanied by 300,000 non-combatants (pilgrims and camp-followers 41,800 cavalry, 120-130 pieces... Mughal architecture is the distinctive style of Islamic, Persian and Indian architecture, developed by the Mughal Empire in India in the 16th century. ... Humayuns tomb is a complex of buildings of Mughal architecture located in Nizamuddin east, New Delhi. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... View from Minto Park The Badshahi Mosque (Urdu: بادشاھی مسجد), or the Emperors Mosque, was built in 1673 by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in Lahore, Pakistan. ... Alamgiri Gate - Main Entrance to Lahore Fort, with Hazuri Bagh Pavilion in foreground The Lahore Fort, locally referred to as Shahi Qila (شاہى قلعه) is the citadel of the city of Lahore, in modern day Pakistan. ... The Delhi Fort also known as Lal Qilah, or Lal Qila, meaning the Red Fort, located in Delhi, India is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. ... The Shalimar Gardens (Urdu: شالیمار باغ), sometimes written Shalamar Gardens, were built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in Lahore, modern day Pakistan. ... The Pearl Mosque is a name given to certain structures in more than one country. ... Bibi Ka Maqbara Bibi Ka Maqbara was built by Prince Azam Shah, son of Emperor Aurangzeb, in the late 17th century as a loving tribute to his mother, Dilras Bano Begam. ... Ibrahim Lodhi (died April 21, 1526) was the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate. ... For the recipient of the Victoria Cross, see Sher Shah (VC). ... MAHARANA PRATAP(1540-1597) The Grandson of the illustrious Rana Sanga. ... Hemuchandra or Hemu was an Indian military leader. ... // The early life Gokula or Gokul Singh was a Jat chieftain of village Sinsini near Mathura in Uttar Pradesh, India. ... Shivaji Bhosle, also known as Chhatrapati Shivaji Raje Bhosle (Marathi: छत्रपती शिवाजीराजे भोसले) (Born:February 19, 1627, Died: March 4, 1680) was the founder of Maratha empire in western India in 1674. ... A traditional portrait of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...



  Results from FactBites:
 
Taj Mahal,Taj Mahal in India,India's Taj Mahal,The Taj Mahal,Travel in Taj Mahal India,Taj Mahal in Agra,Tajmahal Tour ... (670 words)
The Taj Mahal is the living symbol of the monumental passion of Shah Jahan and Arjumand Banu.
As Mumtaz Mahal lay dying, she asked four promises from the emperor: first, that he build the Taj; second, that he should marry again; third, that he be kind to their children; and fourth, that he visit the tomb on her death anniversary.
Arjumand Banu alias Mumtaj Mahal, the royal consort of the emperor Shahjahan….it was in her sweet memory that the grief-stricken emperor built the Taj, the unrivalled epitome of love!
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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