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Encyclopedia > Taiwanese Mandarin

Taiwanese Mandarin (Traditional Chinese: 台灣國語; Hanyu Pinyin: Táiwān Guóyǔ; Wade-Giles: T'ai2-wan1 Kuo2-yü3; also 台灣華語, Táiwān Huáyǔ) is the dialect of Mandarin Chinese spoken on Taiwan. Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... Mandarin, when used in the broad sense to refer to most of the Chinese dialects spoken over northern and southwestern China, covers many variations. ... This article is on all of the Northern and Southwestern Chinese dialects. ...


The official Standard Mandarin of the Republic of China, known in Taiwan as 國語 (Guóyǔ, Kuo-yü), is based on the phonology of the Beijing dialect and the grammar of Vernacular Chinese is almost identical to the standard of Mandarin used in the People's Republic of China, known in mainland China as Pǔtōnghuà (普通话); the differences between the two are mainly due to the separation of the two sides since 1949 as well as the period of Japanese rule from 1895 to 1945. However, Mandarin as spoken informally in Taiwan has some notable differences in vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation with Standard Mandarin, which have arisen by virtue of contact with native Taiwanese (Amoy Min Nan) speakers. Standard Mandarin, also known as Standard Chinese, Modern Standard Chinese or Standard spoken Chinese, is the official modern Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan), and Singapore. ... Anthem National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital (and largest city) Taipei1 Official languages Standard Mandarin (GuóyÇ”), Taiwanese, Aborigine Government Semi-presidential system  -  President Chen Shui-bian  -  Vice President Annette Lu  -  Premier Chang Chun-hsiung Establishment Xinhai Revolution   -  Independence declared October 10, 1911   -  Republic established January 1, 1912... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Vernacular Chinese (pinyin: báihuà; Wade-Giles: paihua) is a style or register of the written Chinese language essentially modeled after the spoken language and associated with Standard Mandarin. ... ... Combatants Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... The Japanese colonial period, Japanese rule or the Japanese occupation[1], in the context of Taiwans history, refers to the period between 1895 and 1945 during which Taiwan was a Japanese colony. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Standard Mandarin, also known as Standard Chinese, Modern Standard Chinese or Standard spoken Chinese, is the official modern Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan), and Singapore. ... Taiwanese (pe̍h-oÄ“-jÄ«: Tâi-oân-oÄ“ or Tâi-gí; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a variant of Amoy Min Nan Chinese spoken by about 70% of Taiwans population. ... Amoy (Xiamen) is a language/dialect which originally comes from Southern Fujian, in the area centered around the city of Xiamen. ... Mǐn N n (Chinese: 閩南語), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name B ; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ...

Contents

Usage

In 1945 when the island of Taiwan came under the control of the Kuomintang's Republic of China , Mandarin was introduced as the official language and made compulsory in schools. (Before 1945, Japanese was the official language and taught in schools.) Since then, Mandarin has been established as a lingua franca among the various groups in Taiwan: the majority Taiwanese-speaking Hoklo (Hokkien), the Hakka who have their own spoken language, Mainlanders whose native tongue may be any Chinese variant in mainland China, and the Indigenous Taiwanese who speak Indigenous languages. The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in... Anthem National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital (and largest city) Taipei1 Official languages Standard Mandarin (GuóyÇ”), Taiwanese, Aborigine Government Semi-presidential system  -  President Chen Shui-bian  -  Vice President Annette Lu  -  Premier Chang Chun-hsiung Establishment Xinhai Revolution   -  Independence declared October 10, 1911   -  Republic established January 1, 1912... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... Taiwanese (pe̍h-oÄ“-jÄ«: Tâi-oân-oÄ“ or Tâi-gí; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a variant of Amoy Min Nan Chinese spoken by about 70% of Taiwans population. ... Hoklo (pronounced Holo; Chinese ; Mandarin pronunciation--pinyin: Fulao) can refer to an ethnic-cultural group originating in Fujian province, China. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Hakka is one language in the family of languages known as Chinese. ... Mainlanders are those humans who live, or were born, in a mainland. ... A Rukai villege Chief visiting Department of Anthropology in Tokyo Imperial University during the Japanese rule. ...


Until the 1980s the Kuomintang administration heavily promoted the use of Standard Mandarin and discouraged the use of Taiwanese and other vernaculars, even portraying them as inferior. Mandarin was the only sanctioned language for use in the media. This produced a backlash in the 1990s. Although some more extreme supporters of Taiwan independence tend to be opposed to standard Mandarin in favor of Taiwanese, efforts to replace standard Mandarin either with Taiwanese or with a multi-lingual standard have remained stalled. Today, Mandarin is taught by immersion starting in elementary school. After the second grade, the entire educational system is in Mandarin, except for local language classes that have been taught for a few hours each week starting in the mid-1990s. The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in... Taiwan independence (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Pe̍h-oē-jī: Tâi-oân To̍k-li̍p ūn-tōng; abbreviated to 台獨, Táidú, Tâi-to̍k) is a political movement whose goal is primarily to create an independent and sovereign Republic of Taiwan out of the...


Taiwanese Mandarin (as with Singlish and many other situations of a creole speech community) is spoken at different levels according to the social class and situation of the speakers. Formal occasions call for the acrotectal level of Guoyu, which in practice differs little from Putonghua. Less formal situations often result in the basilect form, which has more uniquely Taiwanese features. Bilingual Taiwanese speakers often code-switch between Mandarin and Taiwanese, sometimes in the same sentence. Singlish is an English-based creole language native to Singapore. ... A phase that happens to native languages in a peripheral, especially colonial society that emerge from the previous dominance of a high language imposed by the center. ... An acrolect is a register of a spoken language that is considered formal and high-style. ... In linguistics, a basilect is a dialect of speech that has diverged so far from the standard language that in essence it has become a different language. ... Code-switching is a term in linguistics referring to alternation between one or more languages, dialects, or language registers in the course of discourse between people who have more than one language in common. ...


Mandarin is spoken fluently by almost the entire Taiwanese population, except for some elderly people who were educated under Japanese rule. In the capital Taipei, where there is a high concentration of Mainlanders whose native language is not Taiwanese, Mandarin is used in greater frequency than in southern and rural Taiwan. Nickname: Coordinates: , Country Republic of China Region Northern Taiwan City seat Xinyi District (信義區) Government  - Mayor Hau Lung-bin (KMT)1 E9 Area  - City 271. ... Mainlanders are those humans who live, or were born, in a mainland. ...


Differences from Standard Mandarin

Further information: Standard Mandarin

Standard Mandarin, also known as Standard Chinese, Modern Standard Chinese or Standard spoken Chinese, is the official modern Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan), and Singapore. ...

Pronunciation

There are two categories of pronunciation differences. The first is of characters that have an official pronunciation that differs from Putonghua (this mainly means a difference in tone rather than vowels or consonants). The second is more general, with differences being unofficial and arising through the influence of Taiwanese on Guoyu. It has been suggested that Tonal language be merged into this article or section. ...


Variant official pronunciations

There are a few differences in official pronunciations, mainly in tone, between Guoyu and Putonghua. A full list is available at http://www.zhongwen.com/x/guopu.htm. It has been suggested that Tonal language be merged into this article or section. ...


The following is a partial list of such differences, with Putonghua pronunciation first and Guoyu pronunciation second:

  • 垃圾 ("garbage"): lājī, lèsè
  • 液體 ("liquid"): yètǐ, yìtǐ
  • ("and"): , hàn (Note: is also used in Taiwan)
  • 星期 ("week"): xīngqī, xīngqí
  • 企業 ("enterprise"): qǐyè, qìyè

Taiwanese-influenced

In acrolectal Taiwanese Mandarin: An acrolect is a register of a spoken language that is considered formal and high-style. ...

  • the retroflex sounds (ch, zh, sh, r) from Putonghua are softened considerably
  • the Beijing retroflex "r" () ending is very rarely heard
  • the pinyin feng is pronounced as fong

In basilectal Taiwanese Mandarin, sounds that do not occur in Taiwanese are replaced by sounds from that language. These variations from Standard Mandarin are similar to the variations of Mandarin spoken in southern China. Using the Hanyu Pinyin system, the following sound changes take place (going from Putonghua to Taiwanese Mandarin followed with an example): Retroflex consonants are articulated with the tip of the tongue curled up and back so the bottom of the tip touches the roof of the mouth. ... Retroflex consonants are articulated with the tip of the tongue curled up and back so the bottom of the tip touches the roof of the mouth. ... In linguistics, a basilect is a dialect of speech that has diverged so far from the standard language that in essence it has become a different language. ... Pinyin (拼音, Pīnyīn) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to Hànyǔ Pīnyīn (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of...

  • f- becomes hu- (fan – huan 反→緩)[1]
  • -ie, ye becomes ei (tie – tei)
  • chi (stand-alone) becomes tu (chi – tu)
  • ch- becomes c- (chuan – cuan 傳→攢)
  • r- becomes l- (ren - len)
  • zh-, zhi becomes z-, zi (zhao – zao 照→造)
  • sh-, shi becomes s-, si (shuo – suo 說→縮)
  • yu becomes yi (yue – ye 月→夜)

Grammar

The Putonghua construct 有…沒有 (have or not have) is not used in Taiwanese Mandarin.


For example: 你有汽車沒有? (lit. "you have a car or not have?") is not often found in Taiwanese Mandarin, where the preferred usage would be the alternative Putonghua construction 你有沒有汽車? (lit. "you have or not have a car?"). Both phrases have the same meaning of "Do you have a car?"


In some contexts, the construction involving is often used where the sentence final particle would normally be used to denote perfect aspect. For instance, a Taiwanese person would say "你有吃飯嗎?" to mean "Have you eaten?" whereas the preferred Putonghua is "你吃飯了嗎?". This is due to the influence of Taiwanese grammar which uses in a similar fashion. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Difference between Taiwanese Mandarin and Chinese Mandarin

Some terms have different meanings in Taiwan and China.


For instance:


土豆 (tu dou) means peanuts in Taiwan, where as in China, it refers to potatoes. Peanuts in China is 花生 (hua sheng), which Taiwanese also use and understand.


The verb 搞 (gao), or "to do" in English, means exactly that in China, to perform some task or to do something. In Taiwan, however, the same verb has a connotation of carrying out something insidious or shameful. As such, it is a verb that is rarely seen in any official or formal setting in Taiwan, where as it is widely used in China even by its top officials in official settings.


窩心 (wo sin) in Taiwan refers to a kind of warm fuzzy feeling. However, in China, it is more commonly understood as being troubled by something in one's mind.


Taxi in China is called 出租汽車 (Chu zu qi che). However, the same term in Taiwan refers to Rental Car. Taxi in Taiwan is called 計程車 (Ji cheng che). Buying a 計算機 (Ji suan ji) in China will get you a computer, but buying a 計算機 in Taiwan will only get you a calculator.


Telling someone you go to a 研究所(yen jiu suo) in Taipei means you are attending a graduate school, where as telling this to someone in Beijing will mean you are going to a research institute. Similarly, pointing to your wife and introducing her as your 愛人 (ai ren, meaning Spouse in China) in China will not raise anyone's eyebrows, but if you do so in Taiwan, it will most certainly be somewhat of a surprise for your Taiwanese friends because you have just introduced your wife as your LOVER.


A driver in Taiwan (Taxi, bus or train) is called 師機 (shi ji) but in China, a driver is called 师傅 (shi fu).


Tomato: 番茄(fang qie, Taiwan) vs. 西紅柿(si hong shi, China)


Boxed Lunch: 便當(bian dang, Taiwan) vs. 盒飯 (hefan, China)


Employed (colloqually): 給人家請的 (gei ren jia qin de, Taiwan) vs 打工的 (dagong, China).


Vocabulary

Vocabulary differences can be divided into four categories – loan words, technological words, idioms, and words specific to living in Taiwan. Because of the limited transfer of information between mainland China and Taiwan after the Chinese civil war, many things that were invented after this split have different names in Guoyu and Putonghua. Additionally, many terms were adopted from Japanese both as a result of its close proximity as well as Taiwan's status as a Japanese colony in the first half of the 20th century. A loanword (or a borrowing) is a word taken in by one language from another. ... An idiom is an expression (i. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister (many other Prime Ministers preceded the below list)  - 1916–1918 Count Masatake Terauchi  - 1937-1939, 1940-1941 Prince Fumimaro Konoe  - 1941–1944 Hideki...


Loan words

From English
  • The term "machi" (麻吉 Pinyin: májí) is a transliteration of the English term "match", and is used to describe items or people which complement each other.
    • Note: 麻吉 has become popular in the PRC as well.
  • The English term "hamburger" has been adopted in many Chinese speaking communities. In Taiwan, the preferred transliteration is 漢堡 (Pinyin: hànbǎo) rather than 漢堡包 (Pinyin: hànbǎobāo).
  • The term "Chao 超" (literally means "super") is very much commonly used in Taiwanese Mandarin to mean "very". E.g. 超可爱 (super cute)
  • The term "Daren 達人" is a transliteration of the English term "Talent", and is used to describe someone who is very talented at doing something (a pro or expert).
  • The term "Fensi 粉絲" is a transliteration of the English term "fans", and is used to describe fans or people who idolize a superstar.

The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Machi Machi (sometimes 麻吉) is a popular Taiwanese hip hop group. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... A hamburger (or simply burger) is a sandwich that consists of a cooked patty of ground meat that is fried, steamed, grilled, or broiled, and is generally served with various condiments and toppings inside a sliced bun baked specially for this purpose. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ...

From Taiwanese
  • The terms "阿公 agōng" and "阿嬤 amà" are more commonly heard than the standard Mandarin 爺爺 yéye (paternal grandfather), 外公 wàigōng (maternal grandfather), 奶奶 nǎinai (paternal grandmother) and 外婆 wàipó (maternal grandmother).
  • Some local foods usually are referred to using their Taiwanese names. These include:
Taiwanese POJ IPA English
銼冰[2] chhoah-peng [tsʰuaʔ˥˧piŋ˥˥] Shaved ice with sliced fresh fruit on top (usually strawberry, kiwi or mango)
麻糬 môa-chî [mua˧˧tɕi˧˥] glutonous rice cakes (see Mochi)
蚵仔煎 ô-á-chian [o˧˧a˥˥tɕiɛn˥˥] oyster omelette
  • List of Taiwanese words commonly found in local Mandarin language newspapers and periodicals
As seen in two popular newspapers[3] Taiwanese (POJ) Mandarin Equivalent (Pinyin) English
鴨霸
China Times
Liberty Times
壓霸
(ah-pà)
IPA: [aʔ˥˧pa˨˩]
惡霸
(èbà)
a local tyrant; a bully
甲意
China Times
Liberty Times
合意
(kah-ì)
IPA: [kaʔ˥˧i˨˩]
喜歡
(xǐhuān)
to like
見笑[4]
China Times
Liberty Times
見笑
(kiàn-siàu)
IPA: [kiɛn˥˧ɕiau˨˩]
害羞
(hàixiū)
shy; bashful; sense of shame
摃龜
China Times
Liberty Times
摃龜
(kòng-ku)
IPA: [kɔŋ˥˧ku˥˥]
落空
(luòkōng)
to end up with nothing
龜毛[5]
China Times
Liberty Times
龜毛
(ku-mo·)
IPA: [ku˧˧mɔ˥˥]
不乾脆
(bù gāncuì)
picky; high-maintenance
Q
(khiū)
IPA: [kʰiu˧˧]
軟潤有彈性 (ruǎn rùn yǒu tánxìng)
description for food -- soft and pliable (like mochi cakes)
LKK
China Times
Liberty Times
老柝柝
(lāu-khok-khok)
IPA: [lau˨˩ kʰɔk˥˥kʰɔk˩˩]
老態龍鍾
(lǎotàilóngzhōng)
old and senile
落跑
China Times
Liberty Times
落跑
(làu-phâu)
IPA: [lau˥˧pʰau˧˥]
逃跑
(táopǎo)
to run away; to flee; to escape
趴趴走
China Times
Liberty Times
拋拋走
(pha-pha-cháu)
IPA: [pʰa˧˧pʰa˧˧tsau˥˧]
東奔西跑
(dōngbēnxīpǎo)
to rush about or around
歹勢
China Times
Liberty Times
歹勢
(pháiⁿ-sè)
IPA: [pʰãi˥˥se˨˩]
不好意思
(bù hǎo yìsi)
I beg your pardon; I am sorry; Excuse me.
速配
China Times
Liberty Times
四配
(sù-phòe)
IPA: [su˥˧pʰue˨˩]
相配
(xiāngpèi)
to be well suited to each other
代誌
China Times
Liberty Times
代誌
(tāi-chì)
IPA: [tai˨˩tɕi˨˩]
事情
(shìqing)
an event; a matter; an affair
凍未條
China Times
Liberty Times
擋未住
(tòng-bē-tiâu)
IPA: [tɔŋ˥˧be˨˩tiau˧˥]
1受不了
(shòu bù liǎo)
²擋不住
(dǎng bù zhù)
1can not bear something
²compelled to do something
凍蒜
China Times
Liberty Times
當選
(tòng-soán)
IPA: [tɔŋ˥˧suan˥˧]
當選
(dāngxuǎn)
to win an election
頭殼壞去
China Times
Liberty Times
頭殼歹去
(thâu-khak pháiⁿ-khì)
IPA: [tʰau˧˧kʰak˥˥pʰãi˥˧kʰi˨˩]
腦筋有問題
(nǎojīn yǒu wèntí)
(you have/he has) lost (your/his) mind!
凸槌
China Times
Liberty Times
脫箠
(thut-chhôe)
IPA: [tʰut˥˥tsʰue˧˥]
出軌
(chūguǐ)
to go off the rails; to go wrong
運將
China Times
Liberty Times
運將
(ūn-chiàng)
IPA: [un˨˩tɕiaŋ˨˩]
司機
(sījī)
driver (of automotive vehicles)
鬱卒
China Times
Liberty Times
鬱卒
(ut-chut)
IPA: [ut˥˥tsut˩˩]
悶悶不樂
(mènmènbùlè)
depressed; sulky; unhappy; moody

Taiwanese (pe̍h-oē-jī: Tâi-oân-oē or Tâi-gí; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a variant of Amoy Min Nan Chinese spoken by about 70% of Taiwans population. ... Pe̍h-oē-jī (POJ) (Chinese: 白話字; pinyin: ) is an orthography in the Latin alphabet created and introduced to Taiwan by Presbyterian missionaries in the 19th century. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Rice Cake Pounding mochi in an usu Making mochi with a modern piece of equipment Mochi (Japanese: ; Chinese: ) is a Japanese rice cake made of glutinous rice pounded into paste and molded into shape. ... A hawker is making oyster omelette in the Shilin night market, Taipei A hawker is making oyster omelette in the Keelung night market, Taipei An oyster omelette from the Keelung night market, Taipei Oyster omelette is a well-known Chinese dish which originated in Fujian. ... Pe̍h-oē-jī (POJ) (Chinese: 白話字; pinyin: ) is an orthography in the Latin alphabet created and introduced to Taiwan by Presbyterian missionaries in the 19th century. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Rice Cake Pounding mochi in an usu Making mochi with a modern piece of equipment Mochi (Japanese: ; Chinese: ) is a Japanese rice cake made of glutinous rice pounded into paste and molded into shape. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...

From Japanese
Japanese (Romaji) Taiwanese Mandarin (Pinyin) PRC Mandarin (Pinyin) English
弁当 (bentō) 便當 (biàndāng) 盒饭 (héfàn) A boxed lunch.
元気 (genki) 元氣 (yuánqì) Vigor, or healthiness.
中古 (chūko) 中古 (zhōnggǔ) Used, second-hand.
料理 ) 料理 (liaoli) (chan) Food.
  • Japanese loanwords based on phonetics, transliterated using Chinese characters with similar pronunciation.
Japanese (Romaji) Taiwanese Mandarin (Pinyin) English
馬鹿 (Baka) 霸咖 (bàkā) or similar variant. A foolish person.
お婆さん (obāsan) 歐巴桑 (ōubāsāng)[6] An older woman.
お爺さん (ojīsan) 歐吉桑 (ōujísāng)[7] An older man.
オートバイ (ōtobai) 歐都拜 (ōudōubài) A motorcycle.
おでん (oden) 黑輪 (hēilún)[8] A type of stew.
気持ち (kimochi) 奇檬子 (qíméngzǐ)[9] Mood; Feeling.

A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Romaji ローマ字 The title given to this article lacks diacritics because of certain technical limitations. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound, voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ... Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Romaji ローマ字 The title given to this article lacks diacritics because of certain technical limitations. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... A variety of parked motorcycles A motorcycle or motorbike is a single-track, two-wheeled motor vehicle powered by an engine. ...

Technical terms

Taiwanese Mandarin (Pinyin)
Google hits: .tw
Google hits: .cn
PRC Mandarin (Pinyin)
Google hits: .tw
Google hits: .cn
English
電腦 (diànnǎo)
.tw: 11,400,000
.cn: 61,100,000
计算机 (jìsuànjī)
.tw: 776,000
.cn: 60,500,000
computer [10]
光碟 (guāngdié)
.tw: 2,930,000
.cn: 735,000
光盘 (guāngpán)
.tw: 29,300
.cn: 7,310,000
Optical disc
滑鼠 (huáshǔ)
.tw: 1,320,000
.cn: 381,000
鼠标 (shǔbiāo)
.tw: 54,500
.cn: 10,200,000
mouse (computing)
計程車 (jìchéngchē)
.tw: 571,000
.cn: 141,000
出租汽车 (chūzū qìchē)
.tw: 5,630
.cn: 465,000
Taxicab
加護病房 (jiāhùbìngfáng)
.tw: 101,000
.cn 14,800
监护病房 (jiānhùbìngfáng)
.tw 704
.cn 41,600
Intensive Care Unit (ICU); Intensive Treatment Unit (ITU)
雷射 (léishè)
.tw: 811,000
.cn: 131,000
激光 (jīguāng)
.tw: 129,000
.cn: 4,540,000
Laser
錄影機 (lùyǐngjī)
.tw: 156,000
.cn: 42,700
录像机 (lùxiàngjī)
.tw: 2,950
.cn: 706,000
Camcorder
軟體 (ruǎntǐ)
.tw: 10,200,000
.cn: 983,000
软件 (ruǎnjiàn)
.tw: 569,000
.cn: 51,900,000
software
伺服器 (sìfú qì)
.tw: 1,990,000
.cn: 373,000
服务器 (fúwù qì)
.tw: 97,600
.cn: 97,100
server
硬碟 (yìngdié)
.tw: 1,460,000
.cn: 550,000
硬盘 (yìngpán)
.tw: 37,800
.cn: 10,700,000
Hard disk
螢幕 (yíngmù)
.tw: 3,810,000
.cn: 339,000
显示器 (xiǎnshìqì)
.tw: 631,000
.cn: 8,480,000
computer monitor
資料庫 (zīliàokù)
.tw: 5,050,000
.cn: 2,190,000
数据库 (shùjùkù)
.tw: 70,200
.cn: 13,800,000
database
作業系統 (zuòyè xìtǒng)
.tw: 1,830,000
.cn: 177,000
操作系统 (cāozuò xìtǒng)
.tw: 97,900
.cn: 6,930,000
operating system
網際網絡 (wang3 ji4 wang3 luo4) 互联网 (hu4 lian3 wang3) Internet
部落格 (bu4 luo4 ge2) 博客 (bo2 ke4) Blog
資訊 (zi1 xun4) 信息 (xin4 xi1) Information

The optical lens of a compact disc drive. ... A contemporary computer mouse, with the most common standard features — two buttons and a scroll-wheel. ... Taxicab, short forms taxi or cab, is a type of public transport for a single passenger, or small group of passengers, typically for a non-shared ride. ... Experiment with a laser (US Military) In physics, a laser is a device that emits light through a specific mechanism for which the term laser is an acronym: Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. ... Sony DV Handycam A camcorder is a portable electronic device for recording video images and audio onto an internal storage device. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Typical hard drives of the mid-1990s. ... It has been suggested that Maintenance OS be merged into this article or section. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ...

Idioms and proverbs

Taiwanese Mandarin (Pinyin)
Google hits: .tw
Google hits: .cn
PRC Mandarin (Pinyin)
Google hits: .tw
Google hits: .cn
English
一蹴可幾 (yī cù kě jī)
.tw: 10,700
.cn: 1,320
一蹴而就 (yī cù ér jiù)
.tw: 3,680
.cn: 309,000
to reach a goal in one step
入境隨俗 (rù jìng suí sú)
.tw: 22,400
.cn: 7,940
入乡随俗 (rù xiāng suí sú)
.tw: 1,980
.cn 144,000
When in Rome, do as the Romans do.

Words specific to living in Taiwan

Mandarin
Google hits: .tw
Google hits: .cn
Pinyin English
綁樁
.tw: 78,400
.cn: 992
bǎngzhuāng pork barrel
便當
.tw: 918,000
.cn: 204,000
biàndāng a box meal (from Japanese, bento), word traditionally means "convenient"
閣揆[11]
.tw: 38,200
.cn: 8,620
gékuí the premier
公車
.tw: 761,000
.cn: 827,000[12]
gōngchē public bus
機車
.tw: 2,500,000
.cn: 692,000
jīchē motor scooter, means "locomotive" in China
腳踏車
.tw: 564,000
.cn: 133,000
jiǎotàchē bicycle
捷運
.tw: 1,320,000
.cn 65,600
jiéyùn rapid transit (e.g. Taipei MRT)
統一編號[13]
.tw: 997,000
.cn: 133,000
tǒngyī biānhào the ID number of a corporation
悠遊卡
.tw: 54,900
.cn: 1,250
yōuyóukǎ EasyCard (can be used to pay for buses, MRT, and some public parking)

Pork barrel, in a literal sense, is a barrel in which pork is kept, but figuratively is a supply of money; often the source of ones livelihood. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The President of the Executive Yuan (行政院長), colloquially referred to as the Premier (閣揆), is the head of the Executive Yuan, the executive branch of the Republic of China, which currently administers Taiwan. ... The Taipei Rapid Transit System (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Táiběi Dàzhòng Jiéyùn Xìtǒng, also known as the MRT, Metro Taipei, or by locals simply as the Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Táiběi Jiéyùn) is a series of underground and elevated metro... Obverse side of a standard adult EasyCard. ...

Notes

  1. ^ This applies to native Hoklo speakers - Hakka speakers maintain precisely the opposite: (e.g. hua - fa 花→發)
  2. ^ Often written using the Mandarin equivalent 刨冰, but pronounced using the Taiwanese word.
  3. ^ Google hits from the China Times (中時電子報) and Liberty Times (自由時報) are included.
  4. ^ This can be a tricky one, because 見笑 means "to be laughed at" in Standard Mandarin. Context will tell you which meaning should be inferred.
  5. ^ Many people in Taiwan will use the Mandarin pronunciation (guīmáo).
  6. ^ Most people in Taiwan will use the Taiwanese pronunciation (POJ: o·-bá-sáng, IPA: [ɔ˧˧ba˥˥sang˥˧])
  7. ^ Most people in Taiwan will use the Taiwanese pronunciation (POJ: o·-jí-sáng, IPA: [ɔ˧˧ʑi˥˥sang˥˧])
  8. ^ Derived from Taiwanese pronunciation (烏鰱, POJ: o·-liân, IPA: [ɔ˧˧liɛn˧˥])
  9. ^ Derived from Taiwanese pronunciation (POJ: kî-bông-jí, IPA: [ki˧˧bɔŋ˧˧ʑi˥˧])
  10. ^ 計算機 can also mean "calculator" on Taiwan.
  11. ^ The first character is usually omitted when placed behind the surname. For example, the current premier is Su Tseng-chang (蘇貞昌). Since his surname is , he may be referred to in press as 蘇揆.
  12. ^ The numbers are a bit misleading in this case because in the PRC, 公车 also refers to government owned vehicles.
  13. ^ Often abbreviated as 統編 (tǒngbiān).

Hakka (Simplified Chinese: 客家话, Traditional Chinese: 客家話, Pronunciation in Hakka: Hak-ka-fa/-va, Pinyin: Kèjiāhuà) is a spoken variation of the Chinese language spoken predominantly in southern China by the Hakka ethnic group and descendants in diaspora throughout East and Southeast Asia and around the world. ... Standard Mandarin, also known as Standard Chinese, Modern Standard Chinese or Standard spoken Chinese, is the official modern Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan), and Singapore. ... Taiwanese (Chinese: 台語, 台灣話 or 福佬話; Taiwanese Pe̍h-oē-jī: Tâi-oân-oē or Hō-ló-oē; Hanyu Pinyin: Táiyǔ or Táiwānhuà) is the primary spoken language of 70% of the Taiwanese population. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Taiwanese (Chinese: 台語, 台灣話 or 福佬話; Taiwanese Pe̍h-oē-jī: Tâi-oân-oē or Hō-ló-oē; Hanyu Pinyin: Táiyǔ or Táiwānhuà) is the primary spoken language of 70% of the Taiwanese population. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Taiwanese (Chinese: 台語, 台灣話 or 福佬話; Taiwanese Pe̍h-oē-jī: Tâi-oân-oē or Hō-ló-oē; Hanyu Pinyin: Táiyǔ or Táiwānhuà) is the primary spoken language of 70% of the Taiwanese population. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Taiwanese (Chinese: 台語, 台灣話 or 福佬話; Taiwanese Pe̍h-oē-jī: Tâi-oân-oē or Hō-ló-oē; Hanyu Pinyin: Táiyǔ or Táiwānhuà) is the primary spoken language of 70% of the Taiwanese population. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... A calculator is a device for performing calculations. ... The President of the Executive Yuan (行政院長), colloquially referred to as the Premier (閣揆), is the head of the Executive Yuan, the executive branch of the Republic of China, which currently administers Taiwan. ... Su Tseng-chang (蘇貞昌, pinyin: Sū Zhēnchāng; born July 28, 1947) is a Taiwanese politician of the Democratic Progressive Party. ...

References

  • Zhongwen.com
  • Tseng, Hsin-I. (2003). The syntax structures of contemporary Taiwanese Mandarin [當代台灣國語的句法結構]. Unpublished master's thesis, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei.
  • 台灣話大詞典 (Tâi-ôan-ōe tōa-sû-tián), ISBN 9573240785
  • 台語-華語線頂辭典 (Tai-gi hôa-gí sòaⁿ-téng sû-tián)

 
 

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