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Encyclopedia > Taiwanese (linguistics)

{{Infobox Language |name=Taiwanese,Minnanese |nativename=台灣話;閩南語 Tâi-oân-oē; Bam-lam-gu |familycolor=Sino-Tibetan |states=Taiwan |region=The whole of Taiwan and Southern part of[[Fujian]Province |speakers=About 15 million in Taiwan; 49 million (Min Nan as a group) |rank=21 (Min Nan as a group) |fam2=Chinese |fam3=Min |fam4=Min Nan |fam5=Amoy |script=Latin (pe̍h-ōe-jī), Han |nation=None (legislative bills have been proposed for it to be one of the national languages in the Republic of China); one of the statutory languages for public transport announcements in the ROC [1] |agency=None (the National Languages Committee of the ROC Ministry of Education and some NGOs are influential) |iso1=zh|iso2b=chi|iso2t=zho|iso3=nan }} Taiwanese (pe̍h-oē-jī: Tâi-oân-oē or Tâi-gí; Traditional Chinese: 台灣話, 台語; Pinyin: Táiwānhuà, Táiyǔ) is a variant of Amoy Min Nan Chinese spoken by about 70% of Taiwan's population and South Fujian residents. The sub-ethnic group in Taiwan for which Taiwanese is considered a native language is known as Hoklo or Holo. The correspondence between language and ethnicity is generally true though not absolute, as some Hoklo speak Taiwanese poorly while some non-Hoklo speak Taiwanese fluently. Pe̍h-oē-jī (POJ) is a popular orthography for this language, and Min Nan in general. The Formosan languages are a group of Austronesian languages spoken 2% of the population of Taiwan, almost exclusively aboriginals. ... Taiwanese Mandarin (Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Tai2-wan1 Kuo2-yü3; also 台灣華語, Táiwān HuáyÇ”) is the dialect of Mandarin Chinese spoken on Taiwan. ... A large majority of people on Taiwan speak Standard Mandarin, which has been the only officially sanctioned medium of instruction in the schools for more than four decades. ... Mǐn N n (Chinese: 閩南語), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name B ; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ... Mǐn N n (Chinese: 閩南語), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name B ; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ... Min (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; POJ: Bân hong-giân; BUC: Mìng huŏng-ngiòng) is a general term for a group of dialects of the Chinese language spoken in the southeastern Chinese province of Fujian as well as by migrants from this province in Guangdong (around Chaozhou-Swatou... Mǐn N n (Chinese: 閩南語), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name B ; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ... Amoy (Xiamen) is a language/dialect which originally comes from Southern Fujian, in the area centered around the city of Xiamen. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Hantu: A Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... A bill is a proposed new law introduced within a legislature that has not been ratified, adopted, or received assent. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... The National Languages Committee, formerly Mandarin Promotion Council (Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was established by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of China with the purpose of standardizing and popularizing the usage of Standard Mandarin in China. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... A non-governmental organization (NGO) is a private institution that is independent of the government although many NGOs, particular in the global South, are funded by Northern governments. ... Pe̍h-oÄ“-jÄ« (POJ) (Chinese: 白話字; pinyin: ) is an orthography in the Latin alphabet created and introduced to Taiwan by Presbyterian missionaries in the 19th century. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Amoy (Xiamen) is a language/dialect which originally comes from Southern Fujian, in the area centered around the city of Xiamen. ... Mǐn N n (Chinese: 閩南語), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name B ; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ... Spoken language is a language that people utter words of the language. ... “Native Language” redirects here. ... Hoklo (Chinese: 福佬人; Pinyin: FúlÇŽo Rén; POJ: Ho̍h-ló-lâng/Hō-ló-lâng) primarily refers to the largest of the four subethnic and ethnic groups in Taiwan. ... Pe̍h-oÄ“-jÄ« (POJ) (Chinese: 白話字; pinyin: ) is an orthography in the Latin alphabet created and introduced to Taiwan by Presbyterian missionaries in the 19th century. ...

Contents

Classification

Taiwanese is a variant of Amoy Min Nan. It is often seen as a Chinese dialect within a larger Chinese language. On the other hand, it may also be seen as a language in the Sino-Tibetan family. As with most "language/dialect" distinctions, how one describes Taiwanese depends largely on one's political views (see Identification of the varieties of Chinese). In any case, the classification may be represented hierarchically as: Amoy (Xiamen) is a language/dialect which originally comes from Southern Fujian, in the area centered around the city of Xiamen. ... Mǐn N n (Chinese: 閩南語), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name B ; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ... Spoken Chinese The Chinese spoken language(s) comprise(s) many regional variants. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... The Sino-Tibetan languages form a putative language family composed of Chinese and the Tibeto-Burman languages, including some 250 languages of East Asia. ... Chinese forms part of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ...

Sino-Tibetan ChineseMinMin NanAmoyTaiwanese

As a branch of Min Nan, there is both a colloquial version and a literary version of Taiwanese. The literary version, which was originally developed in the 10th century in Fujian and based on Middle Chinese, was brought to Taiwan by the immigrants. Literary Taiwanese was used at one time for formal writing, but is now largely extinct. Taiwanese is almost identical to Xiamen speech, except for a few loanwords from Japanese. Regional variations within Taiwanese may be traced back to their corresponding counterparts in Southern Fujian (Quanzhou and Zhangzhou). Sino-Tibetan languages form a language family of about 250 languages of East Asia, in number of speakers worldwide second only to Indo-European. ... A is a subset of B, and B is a superset of A. In mathematics, especially in set theory, a set A is a subset of a set B, if A is contained inside B. The relationship of one set being a subset of another is called inclusion. ... Min (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; POJ: Bân hong-giân; BUC: Mìng huŏng-ngiòng) is a general term for a group of dialects of the Chinese language spoken in the southeastern Chinese province of Fujian as well as by migrants from this province in Guangdong (around Chaozhou-Swatou... Mǐn N n (Chinese: 閩南語), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name B ; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ... Amoy (Xiamen) is a language/dialect which originally comes from Southern Fujian, in the area centered around the city of Xiamen. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal map spelling: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Middle Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 中古漢語; Pinyin: zhōnggÇ” HànyÇ”), or Ancient Chinese as used by linguist Bernhard Karlgren, refers to the Chinese language spoken during Northern and Southern Dynasties and the Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties (6th century - 10th century). ... A view of the Xiamen University campus Xiamen (Simplified Chinese: 厦门; Traditional Chinese: 廈門; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is a coastal sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian province, Peoples Republic of China. ... The characters 泉州 are also used for SenshÅ«, an alternate name for the former Japanese province of Izumi. ... Zhangzhou (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in southern Fujian province, Peoples Republic of China. ...


Recent work by scholars such as Ekki Lu, Sakai Toru, and Lí Khîn-hoāⁿ (also known as Tavokan Khîn-hoāⁿ or Chin-An Li), based on former research by scholars such as Ông Io̍k-tek, has gone so far as to associate part of the basic vocabulary of the colloquial language with the Austronesian and Tai language families; however, such claims are still controversial. Ong Iok-tek (王育德 pinyin: Wáng Yùdé; January 30, 1924–September 9, 1985) was a Taiwanese scholar and early leader of the Taiwan independence movement. ... The Austronesian languages are a language family widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia. ... The Tai languages are a subgroup of the Tai Kadai language family. ...


Phonetics

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Phonetically, Taiwanese is a tonal language with extensive tone sandhi rules. Syllables consist maximally of an initial consonant, a vowel, a final consonant, and a tone; any or all of the consonants or vowels may be nasal. Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound, voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Tone sandhi (Sandhi is from Sanskrit meaning, putting together) refers to the pitch change in tones when different tones come together. ... A syllable (Ancient Greek: ) is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. ... In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


Consonants

Bilabial Coronal 1 Velar Glottal
Nasal m /m/ n /n/ ng /ŋ/
Plosive voiced3 b /b/ g /g/
plain p /p/ t /t/ k /k/
aspirated ph /pʰ/ th /tʰ/ kh /kʰ/
Affricate voiced j /dz/2
plain ch /ts/
aspirated chh /tsʰ/
Fricative s /s/ h4 /h/
Lateral l /l/

Unlike many other varieties of Chinese such as Standard Mandarin or Standard Cantonese, there are no native labiodental phonemes. In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... Coronal consonants are articulated with the flexible front part of the tongue. ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Affricate consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as or ) but release as a fricative (such as or or, in a couple of languages, into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... Standard Mandarin, also known as Standard Chinese, Modern Standard Chinese or Standard spoken Chinese, is the official modern Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan), and Singapore. ... Standard Cantonese is a variant, and is generally considered the prestige dialect of Cantonese Chinese. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ...

  1. Coronal affricates and fricatives become palatoalveolar, that is /dz/, /ts/, /tsʰ/, and /s/ become [dʑ], [tɕ], [tɕʰ], and [ɕ] respectively when occurring before /i/.
  2. The consonant /dz/ may also be realized as a fricative; that is, [z] in most environments and [ʑ] when before /i/.
  3. Voiced plosives (/b/ and /g/) are corresponding fricatives ([β] and [ɣ]) in some phonetic contexts.
  4. H represents a glottal stop [ʔ] at the end of a syllable.

Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Phoneticians define phonation as use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ...

Vowels

Taiwanese has the following vowels: Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...

IPA a e i o/ɤ ɔ u m ŋ
Pe̍h-oē-jī a e i o u m ng
PSDB a e i oi o u m ng
TLPA a e i o oo u m ng

The vowel o is akin to a schwa; in contrast, is more open. In addition, there are several diphthongs and triphthongs (for example, iau). The consonants m and ng can function as a syllabic nucleus and are therefore included here as vowels. The vowels may be either plain or nasal: a is non-nasal, and aⁿ is the same vowel with concurrent nasal articulation. This is similar to French, Portuguese, and many other languages. Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Pe̍h-oÄ“-jÄ« (POJ) (Chinese: 白話字; pinyin: ) is an orthography in the Latin alphabet created and introduced to Taiwan by Presbyterian missionaries in the 19th century. ... History Creation The Partido da Social Democracia Brasileira (Portuguese for Brazilian Social Democracy Party) is a political party in Brazil. ... In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... In phonetics, a triphthong (Greek τρίφθογγος, triphthongos, literally with three sounds, or with three tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination usually involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another that passes over a third one. ...


There are two pronunciations of vowel o. It is [ɤ] in Southern Taiwan mainly such as Tainan and Kaohsiung, and [o] in Northern Taiwan such as Taipei. But because of people moving and the development of communication, these two pronunciations are common and acceptable in entire island. Tainan redirects here; for the county of the same name see Tainan County. ... Abbreviation: Kaohsiung (高雄) City nickname: The Harbor City Capital District Linya Dist. ... Alternative meaning: Taipei County City nickname: the City of Azaleas Capital District Xinyi Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 16 of 25 271. ...


Tones

There are 7 tones. In the traditional analysis, the tones are numbered from 1 to 8; in Taiwanese, tones 2 and 6 are the same. For example, the syllable a in each of the 7 distinct tones are This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A tone number is a numeral used in a notational system for marking the tones of a language. ...

  1. a; high level
  2. á; falling
  3. à; low level
  4. ah; low stopped
  5. â; rising
  6. tone number 2 is repeated; there is no tone number 6 per se
  7. ā; middle level
  8. a̍h; high stopped

Conventional linguistic analysis describes the tones on a five-point scale, with 1 being the lowest pitch and 5 the highest. Here, the tones are shown following the traditional tone class categorization above, and are correlated with the tones of Middle Chinese (shown in Han characters, last column below): Middle Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 中古漢語; Pinyin: zhōnggǔ Hànyǔ), or Ancient Chinese as used by linguist Bernhard Karlgren, refers to the Chinese language spoken during Northern and Southern Dynasties and the Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties (6th century - 10th century). ...

  1. 44; yin level (陰平)
  2. 51; rising (上聲)
  3. 31; yin departing (陰去)
  4. 3; yin entering (陰入)
  5. 24; yang level (陽平)
  6. (tone 2 repeated)
  7. 33; yang departing (陽去)
  8. 5; yang entering (陽入)

But see (for one example) Wi-vun Taiffalo Chiung's modern phonetic analysis in the References, which challenges these notions. Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound, voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ...


For tones 4 and 8, a final consonant p, t, or k may appear. When this happens, it is impossible for the syllable to be nasal. Indeed, these are the counterpart to the nasal final consonants m, n, and ng, respectively, in other tones. However, it is possible to have a nasal 4th or 8th tone syllable such as siaⁿh, as long as there is no final consonant other than h.


A tone number 0, typically written with a double dash (--) before the syllable with this tone, is used to denote the extent of a verb action, the end of a noun phrase, etc.


In the dialect spoken near the northern coast of Taiwan, there is no distinction between tones number 8 and number 4 – both are pronounced as if they follow the tone sandhi rules of tone number 4.


Syllabic structure

A syllable requires a vowel (or diphthong or triphthong) to appear in the middle. All consonants can appear at the initial position. The consonants p, t, k; m, n, and ng (and some consider h) may appear at the end of a syllable. Therefore, it is possible to have syllables such as ngiau ("(to) itch") and thng ("soup"). Incidentally, both of these example syllables are nasal: the first has a nasal initial consonant; the second a nasal vowel. Compare with Hangul. A syllable (Ancient Greek: ) is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. ... Jamo redirects here. ...


Tone sandhi

Taiwanese has extremely extensive tone sandhi (tone-changing) rules: in an utterance, only the last syllable pronounced is not affected by the rules. What an 'utterance' is, in the context of this language, is an ongoing topic for linguistic research. For the purpose of this article, an utterance may be considered a word, a phrase, or a short sentence. The following rules, listed in the traditional pedagogical mnemonic order, govern the pronunciation of tone on each of the syllables affected (that is, all but the last in an utterance): Tone sandhi (Sandhi is from Sanskrit meaning, putting together) refers to the pitch change in tones when different tones come together. ... An utterance is a complete unit of talk, bounded by silence. ... A word is a unit of language that carries meaning and consists of one or more morphemes which are linked more or less tightly together, and has a phonetical value. ... Look up phrase in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In linguistics, a sentence is a unit of language, characterized in most languages by the presence of a finite verb. ...

  • If the original tone number is 5, pronounce it as tone number 3 (Quanzhou speech) or 7 (Zhangzhou speech).
  • If the original tone number is 7, pronounce it as tone number 3.
  • If the original tone number is 3, pronounce it as tone number 2.
  • If the original tone number is 2, pronounce it as tone number 1.
  • If the original tone number is 1, pronounce it as tone number 7.
  • If the original tone number is 8 and the final consonant is not h (that is, it is p, t, or k), pronounce it as tone number 4.
  • If the original tone number is 4 and the final consonant is not h (that is, it is p, t, or k), pronounce it as tone number 8.
  • If the original tone number is 8 and the final consonant is h, pronounce it as tone number 3.
  • If the original tone number is 4 and the final consonant is h, pronounce it as tone number 2.

See the work by Tiuⁿ Jū-hông and Wi-vun Taiffalo Chiung in the References, and the work by Robert L. Cheng (Tēⁿ Liông-úi) of the University of Hawaii, for modern linguistic approaches to tones and tone sandhi in Taiwanese. The characters 泉州 are also used for SenshÅ«, an alternate name for the former Japanese province of Izumi. ... Zhangzhou (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in southern Fujian province, Peoples Republic of China. ... This article is about the University of Hawaii system. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ...


Vocabulary

Modern linguistic studies (by Robert L. Cheng and Chin-An Li, for example) estimate that most (75 % to 90 %) Taiwanese words have cognates in other Chinese languages. False friends do exist; for example, cháu means "to run" in Taiwanese, whereas the Mandarin cognate, zǒu, means "to walk". Moreover, cognates may have different lexical categories; for example, the morpheme phīⁿ means not only "nose" (a noun, as in Mandarin ) but also "to smell" (a verb, unlike Mandarin). A word is a unit of language that carries meaning and consists of one or more morphemes which are linked more or less tightly together, and has a phonetical value. ... Look up cognate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Look up False friend in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is on all of the Northern Chinese dialects. ... In grammar, a lexical category (also word class, lexical class, or in traditional grammar part of speech) is a linguistic category of words (or more precisely lexical items), which is generally defined by the syntactic or morphological behaviour of the lexical item in question. ... In morpheme-based morphology, a morpheme is the smallest lingual unit that carries a semantic interpretation. ...


Among the apparently cognate-less words are many basic words with properties that contrast with similar-meaning words of pan-Chinese derivation. Often the former group lacks a standard Han character, and the words are variously considered colloquial, intimate, vulgar, uncultured, or more concrete in meaning than the pan-Chinese synonym. Some examples: lâng (person, concrete) vs. jîn (人, person, abstract); cha-bó· (woman) vs. lú-jîn (女人, woman, literary). Unlike the English Germanic/Latin contrast, however, the two groups of Taiwanese words cannot be as strongly attributed to the influences of two disparate linguistic sources. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Extensive contact with the Japanese language has left a legacy of Japanese loanwords. Although a very small percentage of the vocabulary, their usage tends to be high-frequency because of their relevance to modern society and popular culture. Examples are: o·-tó·-bái (from オートバイ ootobai "motorcycle") and pháng (from パン pan "bread," which is itself a loanword from Portuguese). Grammatical particles borrowed from Japanese, notably te̍k (from teki 的) and ka (from か), show up in the Taiwanese of older speakers. Japanese  ) is a language spoken by over 130 million people, in Japan and Japanese emigrant communities around the world. ... A loanword (or a borrowing) is a word taken in by one language from another. ...


Whereas Mandarin attaches a syllabic suffix to the singular pronoun to make a collective form, Taiwanese pronouns are collectivized through nasalization. For example, i (he/she/it) and goá (I) become in (they) and goán (we), respectively. The -n thus represents a subsyllabic morpheme. Like all other Chinese languages, Taiwanese does not have true plurals. Collective can also refer to the collective pitch flight control in helicopters A collective is a group of people who share or are motivated by at least one common issue or interest, or work together on a specific project(s) to achieve a common objective. ... In phonetics, nasalization is the production of a sound while the velum is lowered, so that air escapes partially or wholly through the nose during the production of the sound. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngwén) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: Hànyǔ, Huáyǔ, or Zhōngwén) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Look up Plural in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Plural is a grammatical number, typically referring to more than one of the referent in the real world. ...


Unlike English, Taiwanese has two first-person plural pronouns. This distinction is called inclusive, which includes the addressee, and exclusive, which excludes the addressee. For example, goán means we excluding you, while lán means we including you (that is, pluralis auctoris). The inclusive lán may be used to express politeness or solidarity, as in the example of a speaker asking a stranger "where do we live?", meaning "where do you live?". This distinction is a relatively common feature of Sino-Tibetan languages, the canonical example from Mandarin being 我們 (wǒmen, exclusive) versus 咱們 (zánmen, inclusive). Inclusive we is a pronoun that indicates the speaker, the addressee, and perhaps other people, as opposed to the exclusive we that excludes the addressee. ... In linguistics, an addressee is an intended direct recipient of the speakers communication. ... Exclusive we is a pronoun that indicates the speaker and perhaps other people, but excludes the addressee, as opposed to the inclusive we that includes the addressee. ... Pluralis majestatis (majestic plural) is the plural pronoun where it is used to refer to one person alone. ...


Grammar

The grammar of Taiwanese is similar to southern Chinese languages such as Hakka and Cantonese. The sequence 'subject verb object' is typical as in, for example, Mandarin, but 'subject object verb' or the passive voice (with the sequence 'object subject verb') is possible with particles. Take a simple sentence for example: "I hold you." The words involved are: goá ("I" or "me"), phō ("to hold"), ("you"). For the topic in theoretical computer science, see Formal grammar Grammar is the study of rules governing the use of language. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngwén) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: Hànyǔ, Huáyǔ, or Zhōngwén) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Hakka (Simplified Chinese: 客家话, Traditional Chinese: 客家話, Pronunciation in Hakka: Hak-ka-fa/-va, Pinyin: Kèjiāhuà) is a spoken variation of the Chinese language spoken predominantly in southern China by the Hakka ethnic group and descendants in diaspora throughout East and Southeast Asia and around the world. ... Cantonese is a major dialect group or language of the Chinese language, a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... In linguistic typology, subject-verb-object (SVO) is the sequence subject verb object in neutral expressions: Sam ate oranges. ... This article is on all of the Northern Chinese dialects. ... In linguistic typology, Subject Object Verb (SOV) is the type of languages in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence appear (usually) in that order. ... In grammar, voice is the relationship between the action or state expressed by a verb, and its arguments (subject, object, etc. ... Object Subject Verb (OSV) is one of the permutations of expression used in Linguistic typology. ...

  • Subject verb object (typical sequence): The sentence in the typical sequence would be: Goá phō lí. ("I hold you.")
  • Subject object verb: Another sentence of roughly equivalent meaning is Goá kā lí phō, with the slight connotation of "I take you and hold" or "I get to you and hold."
  • Object hō· subject verb (the passive voice): Then, Lí hō· goá phō means the same thing but in the passive voice, with the connotation of "You allow yourself to be held by me" or "You make yourself available for my holding."

With this, more complicated sentences can be constructed: Goá kā chúi hō· lí lim ("I give water for you to drink": chúi means "water"; lim is "to drink"). In grammar, voice is the relationship between the action or state expressed by a verb, and its arguments (subject, object, etc. ...


This article can only give a few very simple examples on grammar, for flavour. Linguistic work on the syntax of Taiwanese is still a (quite nascent) scholarly topic being explored. For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ...


Listen to an audio sample of Taiwanese for the sentence: "Kin-á-jit hit-ê cha-bó· gín-á lâi góan tau khòaⁿ góa." (Today that girl came to my house to see me.)


Scripts and orthographies

A selection of literary works (original and translated) in Taiwanese, in several orthographies.
A selection of literary works (original and translated) in Taiwanese, in several orthographies.

Taiwanese does not have a strong written tradition. Until the late 19th century, Taiwanese speakers wrote solely in literary Chinese. A system of writing Taiwanese using Latin characters called pe̍h-oē-jī (POJ) was developed in the 19th century. Today, Taiwanese speakers most commonly write in vernacular Chinese, which uses the vocabulary and grammar of Mandarin, though Chinese characters are also used to represent spoken Taiwanese in writing. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1331 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Taiwanese (linguistics) Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1331 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Taiwanese (linguistics) Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Classical Chinese or Literary Chinese (文言, pinyin: wényán, literal meaning: literary language or 古文, literal: ancient written language) is a traditional style of written Chinese prose using grammar and vocabulary very different from any modern spoken form of Chinese. ... Pe̍h-oÄ“-jÄ« (POJ) (Chinese: 白話字; pinyin: ) is an orthography in the Latin alphabet created and introduced to Taiwan by Presbyterian missionaries in the 19th century. ... Vernacular Chinese (pinyin: báihuà; Wade-Giles: paihua) is a style or register of the written Chinese language essentially modeled after the spoken language and associated with Standard Mandarin. ... Standard Mandarin, also known as Standard Chinese, Modern Standard Chinese or Standard spoken Chinese, is the official modern Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan), and Singapore. ...


Han characters

In most cases, Taiwanese speakers write using the script called Han characters as in Mandarin, although there are a number of special characters which are unique to Taiwanese and which are sometimes used in informal writing. Where Han characters are used, they are not always etymological or genetic; the borrowing of similar-sounding or similar-meaning characters is a common practice. Mandarin-Taiwanese bilingual speakers sometimes attempt to represent the sounds by adopting similar-sounding Mandarin Han characters. For example, the Han characters of the vulgar slang 'khoàⁿ sáⁿ siâu' (看三小, a misuse of 看啥痟, meaning "What are you looking at?") has very little meaning in Mandarin and may not be readily understood by a Taiwanese monolingual, as knowledge of Mandarin character readings is required to fully decipher it. (However, this slang is regarded as rude: many parents and teachers forbid children from saying it.) Writing systems of the world today. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ...


Orthography in Latin characters

An issue of the Taiwan Church News, first published by Presbyterian missionaries in 1885. This was the first printed newspaper in Taiwan, and was written in Taiwanese, in the Latin orthography pe̍h-oē-jī.
Main article: pe̍h-oē-jī

In some situations, Taiwanese is written with the Latin alphabet using an orthography called pe̍h-oē-jī (POJ), meaning "vernacular writing". POJ was developed first by Presbyterian missionaries and later by the indigenous Presbyterian Church in Taiwan; they have been active in promoting the language since the late 19th century. Recently there has been an increase in texts using a mixed orthography of Han characters and romanization, although these texts remain uncommon. Other Latin-based orthographies exist, the most significant being Taiwanese Language Phonetic Alphabet (TLPA), Modern Taiwanese Language (MTL), Phofsit Daibuun (PSDB) and Tongyong Pinyin. An issue of Taiwan Church News (July 1885), an example of Taiwanese written in Latin characters. ... An issue of Taiwan Church News (July 1885), an example of Taiwanese written in Latin characters. ... Pe̍h-oÄ“-jÄ« (POJ) (Chinese: 白話字; pinyin: ) is an orthography in the Latin alphabet created and introduced to Taiwan by Presbyterian missionaries in the 19th century. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of writing in that language. ... Pe̍h-oÄ“-jÄ« (POJ) (Chinese: 白話字; pinyin: ) is an orthography in the Latin alphabet created and introduced to Taiwan by Presbyterian missionaries in the 19th century. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ... An issue of the Taiwan Church News, first published by Presbyterian missionaries in 1885. ... Modern Taiwanese Language (MTL) is an orthography in the Latin alphabet for the Taiwanese language based on the Taiwanese Modern Spelling System (TMSS), pioneered by Professor Liim Keahioong in 1943. ... Tongyong Pinyin (Chinese: ; pinyin: Tōngyòng pÄ«nyÄ«n; literally Universal/General Usage Sound-combining) is the current official romanization of the Chinese language adopted by the national government (although not all local governments) of the Republic of China (Taiwan) since 2002. ...


In POJ, the traditional list of letters is

a b ch chh e g h i j k kh l m n ng o o͘ p ph s t th (ts) u

Twenty-four in all, including the obsolete ts, which was used to represent the modern ch at some places. The additional necessities are the nasal symbol (superscript n; the capital form is seldom used), and the tonal diacritics. Example of a letter with a diacritic A diacritical mark or diacritic, also called an accent, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ...


In 2006, a scheme called "Tâi-ôan Lô-má-jī" (literally, "romanized orthography for Taiwanese") was proposed to reconcile the two of the more senior orthographies, TLPA and POJ.[1] The changes for the consonants involved using "ts" for POJ's "ch" (reverting to the orthography in the 19th century), and "tsh" for "chh". For the vowels, "o͘" could optionally represented as "oo". The nasal mark "ⁿ" could also be represented optionally as "nn". The rest of the scheme, most notably the use of diacritics to mark the tones, appeared to keep to the POJ tradition. One of the aims of this compromise was to curb any increase of "market share" for Tongyong Pinyin.[citation needed] It has been unclear whether the community will adopt this new agreement.


Orthographies in kana and in bopomofo

The Taiwanese-Japanese Dictionary, using the orthography in kana
The Taiwanese-Japanese Dictionary, using the orthography in kana
Main article: Taiwanese kana

There was an orthography of Taiwanese based on the Japanese kana during Japanese rule. The Kuomintang government also tried to introduce an orthography in bopomofo. Image File history File links The_Taiwanese-Japanese_Dictionary. ... Image File history File links The_Taiwanese-Japanese_Dictionary. ... The Taiwanese-Japanese Dictionary Taiwanese kana (タイ ヲァヌ ギイ ã‚«ã‚¢ ビェン; Traditional Chinese:臺灣語假名; Pe̍h-ōe-jÄ«: Tâi-oân-gí ká-bêng; Pinyin: TáiwānyÇ” jiÇŽmíng; Romaji: Taiwan-go kana) is a katakana-based writing system once used to write Holo Taiwanese language, when Taiwan was administrated by Japan. ... Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Manyogana 万葉仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Rōmaji ローマ字 For other meanings of Kana, see Kana (disambiguation). ... The Japanese colonial period, Japanese rule or the Japanese occupation[1], in the context of Taiwans history, refers to the period between 1895 and 1945 during which Taiwan was a Japanese colony. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in... Zh yīn F o (注音符號), or Symbols for Annotating Sounds, often abbreviated as Zhuyin, or known as Bopomofo (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) for the first four syllables of these Chinese phonetic symbols, is the national phonetic system of the Republic of China (based on Taiwan...


Comparison of orthographies

Here the different orthographies are compared:

Vowels
IPA a ap at ak aʔ ã ɔ ɔk ɔ̃ ə o e i ɪɛn
Ph-ōe-jī a ap at ak ah aⁿ ok oⁿ o o e eⁿ i ian eng
Revised TLPA a ap at ak ah aN oo ok ooN o o e eN i ian ing
TLPA a ap at ak ah ann oo ok oonn o o e enn i ian ing
Pumindian (普闽典) a ap at ak ah na oo ok noo o o e ne i ien ing
PSDB (普實台文) a ab/ap ad/at ag/ak aq/ah va o og/ok vo oi oi e ve i ien eng
DT (台語通用拼音) a ap at ak ah ann/aⁿ or ok onn/oⁿ o o e enn/eⁿ i ian/en ing
zhuyin ㆦㆶ ㄧㄢ ㄧㄥ
example (traditional Chinese)













example (simplified Chinese)













Vowels
IPA ɪk ĩ ai au am ɔm ɔŋ ŋ̩ u ua ue uai uan ɨ ũ
Ph-ōe-jī ek iⁿ ai aiⁿ au am om m ong ng u oa oe oai oan i uⁿ
Revised TLPA ik iN ai aiN au am om m ong ng u ua ue uai uan ir uN
TLPA ik inn ai ainn au am om m ong ng u ua ue uai uan ir unn
Pumindian (普闽典) ik ni ai nai au am om m ong ggn u ua ue uai uan i nu
PSDB (普實台文) eg/ek vi ai vai au am om m ong ng u ua ue uai uan i nu
DT (台語通用拼音) ik inn/iⁿ ai ainn/aiⁿ au am om m ong ng u ua ue uai uan i unn/uⁿ
zhuyin ㄨㄚ ㄨㄞ ㄨㄢ
example (traditional Chinese)












example (simplified Chinese)












Consonants
IPA p b pʰ m t tʰ n l k g kʰ h tɕi ʑi tɕʰi ɕi ts ʣ tsʰ s
Ph-ōe-jī p b ph m t th n nng l k g kh h chi ji chhi si ch j chh s
Revised TLPA p b ph m t th n nng l k g kh h zi ji ci si z j c s
TLPA p b ph m t th n nng l k g kh h zi ji ci si z j c s
Pumindian (普闽典) b bb p m d t n l g gg k h zi li ci si z l c s
PSDB (普實台文) p b ph m d t n nng l k g q h ci ji chi si z j zh s
DT (台語通用拼音) b bh p m d t n ng l g gh k h zi r ci si z r c s
zhuyin
example (traditional Chinese)




















example (simplified Chinese)




















Tones
IPA a˥˥ a˥˧ a˨˩ ap˩˩
at˩˩
ak˩˩
aʔ˩˩
a˧˥ a˥˧ a˧˧ ap˥˥
at˥˥
ak˥˥
aʔ˥˥
Ph-ōe-jī a á à ap
at
ak
ah
â á ā p
t
k
h
Revised TLPA
TLPA
a1 a2 a3 ap4
at4
ak4
ah4
a5 a2 (6=2) a7 ap8
at8
ak8
ah8
Pumindian (普闽典) ā ă à āp
āt
āk
āh
á ă â áp
át
ák
áh
PSDB (普實台文) af ar ax ab
ad
ag
aq
aa aar a ap
at
ak
ah
DT (台語通用拼音) a à â āp
āt
āk
āh
ă á ā ap
at
ak
ah
zhuyin ㄚˋ ㄚᒻ


ㄚˊ ㄚˋ ㆴ̇
ㆵ̇
ㆶ̇
ㆷ̇
example (traditional Chinese)





example (simplified Chinese)





Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Zhuyin fuhao (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chu-yin fu-hao), or Symbols for Annotating Sounds, often abbreviated as Zhuyin, or known as Bopomofo (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) after the first four letters of this Chinese phonemic alphabet (bo po mo fo), is the national phonetic system of the... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Zhuyin fuhao (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chu-yin fu-hao), or Symbols for Annotating Sounds, often abbreviated as Zhuyin, or known as Bopomofo (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) after the first four letters of this Chinese phonemic alphabet (bo po mo fo), is the national phonetic system of the... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Zhuyin fuhao (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chu-yin fu-hao), or Symbols for Annotating Sounds, often abbreviated as Zhuyin, or known as Bopomofo (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) after the first four letters of this Chinese phonemic alphabet (bo po mo fo), is the national phonetic system of the... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Zhuyin fuhao (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chu-yin fu-hao), or Symbols for Annotating Sounds, often abbreviated as Zhuyin, or known as Bopomofo (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) after the first four letters of this Chinese phonemic alphabet (bo po mo fo), is the national phonetic system of the... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Zhuyin fuhao (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chu-yin fu-hao), or Symbols for Annotating Sounds, often abbreviated as Zhuyin, or known as Bopomofo (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) after the first four letters of this Chinese phonemic alphabet (bo po mo fo), is the national phonetic system of the... Zhuyin fuhao (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chu-yin fu-hao), or Symbols for Annotating Sounds, often abbreviated as Zhuyin, or known as Bopomofo (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) after the first four letters of this Chinese phonemic alphabet (bo po mo fo), is the national phonetic system of the... Unicode is an industry standard allowing computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in any of the worlds writing systems. ... Unicode typefaces (also known as UCS fonts and Unicode fonts) contains wide range of characters, letters, digits, glyphs, symbols, ideograms, logograms, etc, which are collectively mapped into Universal Character Set, also known as, UCS (which is an international standard ISO/IEC 10646), derived from many different languages, scripts from all... Code2000 is a digital font which includes characters and symbols from a very large range of writing systems. ...

Computing

Many keyboard layouts and input methods for entering either Latin or Han characters in Taiwanese are available. Some of them are free-of-charge, some commercial. A standard Hebrew keyboard showing both Hebrew and English (QWERTY) letters. ... Since the Chinese language uses a logographic script — that is, a script where one or two characters corresponds roughly to one word or meaning — there are vastly more characters, or glyphs, than there are keys on a standard computer keyboard. ...


The language Min-nan is registered per RFC 3066 as zh-min-nan [2]. Taiwanese can be represented as zh-min-nan-TW. Min Nan, Minnan, or Min-nan (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; POJ: Bân-lâm-gú; Southern Min or Southern Fujian language) is the Chinese language/dialect spoken in southern Fujian province, China and neighboring areas, and by descendants of emigrants from these areas in diaspora. ...


When writing Taiwanese in Han characters, some writers create 'new' characters when they consider it is impossible to use directly or borrow existing ones; this corresponds to similar practices in character usage in Cantonese, Vietnamese chữ nôm, Korean hanja and Japanese kanji. These are usually not encoded in Unicode (or the corresponding ISO/IEC 10646: Universal Character Set), thus creating problems in computer processing. Cantonese is a major dialect group or language of the Chinese language, a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... Unicode is an industry standard allowing computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in any of the worlds writing systems. ... The international standard ISO/IEC 10646 defines the Universal Character Set (UCS) as a character encoding. ...


All Latin characters required by pe̍h-oē-jī can be represented using Unicode (or the corresponding ISO/IEC 10646: Universal character set), using precomposed or combining (diacritics) characters. Prior to June 2004, the vowel akin to but more open than o, written with a dot above right, was not encoded. The usual workaround was to use the (stand-alone; spacing) character middle dot (U+00B7, ·) or less commonly the combining character dot above (U+0307). As these are far from ideal, since 1997 proposals have been submitted to the ISO/IEC working group in charge of ISO/IEC 10646 – namely, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2 – to encode a new combining character dot above right. This is now officially assigned to U+0358 (see documents N1593, N2507, N2628, N2699, and N2713). Font support has followed: for example, in Charis SIL. Unicode is an industry standard allowing computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in any of the worlds writing systems. ... The international standard ISO/IEC 10646 defines the Universal Character Set (UCS) as a character encoding. ... An interpunct · is a small dot used for interword separation in ancient Latin script, being perhaps the first consistent visual representation of word boundaries in written language. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... SVG sample of Charis SIL PNG sample of Charis SIL Charis SIL is a serif typeface developed by SIL International. ...


Sociolinguistics

Regional variations

Within the wider Min-nan (Hō-ló-oē) speaking community in Southeast Asia, Ē-mn̂g (Amoy or Xiamen) is historically the variant of prestige (close to a 'standard language'), with other major variants from Choâⁿ-chiu (Chinchew or Quanzhou in Fujian), Chiang-chiu (Changchew or Zhangzhou in Fujian), and Tiô-chiu (Teochew or Chaozhou in Guangdong). Amoy (Xiamen) is a language/dialect which originally comes from Southern Fujian, in the area centered around the city of Xiamen. ... A view of the Xiamen University campus Xiamen (Simplified Chinese: 厦门; Traditional Chinese: 廈門; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is a coastal sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian province, Peoples Republic of China. ... A standard language (also standard dialect or standardized dialect) is a particular variety of a language that has been given either legal or quasi-legal status. ... The characters 泉州 are also used for SenshÅ«, an alternate name for the former Japanese province of Izumi. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal map spelling: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Zhangzhou (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in southern Fujian province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Chaozhou (Chinese: 潮州 lit. ... Guangdong, often spelt as Kwangtung, is a province on the south coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


In Taiwan, however, the Tâi-lâm (Tainan, southern Taiwan) speech is the variant of prestige, and the other major variants are the northern speech, the central speech (near Taichung and the port town of Lo̍k-káng in Changhua County), and the northern (northeastern) coastal speech (dominant in Gî-lân). The distinguishing feature of the coastal speech is the use of the vowel 'uiⁿ' in place of 'ng'. The northern speech is distinguished by the absence of the 8th tone, and some vowel exchanges (for example, 'i' and 'u', 'e' and 'oe'). The central speech has an additional vowel between 'i' and 'u', which may be represented as 'ö'. Tainan redirects here; for the county of the same name see Tainan County. ... Taichung (Chinese: ; pinyin: Táizhōng; Wade-Giles: Tai-chung; POJ: Tâi-tiong) is a city located in west-central Taiwan with a population of just over one million people, making it the third largest city on the island, after Taipei and Kaohsiung. ... Lung-shan Temple Lukang(Chinese: ; pinyin: lùgÇŽng; Wade-Giles: lu-kang; POJ: Lo̍k-káng; lit. ... Changhua County (彰化縣, pinyin: Zhānghuà Xiàn) is a county in western Taiwan administered as part of Taiwan Province of the Republic of China. ... Yilan County (Traditional Chinese: 宜蘭縣; Hanyu Pinyin: Yílán Xiàn; Tongyong Pinyin: Yílán Siàn; Wade-Giles: Yi-lan Hsien; POJ: Gî-lân-kōan) is a county in Northeastern Taiwan. ...


Fluency

Most people in Taiwan can speak both Mandarin Chinese and Taiwanese although the degree of fluency varies widely. There are however significant numbers of people in Taiwan (roughly 20 to 30 percent of the population of Taiwan), mainly but not exclusively Hakka and Mainlanders, who cannot speak Taiwanese at all, as well as large numbers of people (roughly 10 to 20 percent of the population), mainly people born before the 1950s, who cannot speak Mandarin at all. Urban, working-class Hakkas as well as younger, southern-Taiwan Mainlanders tend to have better, even native-like fluency. Approximately half of the Hakka in Taiwan do speak Taiwanese. There are many families of mixed Hakka, Hoklo, and Aboriginal bloodlines. There is, however, a large percentage of people in Taiwan, regardless of their background, whose ability to understand Taiwanese is greater than their ability to speak it. This article is on all of the Northern Chinese dialects. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mainlanders are those humans who live, or were born, in a mainland. ...


Which variant is used depends strongly on the context, and in general people will use Mandarin in more formal situations and Taiwanese in more informal situations. Taiwanese tends to get used more in rural areas, while Mandarin is used more in urban settings. Older people tend to use Taiwanese, while younger people tend to use Mandarin. In the broadcast media, soap opera/dramas and variety shows tend to use Taiwanese, while game shows and documentaries tend to use Mandarin. Political news is broadcasted in both Taiwanese and Mandarin. Sign in a rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China An artists rendering of an aerial view of the Maryland countryside: Jane Frank (Jane Schenthal Frank, 1918-1986), Aerial Series: Ploughed Fields, Maryland, 1974, acrylic and mixed materials on apertured double canvas, 52... Crowded Shibuya, Tokyo shopping district An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... For Philippine soap opera, see Teleserye. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... A variety show is a show with a variety of acts, often including music and comedy skits, especially on television. ... “Quiz show” redirects here. ... Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ...


Special literary and art forms

Puppetry is part of the heritage in Taiwanese
Puppetry is part of the heritage in Taiwanese

Chhit-jī-á (literally, "that which has seven syllables") is a poetic meter where each verse has 7 syllables. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (460x613, 68 KB) Summary 台灣霹靂布袋戲偶 素還真。photo by User:KaurJmeb, 2006,01,07,攝於宜蘭傳統藝術中心。 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Taiwanese (linguistics) Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (460x613, 68 KB) Summary 台灣霹靂布袋戲偶 素還真。photo by User:KaurJmeb, 2006,01,07,攝於宜蘭傳統藝術中心。 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Taiwanese (linguistics) Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or... The Chinese poem Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong (Song Dynasty) Poetry (from the Greek , poiesis, a making or creating) is a form of art in which language is used for its aesthetic and evocative qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its ostensible meaning. ... Meter (British English spelling: metre) describes the linguistic sound patterns of a verse. ...


There is a special form of musical/dramatic performance koa-á-hì: the Taiwanese opera; the subject matter is usually a historical event. A similar form of puppetry, pò͘-tē-hì ("Taiwanese puppetry"), is also unique and has been elaborated in the past two decades into impressive televised spectacles. // Music is an art form consisting of sound and silence expressed through time. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Taiwanese (folk) opera (Taiwanese: koa-á-hì; Mandarin: 歌仔戲, Gezaixi; lit. ... The title page to The Historians History of the World. ... A puppeteer is a person who manipulates an inanimate object — a puppet— in real time to create the illusion of life. ... Sun Wukong puppet in pò·-tÄ“-hì. Pò·-tÄ“-hì (POJ: pò·-tÄ“-hì; Chinese: ; pinyin: bùdàixì), also known as budai muouxi, shoucao kuileixi, shoudai kuileixi, chang-chung hsi (pinyin: zhÇŽngzhōngxì), xiaolong, or zhihuaxi is a type of local opera using cloth puppets that originated...


See Taiwanese cuisine for names of several local dishes. Several Taiwanese snacks bought from food stalls at the Shilin Night Market, Taipei. ...


Conceptualization and history

In the first decades of the 18th century, the language difference between the Chinese Qing imperial bureaucrats and the commoners was recorded by the first Imperial High Commissioner to Taiwan (1722), Huáng Shújǐng, a Beijinger sent by the Kangxi Emperor, during whose reign Taiwan was annexed in 1684: Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy, usually within an institution of the government. ... High Commissioner is the title of various high-ranking, special executive positions held by a commission of appointment. ... Huáng Shújǐng (黃叔璥) was the first Imperial High Commissioner to Taiwan (1722). ... Beijing (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; Wade-Giles: Peiching or Pei-ching; IPA: ; literally Northern capital;  ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

In this place, the language is as birdcall – totally unintelligible! For example: for the surname Liú, they say "Lâu"; for Chén, "Tân"; Zhuāng, "Chng"; and Zhāng is "Tiuⁿ". My deputy's surname becomes "Ngô͘". My surname Huáng does not even have a proper vowel: it is "N̂g" here! It is difficult to make sense of this. (Records from the mission to Taiwan and its Strait, Volume II: On the area around Fort Provintia, Tainan)
郡中鴃舌鳥語全不可曉如劉呼澇陳呼澹莊呼曾張呼丟余與吳待御兩姓吳呼作襖黃則無音厄影切更為難省(臺海使槎錄 卷二 赤嵌筆談)

This set the tone for the uneasy relationship between this language community and the colonial establishments in the next few centuries. Bird song refers to the sounds, usually melodious to the human ear, made by many birds of the order Passeriformes as a form of communication. ... 劉 pinyin: Liú (in traditional form) Liu is a common Chinese family name (spelt Lau in Hong Kong, Lou in Macau, Low in Malaysia). ... Look up Chen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Wu is the Pinyin transliteration of the Chinese surname 吳 (Traditional Chinese), 吴 (Simplified Chinese), which is 10th most common surname in Mainland China. ... Huang is the transliteration of the Chinese surname (Simplified Chinese: 黄; Traditional Chinese: 黃; Hanyu Pinyin: ), which also has the literal meaning yellow. ... Fort Provintia was built in 1653 by the Dutch during their occupation of Taiwan. ... Tainan redirects here; for the county of the same name see Tainan County. ...


In the 18th and 19th centuries, civil unrest and armed conflicts were frequent in Taiwan. In addition to resistance against the government (both Chinese and Japanese), battles between ethnic groups were also significant: the belligerent usually grouped around the language they use. History recorded battles between the Hakka and the Taiwanese-language speakers; between these and the aborigines; and between those who spoke the Choâⁿ-chiu variant of what became the Taiwanese language and those who spoke the Chiang-chiu variant. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A Rukai village Chief visiting the Department of Anthropology in Tokyo Imperial University during the Japanese rule. ...


Later, in the 20th century, the conceptualization of Taiwanese is more controversial than most variations of Chinese because at one time it marked a clear division between the Mainlanders who arrived in 1949 and the pre-existing majority native Taiwanese. Although the political and linguistic divisions between the two groups have blurred considerably, the political issues surrounding Taiwanese have been more controversial and sensitive than for other variants of Chinese.


The history of Taiwanese and the interaction with Mandarin is complex and at times controversial. Even the name is somewhat controversial. Some dislike the name Taiwanese as they feel that it belittles other variants such as Mandarin, Hakka, and the aboriginal languages which are spoken on Taiwan. Others prefer the name Min-nan or Hokkien as this views Taiwanese as a variant of the speech which is spoken on Fujian province in Mainland China. Others dislike the name Min-nan and Hokkien for precisely the same reason. One can get into similar controversial debates as to whether Taiwanese is a language or a dialect. Hakka is one language in the family of languages known as Chinese. ... A Rukai village Chief visiting the Department of Anthropology in Tokyo Imperial University during the Japanese rule. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal map spelling: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... ...


Politics

Until the 1980s, the use of Taiwanese, along with all dialects other than Mandarin, was discouraged by the Kuomintang through measures such as banning its use in schools and limiting the amount of Taiwanese broadcast on electronic media. These measures were removed by the 1990s, and Taiwanese became an emblem of localization. Mandarin remains the predominant language of education, although there is a "mother tongue" language requirement in Taiwanese schools which can be satisfied with student's choice of mother-tongue: Taiwanese, Hakka, or aboriginal languages. The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in... Localization or Taiwanization (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Pe̍h-oē-jī: pún-thó͘-hòa) is a political term used within Taiwan to emphasize the importance of Taiwans culture rather than to regard Taiwanese as solely an appendage of China. ...


Although the use of Taiwanese over Mandarin was historically part of the Taiwan independence movement, the linkage between politics and language is not as strong as it once was. Fluency in Taiwanese has become a de facto requirement for political office in Taiwan for both independence and unificationist politicians. At the same time even some supporters of Taiwan independence have played down its connection with Taiwanese language in order to gain the support of the Mainlanders and Hakka. Taiwan independence (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Pe̍h-oē-jī: Tâi-oân To̍k-li̍p ūn-tōng; abbreviated to 台獨, Táidú, Tâi-to̍k) is a political movement whose goal is primarily to create an independent and sovereign Republic of Taiwan out of the... Mainlanders are Chinese people who live, or were born, in mainland China as opposed to Hong Kong, Macao, Singapore, or Taiwan. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


James Soong restricted the use of Taiwanese and other local tongues in broadcasting while serving as Director of the Government Information Office earlier in his career, but later became one of the first Mainlander politicians to use Taiwanese in semi-formal occasions. Since then, politicians opposed to Taiwan independence have used it frequently in rallies even when they are not native speakers of the language and speak it badly. Conversely, politicians who have traditionally been identified with Taiwan independence have used Mandarin on formal occasions and semi-formal occasions such as press conferences. An example of the latter is President Chen Shui-bian who uses Mandarin in all official state speeches, but uses Taiwanese in political rallies and some informal state occasions such as New Year greetings, although in the latter case he never uses Taiwanese exclusively. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Chen Shui-bian, President of the Republic of China Chen Shui-bian (ch. ...


In the early 21st century, there are few differences in language usage between the anti-independence leaning Pan-Blue Coalition and the independence leaning Pan-Green Coalition. Both tend to use Taiwanese at political rallies and sometimes in informal interviews and both tend to use Mandarin at formal press conferences and official state functions. Both also tend to use more Mandarin in northern Taiwan and more Taiwanese in southern Taiwan. However at official party gatherings (as opposed to both Mandarin-leaning state functions and Taiwanese-leaning party rallies), the DPP tends to use Taiwanese while KMT and PFP tend to use Mandarin. The Taiwan Solidarity Union, which advocates a strong line on Taiwan independence, tends to use Taiwanese even in formal press conferences. In speaking, politicians will frequently code switch. In writing, almost everyone uses vernacular Mandarin which is farther from Taiwanese, and the use of semi-alphabetic writing or even colloquial Taiwanese characters is rare. The Pan-Blue Coalition (Traditional Chinese: 泛藍聯盟; Simplified Chinese: 泛蓝联盟; Hanyu Pinyin: ), or Pan-Blue Force (Traditional Chinese: 泛藍軍; Simplified Chinese: 泛蓝军; Hanyu Pinyin: ), is a political coalition in Taiwan, consisting of the Kuomintang (KMT), the People First Party (PFP), and the smaller New Party (CNP). ... The Pan-Green Coalition (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) or Pan-Green Force (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is currently an informal political alliance in the Republic of China (Taiwan), consisting of the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP), Taiwan Solidarity Union (TSU), and the minor Taiwan Independence Party (TAIP). ... The Taiwan Solidarity Union (TSU) (Traditional Chinese: 台灣團結聯盟, pinyin: Táiwān túanjíe líanméng) is a political party in Taiwan (Republic of China) which advocates Taiwan independence. ... Taiwan independence (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Pe̍h-oē-jī: Tâi-oân To̍k-li̍p ūn-tōng; abbreviated to 台獨, Táidú, Tâi-to̍k) is a political movement whose goal is primarily to create an independent and sovereign Republic of Taiwan out of the... Code-switching is a term in linguistics referring to alternation between one or more languages, dialects, or language registers in the course of discourse between people who have more than one language in common. ... Vernacular Chinese (pinyin: báihuà; Wade-Giles: paihua) is a style or register of the written Chinese language essentially modeled after the spoken language and associated with Standard Mandarin. ...


Despite these commonalities, there are still different attitudes toward the relationship between Taiwanese and Mandarin. In general, while supporters of Chinese reunification believe that all languages used on Taiwan should be respected, they tend to believe that Mandarin should have a preferred status as the common working language between different groups. Supporters of Taiwan independence tend to believe that either Taiwanese should be preferred or that no language should be preferred.


In 2002, the Taiwan Solidarity Union, a party with about 10 % of the Legislative Yuan seats at the time, suggested making Taiwanese a second official language. This proposal encountered strong opposition not only from Mainlander groups but also from Hakka and aboriginal groups who felt that it would slight their home languages, as well as others who objected to the proposal on logistical grounds and on the grounds that it would increase ethnic tensions. Because of these objections, support for this measure is lukewarm among moderate Taiwan independence supporters, and it appears very unlikely to pass. The Legislative Yuan building in Zhongzheng District, Taipei City (the view is partially obscured by the childrens hospital building of the National Taiwan University Hospital). ...


In 2003, there was a controversy when parts of the civil service examination for judges were written in characters used only in Taiwanese. After strong objections, these questions were not used in scoring. As with the official-language controversy, objections to the use of Taiwanese came not only from Mainlander groups, but also Hakka and aborigines.


See also

References

Books and other material

(As English language material on Taiwanese learning is limited, Japanese and German books are also listed here.)

  • Bodman, Nicholas C.: Spoken Taiwanese with Cassette(s), 1980/2001, ISBN 0-87950-461-7 or ISBN 0-87950-460-9 or ISBN 0-87950-462-5
  • Campbell, William: Ē-mn̂g-im Sin Jī-tián (Dictionary of the Amoy Vernacular). Tainan, Taiwan: Tâi-oân Kàu-hoē Kong-pò-siā (Taiwan Church Press, Presbyterian Church in Taiwan). 1993–06 (First published 1913–07).
  • Iâu Chèng-to: Cheng-soán Pe̍h-oē-jī (Concise Colloquial Writing). Tainan, Taiwan: Jîn-kong (an imprint of the Presbyterian Church in Taiwan). 1992.
  • Tân, K. T: A Chinese-English Dictionary: Taiwan Dialect. Taipei: Southern Materials Center. 1978.
  • Klöter, Henning. Written Taiwanese. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2005. ISBN 3-447-05093-4, 78,00 € [D]
  • Maryknoll Language Service Center: English-Amoy Dictionary. Taichung, Taiwan: Maryknoll Fathers. 1979.
  • Tiuⁿ Jū-hông: Principles of Pe̍h-oē-jī or the Taiwanese Orthography: an introduction to its sound-symbol correspondences and related issues. Taipei: Crane Publishing, 2001. ISBN 957-2053-07-8
  • Wi-vun Taiffalo Chiung: Tone Change in Taiwanese: Age and Geographic Factors.
  • 樋口 靖: 台湾語会話, 2000, ISBN 4-497-20004-3 (Good and yet concise introduction to the Taiwanese language in Japanese; CD: ISBN 4-497-20006-X)
  • 趙 怡華: はじめての台湾, 2003, ISBN 4-7569-0665-6 (In Japanese: Introduction to Taiwanese and Chinese)
  • Katharina Sommer, Xie Shu-Kai: Taiwanisch Wort für Wort, 2004, ISBN 3-89416-348-8 (Taiwanese for travellers, in German. CD: ISBN 3-8317-6094-2)
  • Taiwanese learning resources (a good bibliography in English) (Google cache as a web page)

External links

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Wikipedia
Taiwanese (linguistics) edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Image File history File links Zhongwen. ... Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Hantu: A Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1058, 477 KB) aa Wikipedia logo, version 1058px square, no text Wikipedia logo by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); compare Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic language Talk:Anarcho-capitalism Talk:Algorithm Talk:Anno Domini Talk:The... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ...

[edit] Chinese: Spoken varieties  
Generally accepted first-level categories:

Mandarin | Wu | Cantonese | Min | Hakka | Xiang | Gan |
Spoken Chinese Spoken Chinese comprises many regional variants. ... This article is on all of the Northern and Southwestern Chinese dialects. ... Wu (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is one of the major divisions of the Chinese language. ... Cantonese is a major dialect group or language of the Chinese language, a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Min (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; POJ: Bân hong-giân; BUC: Mìng huŏng-ngiòng) is a general term for a group of dialects of the Chinese language spoken in the southeastern Chinese province of Fujian as well as by migrants from this province in Guangdong (around Chaozhou-Swatou... Hakka (Simplified Chinese: 客家话, Traditional Chinese: 客家話, Pronunciation in Hakka: Hak-ka-fa/-va, Pinyin: Kèjiāhuà) is a spoken variation of the Chinese language spoken predominantly in southern China by the Hakka ethnic group and descendants in diaspora throughout East and Southeast Asia and around the world. ... Xiang (湘語/湘语), also Hunan, Hunanese, or Hsiang, is a subdivision of spoken Chinese. ... Gàn (赣语) is one of the major divisions of spoken Chinese, a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages, concentrated in and typical of Jiangxi Province. ...

Often accepted first-level categories:

Jin | Hui | Ping Jin (simplified: 晋语; traditional: 晉語; pinyin: jìnyǔ), or Jin-yu, is a subdivision of spoken Chinese. ... The Hui (徽) dialects are unrelated to the Hui (回) ethnic group of China. ... Pinghua (平話/平话), also Guangxi Nanning, is a subdivision of spoken Chinese. ...

Unclassified:

Danzhouhua | Shaozhou Tuhua Danzhouhua (hua = language) 儋州話 / 儋州话 is an unclassified Chinese dialect spoken in the area of Danzhou on the island Hainan. ... Shaozhou Tuhua ( 韶州土話 / 韶州土话 ) is an unclassified Chinese language spoken in the border region of the provinces Guangdong, Hunan and Guangxi. ...

Subcategories of Mandarin: Northeastern | Beijing | Ji-Lu | Jiao-Liao | Zhongyuan | Lan-Yin | Southwestern | Jianghuai | Dungan
Subcategories of Min: Min Bei | Min Dong | Min Nan | Min Zhong | Puxian | Qiong Wen | Shaojiang
Comprehensive list of Chinese dialects
Historical phonology: Old Chinese | Middle Chinese | Proto-Min | Proto-Mandarin | Haner
Chinese: Written varieties
Official written varieties: Classical Chinese | Vernacular Chinese
Other varieties: Written Vernacular Cantonese

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