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Encyclopedia > Taiping Rebellion
Taiping Rebellion

Taiping Army meeting with their leader
Date 1850–1864
Location China
Result Victory by the Qing dynasty
Fall of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
Weakening of the Qing Dynasty
Combatants
Qing Empire
Flag of United Kingdom United Kingdom
Flag of FranceFrance (United Kingdom and France join the war later)
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
Commanders
Xianfeng Emperor
Tongzhi Emperor
Empress Dowager Cixi
Charles George Gordon
Frederick Townsend Ward
Hong Xiuquan
Yang Xiuqing
Xiao Chaogui
Feng Yunshan
Wei Changhui
Shi Dakai
Li Xiucheng
Strength
2,000,000-5,000,000 regulars
~300,000 militia
1,000,000-3,000,000 regulars
Casualties
~20,000,000 (best estimate)
Taiping Rebellion
Jintian – 1st Nanking – Sanhe – Cixi3rd Nanking

The Taiping Rebellion (or Rebellion of Great Peace) was a large-scale revolt against the authority and forces of the Qing Government in China, conducted from 1850 to 1864 by an army and civil administration inspired by Hakka self-proclaimed mystics named Hong Xiuquan and Yang Xiuqing. Hong was an unorthodox Christian convert who declared himself the new Messiah and younger brother of Jesus Christ. Yang Xiuqing was a former salesman of firewood in Guangxi, who frequently claimed to be able to act as a mouthpiece of God to direct the people and gain himself a large amount of political power. Hong, Yang and their followers established the Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace (Simplified Chinese: 太平天国, Pinyin: Tàipíng Tiān Guó) and attained control of significant parts of southern China. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 519 pixelsFull resolution (1434 × 931 pixel, file size: 192 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A digital camera image. ... Image File history File links China_Qing_Dynasty_Flag_1889. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Xian Feng Emperor, born Yi Zhu, (July 17, 1831 - August 22, 1861) was the ninth Emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty to rule over China, from 1850 to 1861. ... The Tong Zhi Emperor, born Zai Chun (April 27, 1856–January 12, 1875) was the tenth emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and the eighth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1861 to 1875. ... Empress Dowager Cixi (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Tzu-Hsi Tai-hou) (November 29, 1835 – November 15, 1908), popularly known in China as the West Empress Dowager (Chinese: 西太后), was from the Manchu Yehe Nara Clan. ... Chinese Gordon as Governor of Sudan Major-General Charles George Gordon, CB (28 January 1833 – 26 January 1885), known as Chinese Gordon, Gordon Pasha, and Gordon of Khartoum, was a British army officer and administrator. ... Frederick Townsend Ward (1831-1862) was a sailor, mercenary and soldier of fortune famous for his military victories for Imperial China during the Taiping Rebellion. ... A statue of Hong Xiuquan Hóng Xiùquán (洪秀全, Wade-Giles: Hung Hsiu-chüan, born Hong Renkun 洪仁坤, Courtesy name Huoxiu 火秀; January 10, 1812-June 1, 1864) was a Hakka Chinese Christian who led the Taiping Rebellion and established the Heavenly Kingdom of Taiping, in which he was known... Yang Xiuqing (Chinese 杨秀清, Wade-Giles Yang Hsiu-Ching), (died September 2/3, 1856), organizer and commander-in-chief of the Taiping Rebellion. ... Xiao Chaogui was an important leader during the Taiping Rebellion against the Qing government 1850-1864. ... Feng Yunshan was an important leader during the Taiping Rebellion against the Qing government 1850-1864. ... Wei Changhui was the North King of the Taiping Rebellion. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Li Xiucheng (李秀成, 1823-1864), eminent military leader of the Taiping Rebellion. ... The Jintian Uprising (金田起義) occurred on January 11, 1851, during the late Qing Dynasty of China, in what is now Guiping county-level city in eastern Guangxi province. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The last major engagement of the Taiping Rebellion, in 1864, this battle occurred after the suicide of the king of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, Hong Xiuquan. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mysticism is the philosophy and practice of a direct experience of God. ... A statue of Hong Xiuquan Hóng Xiùquán (洪秀全, Wade-Giles: Hung Hsiu-chüan, born Hong Renkun 洪仁坤, Courtesy name Huoxiu 火秀; January 10, 1812-June 1, 1864) was a Hakka Chinese Christian who led the Taiping Rebellion and established the Heavenly Kingdom of Taiping, in which he was known... Yang Xiuqing (Chinese 杨秀清, Wade-Giles Yang Hsiu-Ching), (died September 2/3, 1856), organizer and commander-in-chief of the Taiping Rebellion. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A Christian () is a person who... In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Arabic: ,  ; Aramaic:  ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oil on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Yang Xiuqing (Chinese 杨秀清, Wade-Giles Yang Hsiu-Ching), (died September 2/3, 1856), organizer and commander-in-chief of the Taiping Rebellion. ... Guangxi (Zhuang: Gvangjsih; old orthography: ; Simplified Chinese: 广西; Traditional Chinese: 廣西; Pinyin: GuÇŽngxÄ«; Wade-Giles: Kuang-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Kwangsi), full name Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Zhuang: Gvangjsih Bouxcuengh Swcigih; old orthography: ; Simplified Chinese: 广西壮族自治区; Traditional Chinese: 廣西壯族自治區; Pinyin: GuÇŽngxÄ« Zhuàngzú ZìzhìqÅ«) is a Zhuang autonomous region of... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ...


Most accurate sources put the total deaths during the 15 years of the rebellion at about 20 million civilians and army personnel.[1] Some historians estimate the combination of natural disasters together with the political insurrections may have cost as many as 200 million Chinese lives between 1850 and 1865[2]. That figure is generally thought to be an exaggeration, as it is approximately half the estimated population of China in 1851[3]. Modern estimates are that China’s population had been about 410 million in 1850 and, after the Taiping, Nien, Muslim, Panthay, Miao and other smaller rebellions, amounted to about 350 million in 1873.[4]. Nevertheless the Taiping Rebellion stands as the second bloodiest conflict in history, greater than World War I and behind only World War II. It happened at roughly the same time as the American Civil War. Artifacts from the Taiping period can be seen at the Taiping Kingdom History Museum in Nanjing, China. A casualty is a person who is the victim of an accident, injury, or trauma. ... Civilian casualties is a military term describing civilian, non-combatant persons killed or injured by direct military action. ... Mount Pinatubo eruption, 1991 A natural disaster is the consequence of a natural hazard (e. ... The Nien Rebellion (Chinese: 捻軍起義; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: nien-chün chi-yi; Western historians have traditionally used the Wade-Giles transcription Nien, rather than Hanyu Pinyin Nian) was a large armed uprising that took place in northern China from 1851 to 1868. ... The Dungan Revolt is also known as the Hui Minorities War and the Muslim Rebellion. ... The Panthay Rebellion (known in Chinese as the Du Wenxiu Qiyi 杜文秀起义 (1856 - 1873) was a separatist movement of the Hui people, Chinese Muslims, against the imperial Qing Dynasty in southwestern Yunnan Province, China. ... The Hmong, also known as Miao (Chinese: 苗: Miáo; Vietnamese: Mẹo or Hmông; Thai: ม้ง (mong) or แม้ว (maew)), are an Asian ethnic group whose homeland is in the mountainous regions of southern China (especially Guizhou) that cross into northern Southeast... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The Taiping Kingdom History Museum (Simplified Chinese: 太平天国历史博物馆) is a museum dedicated to artifacts from the Taiping Rebellion. ...   (Chinese: 南京; Romanizations: NánjÄ«ng (Pinyin), Nan-ching (Wade-Giles), Nanking (Postal map spelling)) is the capital of Chinas Jiangsu Province and a city with a prominent place in Chinese history and culture. ...


Though almost certainly the largest civil war of the nineteenth century (in terms of numbers under arms), it is debatable whether the Taiping Rebellion involved more soldiers than the Napoleonic Wars earlier in the century, and so it is uncertain whether it was the largest war of the nineteenth century. The Napoleonic Wars lasted from 1804 until 1815. ...


At the Third Battle of Nanking in 1864, more than 100,000 were killed in three days. The last major engagement of the Taiping Rebellion, in 1864, this battle occurred after the suicide of the king of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, Hong Xiuquan. ...

Contents

Background

Hong Xiuquan
Hong Xiuquan

In the mid-19th century, China suffered a series of natural disasters, economic problems and defeats at the hands of the Western powers.e.g The Qing Dynasty lost their war against Great Britain in the First Opium War. The ruling Qing Dynasty (ethnically Manchu) was seen by the Chinese majority (ethnically Han) as ineffective and corrupt. Anti-Manchu sentiment was strongest in the south among the laboring classes, and it was these disaffected that flocked to the charismatic visionary Hong Xiuquan (a member of the Hakka minority). The sect's militarism grew in the 1840s, initially in response to its struggle to suppress bandits, but persecution by Qing authorities spurred the movement into a guerilla rebellion and then into full-blown civil war. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... Combatants Qing China British East India Company Commanders Daoguang Emperor Charles Elliot, Anthony Blaxland Stransham The First Opium War or the First Anglo-Chinese War was fought between the United Kingdom and the Qing Empire in China from 1839 to 1842 with the aim of forcing China to import British... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... Jay Chou, a Han Chinese from Taiwan The Han (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: hànzú or hànrén) is an ethnic group originating from China. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... Butch Cassidy, a famous outlaw An outlaw, a person living the lifestyle of outlawry, is most familiar to contemporary readers as a stock character in Western movies. ... Guerrilla warfare (also guerilla) is the unconventional warfare and combat with which small group combatants (usually civilians) use mobile tactics (ambushes, raids, etc) to combat a larger, less mobile formal army. ... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ...


The revolt began in Guangxi Province. In early January 1851, a ten-thousand strong rebel army organised by Feng Yunshan and Wei Changhui routed Imperial troops stationed at the town of Jintian in what's now called the Jintian Uprising. Heavenly Kingdom forces successfully drove back the Imperial reprisal, and in August 1851, Hong declared the establishment of the Heavenly Kingdom of Peace (Taiping Tianguo) with himself as absolute ruler. Guangxi (Zhuang: Gvangjsih; old orthography: ; Simplified Chinese: 广西; Traditional Chinese: 廣西; Pinyin: Guǎngxī; Wade-Giles: Kuang-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Kwangsi), full name Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Zhuang: Gvangjsih Bouxcuengh Swcigih; old orthography: ; Simplified Chinese: 广西壮族自治区; Traditional Chinese: 廣西壯族自治區; Pinyin: Guǎngxī Zhuàngzú Zìzhìqū) is a Zhuang autonomous region of... Feng Yunshan was an important leader during the Taiping Rebellion against the Qing government 1850-1864. ... Wei Changhui was the North King of the Taiping Rebellion. ... The Jintian Uprising (金田起義) occurred on January 11, 1851, during the late Qing Dynasty of China, in what is now Guiping county-level city in eastern Guangxi province. ... Absolutism is a political theory which argues that one person, who is often generally a monarch, should hold all power. ...


The revolt rapidly spread northward. In March 1853, between 700,000 and 800,000 Taiping soldiers took Nanjing, killing 30,000 Imperial soldiers and slaughtering thousands of civilians. The city became the movement's capital and was renamed Tianjing (‘Heavenly Capital’). Then as time went on they were executed.   (Chinese: 南京; Romanizations: NánjÄ«ng (Pinyin), Nan-ching (Wade-Giles), Nanking (Postal map spelling)) is the capital of Chinas Jiangsu Province and a city with a prominent place in Chinese history and culture. ...


Climax

At its height, the Heavenly Kingdom encompassed much of south and central China, centered on the fertile Yangtze river valley. Control of the river meant that the Taipings could easily supply their capital at Nanjing (which they renamed Tianjing). From there, the Taipings continued their assault. Two armies were sent west, to secure the upper reaches of the Yangtze. Two more armies were sent north to take the Imperial capital, Beijing. Potentially, these two expeditions could have acted as a giant pincer movement across the country. The western expedition met with some mixed success, but the attempt to take Beijing failed after being repulsed at the outskirts of Tianjin. Length 6,380 km Elevation of the source  ? m Average discharge 31,900 m³/s Area watershed 1,800,000 km² Origin Qinghai Province and Tibet Mouth East China Sea Basin countries China The Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: 长江; Traditional Chinese: 長江; pinyin: Cháng Jiāng...   (Chinese: 南京; Romanizations: NánjÄ«ng (Pinyin), Nan-ching (Wade-Giles), Nanking (Postal map spelling)) is the capital of Chinas Jiangsu Province and a city with a prominent place in Chinese history and culture. ... Beijing (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; IPA: ;  ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: TiānjÄ«n; Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Downfall

In 1853, Hong withdrew from active control of policies and administration. His sanity progressively eroding, he devoted himself to meditation and more sensual pursuits, including his private harem.[5] The term non compos mentis comes from Latin, non meaning not, compos meaning in control, and mentis, genitive singular of mens, and means It is most typically used in its negative form, non compos mentis, that is, not having control of ones faculties, as in a phrase such as... A large statue in Bangalore depicting Shiva meditating Meditation describes a state of concentrated attention on some object of thought or awareness. ...


With their leader largely out of the picture, Taiping delegates tried to widen their popular support with the Chinese middle classes -- and to forge alliances with European powers -- but failed on both counts. Inside China, the rebellion faced resistance from the traditionalist middle class because of their hostility to many long-standing Chinese customs and Confucian values. The land-owning upper class, unsettled by the Taipings' peasant mannerisms and their policy of strict separation of the sexes, even for married couples, sided with the Imperial forces and their Western allies.


Following a setback near Beijing, they continued to expand westward, but spent most of their efforts maintaining their hold in the Yangtze valley. From 1860, the kingdom's fall was rapid.


An attempt to take Shanghai in August 1860 was repulsed by troops under the command of Frederick Townsend Ward, a force that would later become the 'Ever Victorious Army' led by 'Chinese' Gordon. Imperial forces were reorganized under the command of Zeng Guofan and Li Hongzhang, and the Imperial reconquest began in earnest. By early 1864 Imperial control in most areas was well established. Shanghai (Chinese: ; pinyin:  ; Wu (Long-short): ZÃ¥nhae; Shanghainese (IPA): ), situated on the banks of the Yangtze River Delta in East China, is the largest city of the Peoples Republic of China and the ninth largest in the world. ... Frederick Townsend Ward (1831-1862) was a sailor, mercenary and soldier of fortune famous for his military victories for Imperial China during the Taiping Rebellion. ... Charles Chinese Gordon, the most famous commander of the Ever Victorious Army The Ever Victorious Army (Chinese: 常勝軍; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chang-Sheng Chün) was the name given to an imperial army in late-19th century China. ... Chinese Gordon as Governor of Sudan Major-General Charles George Gordon, CB (28 January 1833 – 26 January 1885), known as Chinese Gordon, Gordon Pasha, and Gordon of Khartoum, was a British army officer and administrator. ... General Zeng Guofan Marquess ZÄ“ng Guófán, (t. ... Li Hongzhang (February 15, 1823 – November 7, 1901) was a Chinese general who ended several major rebellions, and a leading statesman of the late Qing Empire. ...


Hong declared that God would defend Nanjing, but in June, with Imperial forces approaching, he died of food poisoning as the result of ingesting wild vegetables as the city began to run out of food. His body was buried in the former Ming Imperial Palace where it was later exhumed by the conquering Zeng to verify his death, then cremated. Hong's ashes were later blasted out of a cannon in order to ensure that his remains have no resting place as eternal punishment for the uprising.


Four months before the fall of the Heavenly Kingdom of Taiping, Hong Xiuquan passed the throne to Hong Tianguifu, his eldest son. However, Hong Tianguifu was unable to do anything to restore the Kingdom, so the Kingdom was quickly destroyed when Nanjing fell to the Imperial armies after vicious street-by-street fighting. Hong Tianguifu (洪天貴福 in pinyin: hong2 tian1 fu2 gui4) (1848 - 1864), also called Hong Tiangui and in Qing historical record, Hong Futian (洪福瑱 fu2 tian4), was the second and last king of the Heavenly Kingdom of Taiping. ...


Most of the princes were executed by Qing Imperials in Jinling Town (金陵城), Nanjing.


The Nian Rebellion (捻軍起義) (1853–1868), and several Muslim rebellions in the southwest (Panthay Rebellion, 1855–1873) and the northwest (Hui Rebellion in Gansu and Shaanxi, 1862–1877) were led by the remnants of the Taiping rebels. The Nien Rebellion was an uprising that took place in northern China from 1851-1863. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Panthay Rebellion (known in Chinese as the Du Wenxiu Qiyi 杜文秀起义 (1856 - 1873) was a separatist movement of the Hui people, Chinese Muslims, against the imperial Qing Dynasty in southwestern Yunnan Province, China. ... The Hui Minorities War, is the modern term used by the Peoples Republic of China for what used to be called the Dungan Revolt or Muslim Rebellion. ...


Taiping Heavenly Army

The rebellion's army was its key strength. It was marked by a high level of discipline and fanaticism. They typically wore a uniform of red jackets with blue trousers and grew their hair long — in Chinese they were known as Chángmáo (長毛, meaning "long hair"). The large numbers of women serving in the Taiping Heavenly Army also distinguished it from 19th century armies. Discipline is any training intended to produce a specific character or pattern of behaviour, especially training that produces moral, physical, or mental development in a particular direction. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Combat was always bloody and extremely brutal, with little artillery but huge forces equipped with small arms. By 1856, the Taiping armies numbered just over 1 million. Their main strategy of conquest was to take major cities, consolidate their hold on the cities, then march out into the surrounding countryside to battle Imperial forces. Estimates of the overall size of the Taiping Heavenly Army varied from 1,000,000 to 3,000,000. Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ... Small arms captured in Fallujah, Iraq by the US Marine Corps in 2004 The term small arms generally describes any number of smaller infantry weapons, such as firearms that an individual soldier can carry. ...


The organization of a Taiping army corps was thus:

These corps were placed into armies of varying sizes. In addition to the main Taiping forces organised along the above lines, there were also thousands of pro-Taiping groups fielding their own forces of irregulars. This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Captain is a rank or title with various meanings. ... Lieutenant is a military, naval, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ... Sergeant is a rank used in some form by most militaries, police forces, and other uniformed organisations around the world. ... Corporal is a rank in use in some form by most militaries, police forces or other uniformed organizations around the world. ... A Private is a soldier of the lowest military rank (equivalent to Nato Rank Grades OR-1 to OR-3 depending on the force served in). ...


Ethnic structure of the army

Ethnically, the Taiping Heavenly army was formed at the outset largely from two groups: the Hakka, a Hàn Chinese sub-group (客家 pinyin: kèjiā, literally “guest families” or “guest households”), and the Zhuàng (a non-Han ethnic group), both of which were minority peoples as compared to the Hàn Chinese sub-groups that form dominant regional majorities across south China. It is no coincidence that Hóng Xiùquán and the other Taiping royals were Hakka. As a Hàn sub-group, the Hakka were frequently marginalized economically and politically, having migrated to the regions they inhabit only after other Hàn groups were already established there. For example, when the Hakka settled in Guǎngdōng and parts of Guǎngxī, speakers of Cantonese (粵/粤) were already the dominant regional Hàn group there and had been for some time, just as speakers of various dialects of Mín (閩/闽) are locally dominant in Fújiàn province. The Hakka settled throughout South China and beyond, but as latecomers they generally had to establish their communities on rugged, less fertile land scattered on the fringe of the local majority group’s settlements. As their name (“guest households”) suggests, the Hakka were generally treated as migrant newcomers, often subject to hostility and derision from local majority Hàn populations. Consequently, the Hakka, to a greater extent than other Hàn Chinese, have been historically associated with popular unrest and rebellion. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Languages Chinese languages Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... The Zhuang (Simplified Chinese: 壮族; Traditional Chinese: 壯族; Hanyu Pinyin: ; own name: BouчcueÅ‹ÑŒ/Bouxcuengh) are an ethnic group of people who mostly live in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China. ... Ethnolinguistic map of China For a list of ethnic groups in China, see List of ethnic groups in China. ... The definition of a minority group can vary, depending on specific context, but generally refers to either a sociological sub-group that does not form either a majority or a plurality of the total population, or a group that, while not necessarily a numerical minority, is disadvantaged or otherwise has... Spoken Chinese The Chinese spoken language(s) comprise(s) many regional variants. ... Guangdong, often spelt as Kwangtung, is a province on the south coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Guangxi (Zhuang: Gvangjsih; old orthography: ; Simplified Chinese: 广西; Traditional Chinese: 廣西; Pinyin: GuÇŽngxÄ«; Wade-Giles: Kuang-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Kwangsi), full name Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Zhuang: Gvangjsih Bouxcuengh Swcigih; old orthography: ; Simplified Chinese: 广西壮族自治区; Traditional Chinese: 廣西壯族自治區; Pinyin: GuÇŽngxÄ« Zhuàngzú ZìzhìqÅ«) is a Zhuang autonomous region of... Cantonese is a major dialect group or language of the Chinese language, a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Min (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; POJ: Bân hong-giân; BUC: Mìng huŏng-ngiòng) is a general term for a group of dialects of the Chinese language spoken in the southeastern Chinese province of Fujian as well as by migrants from this province in Guangdong (around Chaozhou-Swatou...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal map spelling: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


The other significant ethnic group in the Taiping army were the Zhuàng (Simplified Chinese: 壮族; pinyin: Zhuàngzú), an indigenous people of Tai origin and China’s largest non-Han ethnic minority group. Over the centuries Zhuàng communities had been adopting Hàn Chinese culture. This was possible because, given the linguistic complexity of south China, where many of the dialects of Han Chinese are not mutually intelligible, Hàn culture in the region accommodates a great deal of linguistic diversity, so the Zhuàng could be absorbed as if the Zhuàng language were just another Hàn Chinese dialect (which it is not). As Zhuàng communities were integrating with the Hàn at different rates, a certain amount of friction between Hàn and Zhuàng was inevitable, with Zhuàng unrest on occasion leading to armed uprisings.[6] The second tier of the Taiping army was an ethnic mix that included many Zhuàng. Prominent at this level was Shí Dákāi (石達開 / 石达开), who was half-Hakka, half-Zhuàng and spoke both languages fluently, making him quite a rare asset to the Taiping leadership[citation needed]. The Zhuang (in the Zhuang language: BouчcueÅ‹ÑŒ/Bouxcuengh; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) are an ethnic group of people who mostly live in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; Traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of printed contemporary Chinese written language, simplified from traditional Chinese by the Peoples Republic of China in an attempt to promote literacy. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Tai peoples include: the Lao of Laos and Northeast Thailand the Northern Thai (Lanna or Thai Yuan) of Thailand the Thai of Thailand the Shan (Thai Yai) of Burma the Thai Lue of Laos and China (also called Dai) the Nung of China, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam the Black Tai (Tai... Ethnolinguistic map of China For a list of ethnic groups in China, see List of ethnic groups in China. ... Chinese forms part of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Chinese forms part of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


In the later stages of the Taiping rebellion, the number of Hàn Chinese in the army from Hàn groups other than the Hakka increased substantially.[citation needed] However, the Hakka and the Zhuàng (who constituted as much as 25% of the Taiping army), as well as other non-Hàn ethnic minority groups (many of them of Tai origin related to the Zhuàng ), continued to feature prominently in the rebellion throughout its duration, with virtually no leaders emerging from any Hàn Chinese group other than the Hakka.[citation needed]


Social structure of the army

Socially and economically, the Taipings came almost exclusively from the lowest classes. Many of the southern Taiping troops were former miners, especially those coming from the Zhuang. Very few Taipings, even in the leadership caste, came from the imperial bureaucracy. Almost none were landlords and in occupied territories landlords were often executed. In this sense the Taiping army was a prototype for the People's Liberation Army of the twentieth century. A landlord, is the owner of a house, apartment, condominium, or real estate which is rented or leased to an individual or business, who is called the tenant. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ...


Imperial Army

Opposing these forces was an imperial army with a size of 2 million to 5 million regulars along with hundreds of thousands of regional militias and foreign mercenaries operating in support. Among the imperial forces was the elite Ever Victorious Army, consisting of Chinese soldiers led by a European officer corps (see Frederick Townsend Ward and Charles Gordon). A particularly famous imperial force was the Xiang Army of Zeng Guofan. Lebanese Kataeb militia A Militia is an organization of citizens to provide defense, emergency or paramilitary service, or those engaged in such activity. ... A mercenary is a person who takes part in an armed conflict who is not a national of a Party to the conflict and is motivated to take part in the hostilities essentially by the desire for private gain and, in fact, is promised, by or on behalf of a... Charles Chinese Gordon, the most famous commander of the Ever Victorious Army The Ever Victorious Army (Chinese: 常勝軍; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chang-Sheng Chün) was the name given to an imperial army in late-19th century China. ... In military organizations, an officer is a member of the service who holds a position of responsibility. ... Frederick Townsend Ward (1831-1862) was a sailor, mercenary and soldier of fortune famous for his military victories for Imperial China during the Taiping Rebellion. ... Chinese Gordon as Governor of Sudan Major-General Charles George Gordon, CB (28 January 1833 – 26 January 1885), known as Chinese Gordon, Gordon Pasha, and Gordon of Khartoum, was a British army officer and administrator. ... General Zeng Guofan Marquess Zēng Guófán, (t. ...


Although keeping accurate records was something Imperial China traditionally did very well, the decentralized nature of the Imperial war effort (relying on regional forces) and the fact that the war was a civil war and therefore very chaotic meant that reliable figures are impossible to find. The destruction of the Heavenly Kingdom also meant that any records it possessed were destroyed. A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ...


The Heavenly Kingdom's policies

Within the land that they controlled, the Taiping Heavenly Army established a theocratic and highly militarised rule. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... General Augusto Pinochet (sitting) as head of the newly established military junta in Chile, September 1973. ...

However, the rule was remarkably ineffective, haphazard and brutal; all efforts were concentrated on the army, and civil administration was very poor. Rule was established in the major cities but the land outside the urban areas was little regarded. Even though polygamy was banned, it was believed that Hong Xiuquan had 88 concubines. Many high-ranking Taiping officials kept concubines as a matter of prerogative, and lived as de facto kings. To examine somebody or something is to inspect it closely, hence an examination is a detailed inspection or analysis of an object or person. ... The imperial examinations (科舉, kējǔ) in dynastic China determined positions in the civil service, which had promoted upward mobility among the people for centuries. ... Confucius (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kung-fu-tzu, lit. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... This page deals with property as ownership rights. ... A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the position of the earth on its revolution around the sun (or equivalently the apparent position of the sun moving on the celestial sphere). ... A lunar calendar is a calendar oriented at the moon phase. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... X-ray of bound feet. ... Faithfulness redirects here. ... This article does not adequately cite its references. ... The term gambling has had many different meanings depending on the cultural and historical context in which it is used. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in genus Nicotiana. ... Functional group of an alcohol molecule. ... The term polygamy (many marriages in late Greek) is used in related ways in social anthropology, sociobiology, and sociology. ... Concubinage refers to the state of a woman or youth in an ongoing, quasi-matrimonial relationship with a man of higher social status. ... Slave redirects here. ... Whore redirects here. ...


Theology

Although ostensibly Christian, the "Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace" has long been considered heretical by major branches of Christianity. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A Christian () is a person who... Look up Heresy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The movement's founder, Hong Xiuquan, had tried and failed to earn his shengyuan civil service degree numerous times. After one such failure, Hong overheard a Chinese Protestant missionary preaching and took home some Bible tracts, including a pamphlet titled "Good Words for Exhorting the Age." Then, in 1843, after his final failure, he had what some regard as a nervous breakdown and others as a mystical revelation, connecting his in-depth readings of the Christian tracts to strange dreams he had been having for the past six years. In his dreams, a bearded man with golden hair gave him a sword, and, with a younger man Hong addressed as "Elder Brother," taught him how to slay evil spirits (Spence 1999, 172).


Based on his readings, Hong Xiuquan came to believe that the figures in his dreams were God the Father and Jesus Christ and that they were revealing his destiny as a slayer of demons and the leader of a new Heavenly Kingdom on Earth[5].


Hong developed a literalist understanding of the Bible, which soon gave rise to a unique theology. He rejected the doctrine of the Trinity -- only the Father was truly God. Jesus Christ was the Father's firstborn Son, with Hong Xiuquan himself being the Father's second Son and the younger brother of Jesus. It was said that when foreign missionaries later explained to Hong Xiuquan that Jesus was the Father's only Son, he simply crossed out the word "only". The Holy Spirit, for Hong, was nothing more than a "Holy Wind" (a belief based on the poor translation skills of Christian missionaries; the Latin root spirit- is literally breath); in fact, Yang Xiuqing later took the title "Holy Wind the Comforter", as he had become the Taiping leader who had most of the political power during the rebellion and was keen to gain titles. Yang Xiuqing's religious motivations are disputed. This article or section contains too many quotations for an encyclopedic entry. ... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Two Mormon missionaries A missionary is traditionally defined as a propagator of religion who works to convert those outside that community; someone who proselytizes. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream Christianity, the... Yang Xiuqing (Chinese 杨秀清, Wade-Giles Yang Hsiu-Ching), (died September 2/3, 1856), organizer and commander-in-chief of the Taiping Rebellion. ...


Based on his readings and personal revelations, Hong Xiuquan added a third group of books (in addition to the Old Testament and the New Testament) to the Taiping regime's Bible. Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ...


Currency

In its first year, the Heavenly Kingdom minted coins that were 23 mm to 26 mm and around 4.1 g. The inscription 太平天囯 ("The Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace") was on the front, where "Kingdom" was written in a non-standard form of the character (, instead of /), and 聖寶 ("Holy Treasure") on the back. A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ...


Administration

Ranked below the King of Heaven (天王), Hong Xiuquan (洪秀全), the territory was divided among provincial rulers called kings or princes, initially there were five — the Kings of the Four Quarters and the King of the Yi (meaning flanks). Of the original rulers, the West King and South King were killed in combat in 1852. The East King was murdered by the North King during a coup d'etat in 1856, and the North King himself was subsequently killed. The kings' names were: Types of administrative and/or political territories include: A legally administered territory, which is a non-sovereign geographic area that has come under the authority of another government. ... King and kings redirect here. ... The term prince, from the Latin root princeps, is used for a member of the highest ranks of the aristocracy or the nobility. ...

  • South King (南王), Feng Yunshan (馮雲山) (–1852)
  • East King (東王), Yang Xiuqing (楊秀清) (–1856)
  • West King (西王), Xiao Chaogui (蕭朝貴) (–1852)
  • North King (北王), Wei Changhui (韋昌輝) (–1856)
  • Yi King (翼王), Shi Dakai (石達開) (captured and executed by Qing Imperials in 1863)

The later leaders of the movement were 'Princes': Feng Yunshan was an important leader during the Taiping Rebellion against the Qing government 1850-1864. ... Yang Xiuqing (Chinese 杨秀清, Wade-Giles Yang Hsiu-Ching), (died September 2/3, 1856), organizer and commander-in-chief of the Taiping Rebellion. ... Xiao Chaogui was an important leader during the Taiping Rebellion against the Qing government 1850-1864. ... Wei Changhui was the North King of the Taiping Rebellion. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

  • Zhong Prince (忠王), Li Xiucheng (李秀成) (1823–1864, captured and executed by Qing Imperials)
  • Ying Prince (英王), Chen Yucheng (陳玉成) (1837–1862)
  • Gan Prince (干王), Hong Rengan (洪仁玕 Hóng Rēngān) (1822–1864, executed), cousin of Hong Xiuquan
  • Fu Prince (福王), Hong Renda (洪仁達) (executed by Qing Imperials in 1864), Hong Xiuquan's second eldest brother
  • Tian Gui (Tien Kuei) (田貴?) (–1864, executed)

Other princes include: Li Xiucheng (李秀成, 1823-1864), eminent military leader of the Taiping Rebellion. ... Chen Yu-cheng (c. ... Hong Rengan (Chinese Language:Chinese:洪仁玕 - Wade-Jiles: Hung Jen-kan; 1822-1864) was an important leader of the Taiping Rebellion. ...

  • An Prince (安王), Hong Renfa (洪仁發), Hong Xiuquan's eldest brother
  • Yong Prince (勇王), Hong Rengui (洪仁貴)
  • Fu Prince (福王), Hong Renfu (洪仁富)

Further reading

  • Jonathan Spence, God's Chinese Son: The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom of Hong Xiuquan (1996) ISBN 0-393-03844-0
  • Thomas H. Reilly, The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom: Rebellion and the Blasphemy of Empire (2004) ISBN 0-295-98430-9
  • Lindley, Augustus, "Ti-ping Tien-Kwoh: The History of the Ti-Ping Revolution" (1866, reprinted 1970) OCLC 3467844
  • Hsiu-ch°êng Li, translator, "The Autobiography of the Chung-Wang (Confession of the Loyal Prince)" (reprinted 1970) ISBN 9780275027230
  • Carr, Caleb, "The Devil Soldier : The American Soldier of Fortune Who Became a God in China" (1994) ISBN 0-679-76128-4

OCLC Online Computer Library Center was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center (OCLC). ...

Taiping Rebellion in popular culture

  • Both China's CCTV and Hong Kong's ATV made historical dramas about the Taiping Rebellion. The series on CCTV ran for 50 episodes.
  • A strategy computer game based on the Taiping Rebellion has been made in China, and is primarily available in mainland China and Taiwan. The player can play as either the Qing government or the Taiping Rebels.
  • Robert Carter's historical novel "Barbarians" (Orion, 1998) ISBN: 0-75281-339-0, deals in detail with the rebellion and the politics surrounding it.
  • Taiping society — in some sources, the Heavenly King himself, is given credit for developing the popular Chinese game of Mahjong. Mahjong tile designs form the basis of the computer memory game Shanghai.
  • Flashman and the Dragon (1986) — A portion of the memoirs of the fictional Harry Paget Flashman recounting his adventures during the Anglo-Chinese Second Opium War and Taiping Rebellion.
  • The Consumer Goods' song "Taiping Riverboat" from their 2006 album "Pop Goes the Pigdog!" tells of the construction of Nanjing and the subsequent defense of the Heavenly Kingdom through a first-person narrative.

China Central Television or Chinese Central Television, commonly abbreviated as CCTV (Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is the major broadcast television network in Mainland China. ... Asia Television Limited (ATV) (Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was Hong Kongs first television station under Rediffusion. ... A computer game is a game composed of a computer-controlled virtual universe that players interact with in order to achieve a defined goal or set of goals. ... ... Robert Carter An English novelist. ... Tian Wang (天王), translatable as either heavenly prince or heavenly king, was a Chinese regal title that was most frequently used during the Sixteen Kingdoms era, among the kingdoms founded by members of the Wu Hu tribes, often used as an intermediate stage from claiming a prince/king (王, wang) title to... Mahjong (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Cantonese: Màhjeung; other common English spellings include mahjongg, majiang, and hyphenated forms such as mah-jong or mah-jongg) is a game for four players that originated in China. ... Mahjong (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Cantonese: Màhjeung; other common English spellings include mahjongg, majiang, and hyphenated forms such as mah-jong or mah-jongg) is a game for four players that originated in China. ... A Shanghai solitaire in Dragon formation. The same solitaire, with free tiles highlighted. ... Flashman and the Dragon is a 1986 novel by George MacDonald Fraser. ... “Flashman” redirects here. ... Combatants Qing China United Kingdom French Empire Commanders Unknown Michael Seymour James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin Jean-Baptiste Louis Gros The Second Opium War or Arrow War was a war of the United Kingdom and France against the Qing Dynasty of China from 1856 to 1860. ... Pop Goes the Pigdog! album cover, 2006 The Consumer Goods are a Canadian indie rock/pop band hailing from Winnipeg, Manitoba. ...

References

  1. ^ Userserols. "Userserols." Statistics of Wars, Oppressions and Atrocities of the Nineteenth Century. Retrieved on 2007-04-11.
  2. ^ Shangri-la-river. "Shangri-la-river." The Bridge section. Retrieved on 2007-04-11.
  3. ^ Afe.easia. "Columbia.edu." "China's Population Growth throughout history." Retrieved on 2007-04-11.
  4. ^ John King Fairbank, The Great Chinese Revolution 1800-1985 (New York: Harper & Row, 1986), 81.
  5. ^ a b Wsu.edu. "Wsu.edu." Taiping Rebellion. Retrieved on 2007-04-11.
  6. ^ Ramsey, Robert, S. (1987). The Languages of China. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 167, 232-236. ISBN 0-691-06694-9. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Spence, Jonathan D. The Search for Modern China. New York: Norton, 1999.

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Taiping Rebellion
The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, 1851–1864
Personal Name Period of Reign Era Names "Nian Hao 年號" (and their according range of years)
Hong Xiuquan – 洪秀全
August 1851 – May 1864
Yannian (元年 Yuánnián) 1851–1864
Hong Tianguifu – 洪天貴福
May 1864 – August 1864
None

  Results from FactBites:
 
Taiping Rebellion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1613 words)
The Taiping Rebellion (1851–1864) was perhaps the bloodiest civil war in human history, a clash between the forces of the Qing Empire in China and those inspired by a Hakka self-proclaimed mystic named Hong Xiuquan, a Christian convert who had claimed that he was the new Messiah and younger brother of Jesus Christ.
In this sense the Taiping army was a prototype for the People's Liberation Army of the twentieth century.
The Nian Rebellion (捻軍起義) (1853–1868), and several Muslim rebellions in the southwest (1855–1873) and the northwest (1862–1877) were led by the remnants of the Taiping rebels.
Taiping rebellion - definition of Taiping rebellion - Labor Law Talk Dictionary (1058 words)
The Taiping Rebellion (1851 - 1864) was one of the bloodiest conflicts in history, a clash between the forces of Imperial China and those inspired by a Hakka self-proclaimed mystic named Hong Xiuquan, who was also a Christian convert.
There was also the Nian Rebellion (捻軍起義) (1853 - 1868), and several Muslim rebellions in the southwest (1855 - 1873) and the northwest (1862 - 1877).
The Heavenly Kingdom of Taiping - 1851 - 1864
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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