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Encyclopedia > Taiga
The taiga is found throughout the high northern latitudes, between the tundra, and the steppes.
The taiga is found throughout the high northern latitudes, between the tundra, and the steppes.

Taiga (pronounced /ˈtaɪgə/, from Mongolian) is a biome characterized by coniferous forests. Covering most of inland Alaska, Canada, Sweden, Finland, inland Norway and Russia (especially Siberia), as well as parts of the extreme northern continental United States (Northern Minnesota, Upstate New York, New Hampshire, and Maine), northern Kazakhstan and Japan (Hokkaidō), the taiga is the world's largest terrestrial biome. In Canada, boreal forest is the term used to refer to the southern part of this biome, while "taiga" is used to describe the more barren northern areas of the Arctic tree line. Taiga or Tayga may refer to: Taiga, a biome characterized by coniferous forests Tayga (town), a town in Kemerovo Oblast, Russia Taiga drama, a series of year-long Japanese historical dramas. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1262x628, 28 KB) Based on map located on commons by user Vzb83. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1262x628, 28 KB) Based on map located on commons by user Vzb83. ... This article is about the geographical term. ... For other uses, see Tundra (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ecological zone type. ... A biome is a climate and geographical area of ecologically similar communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms, often referred to as ecosystems. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... The continental United States is a term referring to the United States situated on the North American continent. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... The areas highlighted in YELLOW and GREEN are those which are considered to be a bona fide part of Upstate New York from the perspective of New York City. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ...   literally North Sea Circuit, Ainu: Mosir), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is Japans second largest island and the largest of its 47 prefectural-level subdivisions. ... For the fast food restaurant chain, see Arctic Circle Restaurants. ... In this view of an alpine tree-line, the distant line looks particularly sharp. ...

Since North America and Eurasia were recently connected by the Bering land bridge, a number of animal and plant species (more animals than plants) were able to colonize both continents and are distributed throughout the taiga biome. Others differ regionally, typically with each genus having several distinct species, each occupying different regions of the taiga. Taigas also have some small-leaved deciduous trees like birch, alder, willow, and aspen; mostly in areas escaping the most extreme winter cold. However, the deciduous larch is coping with the coldest winters on the northern hemisphere in eastern Siberia. The southernmost part of the taiga also has trees like oak, maple, and elm scattered among the conifers. North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... Nautical chart of Bering Strait, site of former land bridge between Asia and North America The Bering land bridge, also known as Beringia, was a land bridge roughly 1,000 miles (1,600 km) north to south at its greatest extent, which joined present-day Alaska and eastern Siberia at... For other uses, see Deciduous (disambiguation). ... Species Many species; see text and classification Birch is the name of any tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, closely related to the beech/oak family, Fagaceae. ... Species About 20-30 species, see text. ... Species About 350, including: Salix acutifolia - Violet Willow Salix alaxensis - Alaska Willow Salix alba - White Willow Salix alpina - Alpine Willow Salix amygdaloides - Peachleaf Willow Salix arbuscula - Mountain Willow Salix arbusculoides - Littletree Willow Salix arctica - Arctic Willow Salix atrocinerea Salix aurita - Eared Willow Salix babylonica - Peking Willow Salix bakko Salix barrattiana... For other uses, see Aspen (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Larch (disambiguation). ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... For other uses, see Maple (disambiguation). ... Species See Elm species, varieties, cultivars and hybrids Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees making up the genus Ulmus, family Ulmaceae, found throughout the Northern Hemisphere from Siberia to Indonesia, Mexico to Japan. ...


Climate and geography

White Spruce taiga, Denali Highway, Alaska Range, Alaska
White Spruce taiga, Denali Highway, Alaska Range, Alaska

The taiga biome has a harsh continental climate with a very large temperature range between summer and winter, classified as "Dfc" or "Dfb" in the Köppen climate classification scheme. Aside from the tundra and permanent ice caps, it is the coldest biome on Earth. High latitudes mean that for much of the year the sun does not rise far above the horizon; winters last at least 5-6 months, with average temperatures below freezing. Temperatures vary from −50 °C to 30 °C throughout the whole year, with eight or more months of temperatures averaging below 10 °C. The summers, while short, are generally warm and humid. In general, taiga grows north to the 10 °C July isotherm, occasionally to the 9 °C July isotherm. [1] The southern limit is more variable, depending on rainfall; taiga may be replaced by open steppe woodland south of the 15 °C July isotherm where rainfall is very low, but more typically extends south to the 18 °C July isotherm, and locally where rainfall is higher (notably in eastern Siberia and adjacent northern Manchuria) south to the 20 °C July isotherm. In these warmer areas, the taiga has higher species diversity with more warmth-loving species such as Korean Pine, Jezo Spruce and Manchurian Fir, and merges gradually into mixed temperate forest, or more locally (on the Pacific Ocean coasts of North America and Asia) into coniferous temperate rainforests. Image File history File links Picea_glauca_taiga. ... Image File history File links Picea_glauca_taiga. ... Binomial name (Moench) Voss The White Spruce (Picea glauca) is a medium-sized evergreen tree growing to 15-30 m tall, rarely to 40 m tall, and with a trunk diameter of up to 1 m. ... The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. ... The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. ... For other uses, see Tundra (disambiguation). ... Sol redirects here. ... An isotherm is a line of equal or constant temperature on a graph, plot, or map; an isopleth of temperature. ... This article is about the ecological zone type. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Binomial name Pinus koraiensis The Korean Pine (Pinus koraiensis; family Pinaceae) is a species of pine tree that occurs in eastern Asia, in Manchuria in northeast China, Primorsky Krai and Khabarovsk Krai in the far east of Russia, Korea and central Japan. ... Binomial name Picea jezoensis (Siebold & Zucc. ... Binomial name Abies holophylla Maxim. ... Temperate mixed forest in Yunnan, southwest China. ... Temperate rain forests are coniferous or broadleaf forests that occur in the mid-latitudes in areas of high rainfall. ...

The taiga experiences relatively low precipitation throughout the year (200–750 mm annually), primarily as rain during the summer months, but also as fog and snow; as evaporation is also low for most of the year, precipitation exceeds evaporation and is sufficient for dense vegetation growth. Snow may remain on the ground for as long as nine months in the northernmost extensions of the taiga ecozone.[2]

Much of the area currently classified as taiga was recently glaciated. As the glaciers receded, they left depressions in the topography that have since filled with water, creating lakes and bogs (especially muskeg soil), found throughout the taiga. The Wisconsin (in North America), Devensian (in the British Isles), Midlandian (in Ireland), Würm (in the Alps), and Weichsel (in northern central Europe) glaciations are the most recent glaciations of the Pleistocene epoch, which ended around 10,000 BCE. The general glacial advance began about 70,000 BCE, and... A kettle is a landform feature in glaciated terrain. ... Muskeg is a soil type (also a peatland or wetland type called a bog) common in arctic and boreal areas. ...


Taiga soil tends to be young and nutrient-poor; it lacks the deep, organically-enriched profile present in temperate deciduous forests.[3] The thinness of the soil is due largely to the cold; it hinders the development of soil, as well as the ease with which plants can use its nutrients.[4] Fallen leaves and moss can remain on the forest floor for a long time in the cool, moist climate, which limits their organic contribution to the soil; acids from evergreen needles further leach the soil, creating spodosol.[5] Since the soil is acidic due to the falling pine needles, the forest floor has only lichens and some mosses growing on it. It is not good for farming because it is nutrient poor. Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For the American hard rock band, see SOiL. For the System of a Down song, see Soil (song). ... A soil profile is a cross section through the soil which reveals its horizons (layers). ... For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... Podsol (also spelled Podzol, or known as Spodosol) is the typical soil of coniferous, or Boreal forests. ... For other things named Lichen, see: Lichen (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Moss (disambiguation). ...


Black Spruce taiga, Copper River, Alaska.
Black Spruce taiga, Copper River, Alaska.

There are two major types of taiga, closed forest, consisting of many closely-spaced trees with mossy ground cover, and lichen woodland, with trees that are farther-spaced and lichen ground cover; the latter is more common in the northernmost taiga.[6] Image File history File links Picea_mariana_taiga. ... Image File history File links Picea_mariana_taiga. ... Binomial name Picea mariana The Black Spruce (Picea mariana) is a common coniferous tree in North America. ... For other uses, see Lichen (disambiguation). ...

The forests of the taiga are largely coniferous, dominated by larch, spruce, fir, and pine. Evergreen species in the taiga (spruce, fir, and pine) have a number of adaptations specifically for survival in harsh taiga winters, though larch, the most cold-tolerant of all trees, is deciduous. Taiga trees tend to have shallow roots to take advantage of the thin soils, while many of them seasonally alter their biochemistry to make them more resistant to freezing, called "hardening".[7] The narrow conical shape of northern conifers, and their downward-drooping limbs, also help them shed snow.[8] Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † “Conifer” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Larch (disambiguation). ... Species About 35; see text. ... FIR may stand for: finite impulse response (a property of some digital filters) far infrared, i. ... For other uses, see Pine (disambiguation). ... This article is about plant types. ... For other uses, see Deciduous (disambiguation). ... Biochemistry (from Greek: , bios, life and Egyptian kÄ“me, earth[1]) is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. ...

Moss (Ptilium crista-castrensis) cover on the floor of taiga
Moss (Ptilium crista-castrensis) cover on the floor of taiga

Because the sun is low in the horizon for most of the year, it is difficult for plants to generate energy from photosynthesis. Pine and spruce do not lose their leaves seasonally and are able to photosynthesize with their older leaves in late winter and spring when light is good but temperatures are still too low for new growth to commence. The adaptation of evergreen needles limits the water lost due to transpiration and their dark green color increases their absorption of sunlight. Although precipitation is not a limiting factor, the ground freezes during the winter months and plant roots are unable to absorb water, so desiccation can be a severe problem in late winter for evergreens. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,592 × 1,944 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,592 × 1,944 pixels, file size: 2. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Transpiration is the evaporation of excess water from aerial parts and of plants, especially leaves but also stems, flowers and fruits. ...

Although the taiga is dominated by coniferous forests, some broadleaf trees also occur, notably birch, aspen, willow, and rowan. Many smaller herbaceous plants grow closer to the ground. Periodic stand-replacing wildfires (with return times of between 20-200 years) clear out the tree canopies, allowing sunlight to invigorate new growth on the forest floor. For some species, wildfires are a necessary part of the life cycle in the taiga; some, e.g. Jack Pine have cones which only open to release their seed after a fire, dispersing their seeds onto the newly cleared ground. Grasses grow wherever they can find a patch of sun, and mosses and lichens thrive on the damp ground and on the sides of tree trunks. In comparison with other biomes, however, the taiga has a low biological diversity. Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Species Many species; see text and classification Birch is the name of any tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, closely related to the beech/oak family, Fagaceae. ... For other uses, see Aspen (disambiguation). ... Species About 350, including: Salix acutifolia - Violet Willow Salix alaxensis - Alaska Willow Salix alba - White Willow Salix alpina - Alpine Willow Salix amygdaloides - Peachleaf Willow Salix arbuscula - Mountain Willow Salix arbusculoides - Littletree Willow Salix arctica - Arctic Willow Salix atrocinerea Salix aurita - Eared Willow Salix babylonica - Peking Willow Salix bakko Salix barrattiana... Species Sorbus subgenus Sorbus Sorbus aucuparia - European Rowan Sorbus americana - American mountain ash Sorbus cashmiriana - Kashmir Rowan Sorbus commixta - Japanese Rowan Sorbus decora - Showy mountain ash Sorbus glabrescens - White-fruited Rowan Sorbus hupehensis - Hubei Rowan Sorbus matsumurana Sorbus sargentiana - Sargents Rowan Sorbus scalaris - Ladder Rowan Sorbus sitchensis - Sitka mountain... This article is about the plants used in cooking and medicine. ... For other uses, see Wildfire (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Pinus banksiana Lamb. ... For other uses, see Grass (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Moss (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lichen (disambiguation). ...

Coniferous trees are the dominant plants of the taiga biome. A very few species in four main genera are found: the evergreen spruce, fir, and pine, and the deciduous larch or tamarack. In North America, one or two species of fir and one or two species of spruce are dominant. Across Scandanavia and western Russia the Scots pine is a common component of the taiga.


The taiga is home to a number of large herbivorous mammals and smaller rodents. These animals have also adapted to survive the harsh climate. Some of the larger mammals, such as bears, eat during the summer in order to gain weight and then go into hibernation during the winter. Other animals have adapted layers of fur or feathers to insulate them from the cold. A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including milk producing sweat glands, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Suborders Sciuromorpha Castorimorpha Myomorpha Anomaluromorpha Hystricomorpha Rodentia is an order of mammals also known as rodents, characterised by two continuously-growing incisors in the upper and lower jaws which must be kept short by gnawing. ... For other uses, see Bear (disambiguation). ... This article refers to the process of hibernation in biology. ...

A number of wildlife species threatened or endangered with extinction can be found in the Canadian Boreal forest including woodland caribou, grizzly bear and wolverine. Habitat loss due to destructive development, mostly in the form of logging, is the main cause of decline for these species.

Due to the climate, carnivorous diets are an inefficient means of obtaining energy; energy is limited, and most energy is lost between trophic levels. However, predatory birds (owls and eagles) and other smaller carnivores, including foxes and weasels, feed on the rodents. Larger carnivores, such as lynxes and wolves, prey on the larger animals. Omnivores, such as bears and raccoons are fairly common, sometimes picking through human garbage. Sasquatch are often seen here, due to good feeding. Carnivorism redirects here. ... In ecology, the trophic level (Greek trophē, food) is the position that an organism occupies in a food chain - what it eats, and what eats it. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ... For other uses, see Owl (disambiguation). ... Genera Several, see below. ... This article is about the animal. ... For other uses, see Weasel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lynx (disambiguation). ... Wolf Wolf Man Mount Wolf Wolf Prizes Wolf Spider Wolf 424 Wolf 359 Wolf Point Wolf-herring Frank Wolf Friedrich Wolf Friedrich August Wolf Hugo Wolf Johannes Wolf Julius Wolf Max Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf Maximilian Wolf Rudolf Wolf Thomas Wolf As Name Wolf Breidenbach Wolf Hirshorn Other The call... Pigs are omnivores. ... For other uses, see Bear (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Raccoon native range in red, feral range in blue. ...

A considerable number of birds such as Siberian Thrush, White-throated Sparrow and Black-throated Green Warbler, migrate to this habitat to take advantage of the long summer days and abundance of insects found around the numerous bogs and lakes. Of the perhaps 300 species of birds that summer in the taiga, only 30 stay for the winter.[9] These are either carrion-feeding or large raptors that can take live mammal prey, including Golden Eagle, Rough-legged Buzzard, and Raven, or else seed-eating birds, including several species of grouse and crossbills. For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Zoothera sibirica (Pallas, 1776) The Siberian Thrush, Zoothera sibirica, is a member of the Thrush family Turdidae. ... Binomial name Zonotrichia albicollis (Gmelin, 1789) The White-throated Sparrow, Zonotrichia albicollis, is a passerine bird of the American sparrow family Emberizidae. ... Binomial name Dendroica virens (Gmelin,, 1789) The Black-throated Green Warbler, Dendroica virens, is a small songbird of the New World warbler family. ... Flock of Barnacle Geese during autumn migration Bird migration refers to the regular seasonal journeys undertaken by many species of birds. ... Habitat (which is Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species live and grow. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... An American Black Vulture feeding on squirrel carrion For other uses, see Carrion (disambiguation). ... Orders Accipitriformes     Cathartidae     Pandionidae     Accipitridae     Sagittariidae Falconiformes     Falconidae A bird of prey or raptor is a bird that hunts its food, especially one that preys on mammals or other birds. ... For other uses, see Golden Eagle (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Buteo lagopus (Pontoppidan, 1763) The Rough-legged Buzzard (Buteo lagopus), called the Rough-legged Hawk in North America, is a medium-large bird of prey. ... For other uses, see Raven (disambiguation). ... Genera Tetrao Lagopus Falcipennis Centrocercus Bonasa Dendrapagus Tympanuchus Grouse are from the order Galliformes which inhabit temperate and subarctic regions of the northern hemisphere. ... Species Loxia pytyopsittacus Loxia scotia Loxia curvirostra Loxia leucoptera Loxia megaplaga The crossbills are birds in the finch family Fringillidae. ...


Human activities

One of the largest intact areas of boreal forest with no permanent roads, mining, forestry, or hydro development, can be found in Manitoba and Ontario, Canada. Poplar River and the Bloodvein River are two major rivers that run through this area, along the east side of Lake Winnipeg, which is the 11th largest fresh water lake on Earth. This pristine forested area is a proposed World Heritage Site. Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Poplar River may refer to: The Poplar River, a tributary of the Missouri River in Saskatchewan in Canada and Montana in the United States The Poplar River in Minnesota in the United States The town of Poplar River, Manitoba Poplar River (Manitoba) Category: ... Bloodvein River is a pristine river on the East side of Lake Winnipeg, in Manitoba, Canada, with no logging roads nearby. ... Winnipeg Beach, Manitoba, on Lake Winnipeg Lake Winnipeg (52°30′N 97°47′W) is a very large (24,400 km²) lake in central North America, in the province of Manitoba, Canada, about 55 km north of the city of Winnipeg. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...

In Canada, less than 8% of the Boreal forest is protected from development and more than 50% has been allocated to logging companies for cutting [10] . The main form of forestry in the Boreal forest in Canada is clearcutting, where most if not all trees are removed from an area of forest. Clearcut upwards of 110 km² have been recorded in the Canadian Boreal forest. Some of the products from logged Boreal forests include toilet paper, copy paper, newsprint and lumber. However, in most cases forest companies harvest trees to create high value products used for building and value added processing. Pulp is produced by using tree tops, low grade trees, and species which cannot be used for other products. More than 80% of Boreal forest products from Canada are exported for consumption and processing in the United States. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Most companies that harvest in Canadian forests are certified by an independent third party agency such as the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), Sustainable Forests Initiative (SFI), or the Canadian Standards Association (CSA). While the certification process differs between these the various groups all of them include forest stewardship, respect for aboriginal peoples, compliance with local, provincial and/or national environmental laws, forest worker safety, education and training, and other environmental, business and social requirements. The prompt renewal of all harvest sites by planting or natural renewal is also required.


Recent years have seen outbreaks of insect pests in forest-destroying plagues: the spruce-bark beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) in the Yukon Territory, Canada, and Alaska[11]; the aspen-leaf miner; the larch sawfly; the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana)[12]; the spruce coneworm.[13] Species About 35; see text. ... Genera See text. ... For other uses, see Aspen (disambiguation). ... Sawflies are closely related to members of the wasp family. ... Spruce Budworm is a group of closely related insects in the genus Choristoneura. ...

Wikisource has original text related to this article: Boreal Forest Conservation Framework The Boreal Forest Conservation Framework, was adopted December 1, 2003 to preserve the Canadian boreal forest. ... In North America, the belief that fire suppression has substantially reduced the average annual area burned is widely held by resource managers and is often thought to be self-evident. ... The boreal forest or taiga of the North American continent stretches through a majority of Canada and most of central Alaska, extending spottily into the beginning of the Rocky Mountain range in Northern Montana and into New England and the Adirondack Mountains of New York. ... Forest of Pinus sylvestris with an understory of Calluna vulgaris in the Karelian Isthmus Scandinavian and Russian taiga is an ecoregion within the boreal forests/taiga zone as defined by the WWF classification (ecoregion PA0608). ...


  1. ^ Arno & Hammerly 1984, Arno et al. 1995
  2. ^ A.P. Sayre, Taiga, (New York: Twenty-First Century Books, 1994) 16.
  3. ^ Sayre, 19.
  4. ^ Sayre, 19.
  5. ^ Sayre, 19-20.
  6. ^ Sayre, 12-3.
  7. ^ Sayre, 23.
  8. ^ Sayre, 23.
  9. ^ Sayre, 28.
  10. ^ Global Forest Watch Canada 2000. Canada’s Forests At A Crossroads — An Assessment in the Year 2000
  11. ^ http://www.colorado.edu/INSTAAR/AW2004/get_abstr.html?id=88 A New Method to Reconstruct Bark Beetle Outbreaks
  12. ^ http://cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/subsite/budworm
  13. ^ http://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/pubs/journals/pnw_2006_chapin001.pdf


  • Arno, S. F. & Hammerly, R. P. 1984. Timberline. Mountain and Arctic Forest Frontiers. The Mountaineers, Seattle. ISBN 0-89886-085-7
  • Arno, S. F., Worral, J., & Carlson, C. E. (1995). Larix lyallii: Colonist of tree line and talus sites. Pp. 72-78 in Schmidt, W. C. & McDonald, K. J., eds., Ecology and Management of Larix Forests: A Look Ahead. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report GTR-INT-319.
  • Sayre, A. P. (1994). Taiga. New York: Twenty-First Century Books. ISBN 0-8050-2830-7

External links

  • Tundra and Taiga
  • Threats to Boreal Forests (Greenpeace)
  • Rainforest Action Network runs a campaign against lumber giant Weyerhaeuser's logging practices in the Canadian boreal forest
  • Boreal Forests/Taiga (WWF)
  • Arctic and Taiga (Canadian Geographic)
  • Terraformers Canadian Taiga Conservation Foundation
  • Coniferous Forest. Earth Observatory. NASA. [1].
  • Taiga Rescue Network (TRN) A network of NGOs, indigenous peoples or individuals that works to protect the boreal forests.
  • Index of Boreal Forests/Taiga ecoregions at bioimages.vanderbilt.edu
  • The Nature Conservancy and its partners work to protect the Canadian Boreal Forest
  • Slater museum of natural history: Taiga
Terrestrial biomes
Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests · Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests · Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests · Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests · Temperate coniferous forests · Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and shrub · Boreal forests/taiga · Mangrove · Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands · Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands · Flooded grasslands and savannas · Montane grasslands and shrublands · Deserts and xeric shrublands · Tundra
Afrotropic · Antarctic · Australasia · Indomalaya · Nearctic · Neotropic · Oceania · Palearctic

  Results from FactBites:
Taiga Biomes (608 words)
The taiga is the biome of the needleleaf forest.
Taiga is the Russian word for forest and is the largest biome in the world.
Evergreens in the taiga tend to be thin and grow close together.
Taiga Biome (892 words)
Fire is not uncommon in the taiga during the summer.
Precipitation is relatively high in the taiga and falls as snow during the winter and rain during the summer.
A majority of the logging in the taiga is done by clear-cutting, using heavy machinery to remove much of the surrounding forest.
  More results at FactBites »



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