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Alprazolam chemical structure
Alprazolam
Systematic (IUPAC) name
8-Chloro-1-methyl-6-phenyl-4H-
1,2,4-triazolo(4,3-a)(1,4)benzodiazepine
Identifiers
CAS number 28981-97-7
ATC code N05BA12
PubChem 2118
DrugBank APRD00280
Chemical data
Formula C17H13ClN4
Mol. weight 308.8
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 80-90%
Metabolism Hepatic
Half life 6-12 hours
Excretion Renal
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

D (USA) created using bkchem, GIMP This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a systematic way of naming organic chemical compounds. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences and alloys. ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules . ... DrugBank is a database available at the University of Alberta that provides information about thousands of products. ... A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Atomic mass 12. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Atomic mass 35. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 14. ... The molecular mass of a substance (less accurately called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW) is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of medication that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... Metabolism (from Greek μεταβολισμός metabolismos) is the biochemical modification of chemical compounds in living organisms and cells. ... The liver is the largest internal organ of the human body. ... The elimination half-life of a drug (or any xenobiotic agent) refers to the timecourse necessary for the quantity of the xenobiotic agent in the body (or plasma concentration) to be reduced to half of its original level through various elimination processes. ... Excretion is the biological process by which an organism chemically separates waste products from its body. ... Human kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother during pregnancy. ...

Legal status

Schedule IV(US) The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. ... The Controlled Substances Act (CSA), Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970, is the legal foundation of the United States governments fight against the abuse of drugs and other substances. ...

Routes Oral

Alprazolam is a short-acting drug in the benzodiazepine class used to treat anxiety disorders and as an adjunctive treatment for depression. In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body 1. ... alprazolam 2mg tablets The benzodiazepines (pronounced , which are considered minor tranquilizers) are a class of drugs with sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, amnestic and muscle relaxant properties. ... Anxiety disorder is a blanket term covering several different forms of abnormal anxiety, fear, phobia and nervous condition, that come on suddenly and prevent pursuing normal daily routines. ...


Alprazolam was invented by Pfizer and is marketed under the trade name Xanax. Its patent expired in September 1993.[citation needed] Pfizer, Incorporated (NYSE: PFE), is the worlds largest pharmaceutical company based in New York City. ...

Contents

History

Alprazolam was originally marketed as an atypical benzodiazepine, but only classified as anxiety neurosis. Researchers later speculated, however, that alprazolam could be studied for serotonergic effects. On October 20, 1976, Dr. Guy Chouinard was the first to conduct a clinical trial of alprazolam in panic disorder. Patients diagnosed with panic disorder were included among participants in the study. 50 patients were given either the alprazolam or a placebo during an 8-week double-blind controlled study. Results proved that both somatic and psychic anxiety was decreased significantly in those who took the alprazolam, compared to the placebo.


Pharmacology

Alprazolam is a triazolobenzodiazepine, that is, a benzodiazepine with a triazolo-ring attached to its structure. Alprazolam binds to the GABAA subtype of the GABA receptor, increasing inhibitory effects of GABA within the central nervous system. The binding site for benzodiazepines is distinct from the binding site for barbiturates and GABA on the GABA receptor. The GABA receptors are a group of receptors with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as their endogenous ligand. ... Gaba may refer to: Gabâ or gabaa (Philippines), the concept of negative karma of the Cebuano people GABA, the gamma-amino-butyric acid neurotransmitter GABA receptor, in biology, receptors with GABA as their endogenous ligand Gaba 1 to 1, an English conversational school in Japan Marianne Gaba, a US model... Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system (CNS) depressants, and by virtue of this they produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to anesthesia. ...


Unlike other benzodiazepines, alprazolam may also have some antidepressant activity, although clinical evidence of this is lacking. An antidepressant is a medication designed to treat or alleviate the symptoms of clinical depression. ...


Pharmacokinetics

The mechanism of action is not fully understood. Alprazolam is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. The peak plasma concentration is achieved in 1-2 hours. Most of the drug is bound to plasma protein, mainly albumin. Alprazolam is hydroxylated in the liver to α-hydroxyalprazolam, which is also pharmacologically active. This and other metabolites are later excreted in urine as glucuronides. Some of the drug is also excreted in unchanged form. Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... You may be looking for albumen, or egg white. ... Hydroxylation is any chemical process that introduces one or more hydroxyl groups (-OH) into a compound (or radical) thereby oxidising it. ... A metabolite is the product of metabolism. ... Glucuronide is a substance produced by attaching glucuronic acid to another substance with glycosidic bonds. ...


Indications

alprazolam 2mg tablet bottle
alprazolam 2mg tablet bottle

The main medical uses for alprazolam include: Image File history File linksMetadata Alprazolam2mgresize. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Alprazolam2mgresize. ...

  • Treatment of panic disorder, with or without agoraphobia.
    Alprazolam is very effective in preventing panic attacks. However, despite its efficacy, many psychiatrists are reluctant to use alprazolam for this condition because of the possibility of dependence and interdose ("breakthrough") anxiety due to its short-acting nature. An extended-release formulation of alprazolam known as Xanax XR® was introduced in 2001 and is often preferred.
  • Treatment of panic attacks.
    Alprazolam is taken as needed (PRN); 4 to 6 doses per day are the acceptable limit. If dependence seems to develop and/or the limit is exceeded, therapy may be reconsidered and/or discontinued.
  • Long-term treatment of severe anxiety disorders.
    Alprazolam may be used for long-term treatment of anxiety if other therapies either do not work or are contraindicated. Duration of therapy in this case is often four months or longer. The decision to use alprazolam for this purpose must be carefully made by a specialized psychiatrist, taking into account the individual's suffering, quality of life, loss of social performance and risk of dependence.
  • Adjunctive treatment of depression.
    SSRIs (e.g. sertraline or fluoxetine) are often co-administered with alprazolam at the outset of long-term SSRI anxiety treatment in order to counteract the initial anxiogenic (anxiety-producing) effects of SSRI treatment. Tricyclic antidepressants and buspirone are also used with alprazolam in refractory (resistant) cases of generalized anxiety disorder.

A panic attack is a period of intense fear or discomfort, typically with an abrupt onset and usually lasting no more than 30 minutes. ... Agoraphobia is a form of anxiety disorder. ... A panic attack is a period of intense fear or discomfort, typically with an abrupt onset and usually lasting no more than 30 minutes. ... Anxiety disorder is a blanket term covering several different forms of abnormal anxiety, fear, phobia and nervous condition, that come on suddenly and prevent pursuing normal daily routines. ... Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of antidepressants. ... For other uses, see Lustral (disambiguation). ... Fluoxetine hydrochloride is an antidepressant drug used medically in the treatment of depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, bulimia nervosa, premenstrual dysphoric disorder and panic disorder. ... An anxiogenic substance is one that causes anxiety. ... Buspirone (brand-names Ansial®, Ansiced®, Anxiron®, Axoren®, Bespar®, BuSpar®, Buspimen®, Buspinol®, Buspisal®, Narol®) is an anxiolytic agent and a serotonin receptor agonist belonging to the azaspirodecanedione class of compounds. ... General anxiety disorder or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is an anxiety disorder that is characterized by uncontrollable worry about everyday things. ... Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is defined within psychiatry and related fields as a disorder characterized primarily by emotional dysregulation, extreme black and white thinking (believing that something is one of only two possible things, and ignoring any possible in-betweens), and turbulent relationships. ...

Availability

Alprazolam is generally sold in generic form in Italy and the United States. It is also sold under many other brand names, depending on the country:

  • Aceprax® - Uruguay
  • Alplax® - Argentina
  • Alpralid® - Israel
  • Alprax® - India
  • Alviz® - Indonesia
  • Alzolam® - India, Malaysia
  • Apo-Alpraz® - Canada (also made by other companies under different names)
  • Apraz® - Brazil
  • Calmax® - Ireland
  • Constan® - Japan
  • Frontal XR® - (an extended release formulation) Brazil
  • Frontal® - Brazil
  • Frontin® - Hungary, Slovak Republic, Czech Republic
  • Helex® - Croatia, Slovenia
  • Kalma® - Australia
  • Kinax® (景安寧) - Taiwan
  • Ksalol® - Serbia
  • Manorest® - Sri Lanka
  • Misar® - Croatia
  • Neurol® - Czech Republic, Slovak Republic
  • Niravam® - (formulation that dissolves on the tongue) United States
  • Paxal® - Iceland
  • Prazolex® - Romania
  • Ralozam® - Australia
  • Restyl® - Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, India, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Oman, Qatar, Republic of Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates
  • Sedipral® - Paraguay
  • Solanax® - Japan
  • Tafil AP® - (an extended release formulation) Mexico
  • Tafil® - Costa Rica, Denmark, El Salvador, Germany, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Venezuela
  • Trankimazin® - Spain
  • Tranquinal® - Ecuador, Peru
  • Xanax XR® - (an extended release formulation) Israel [1], United States, Portugal
  • Xanax® - Australia, Belgium, Croatia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, New Zealand, Pakistan, Portugal, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States
  • Xanor® - Austria, Finland, Norway, Philippines, South Africa, Sweden
  • Zamhexal® - Australia
  • Zolarem® - Bahrain, Benin, Burkina-Faso, Cyprus, Egypt, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Ivory Coast, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Qatar, Republic of Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra-Leone, South Africa, Sudan, Syria, Tanzania, Tunia, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, Zambia, Zimbabwe
  • Zoldac® - Benin, Burkina-Faso, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, India, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra-Leone, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Tunia, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Packaging

Appearance is generally as follows in the United States.


Alprazolam

Inscriptions on tablet vary depending on manufacturer.
.25 mg White oval tablet scored
.5 mg Peach oval tablet scored (.5 mg and .25 mg Alprazolam may also be found in White round tablet scored)
1 mg Blue oval scored tablet. May also be called a "football."
2 mg White rectangle multi-scored tablet. May also be called a "bar."


Xanax XR®

.5 mg White pentagonal tablet Imprinted "X /0.5"
1 mg Yellow square tablet Imprinted "X / 1"
2 mg Blue round tablet Imprinted "X / 2"
3 mg Green triangular tablet Imprinted "X / 3"


Source: [2]


Side effects

Common side effects of alprazolam can include:

Less common side effects can include: Somnolence (or drowsiness, or hypersomnia) is a state of near-sleep, a strong desire for sleep, or sleeping unusually long periods. ... Look up euphoria in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

  • Fatigue
  • Headache

Rare side effects can include:

Rare paradoxical side effects can include: Sleep apnea (alternatively sleep apnoea) is a common sleep disorder characterized by brief interruptions of breathing during sleep. ... In medicine, hypoventilation exists when ventilation is inadequate (hypo) to perform gas exchange. ... Dysarthria (from new latin dys-, prefix meaning mis-, dis-, accidental + greek -arthro, joint) is an injury or symptom describing minor speech impediments, often slurred speech. ... Orientation is a function of the mind involving awareness of three dimensions: (1) time, (2) place and (3) person. ... Amnesia or amnaesia (see spelling differences) is a condition in which memory is disturbed. ... This page is about a type of dream. ... Jaundice, also known as icterus (attributive adjective: icteric), is a yellowing of the skin, conjuctiva (clear covering over the sclera, or whites of the eyes) and mucous membranes caused by increased levels of bilirubin in the human body (or the body of another red blooded animal). ... Tachycardia is an abnormally rapid beating of the heart, defined as a resting heart rate of 100 or more beats per minute in an average adult. ... Bradycardia, as applied in adult medicine, is defined as a heart rate of under 60 beats per minute, though it is seldom symptomatic until the rate drops below 50 beat/min [1]. It is also less commonly known as brachycardia. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex that is involved in the response to stress; it increases blood pressure, blood sugar levels, may cause infertility in women, and suppresses the immune system. ... Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or corticotropin) is a polypeptide hormone secreted from corticotropes in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland in response to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) released by the hypothalamus. ... Diarrhea or diarrhoea (see spelling differences) is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the ancient Greek word διαρροή = leakage; literally meaning to run through). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause of death in developing countries (particularly among infants), accounting for 5 to 8... Constipation or irregularity, is a condition of the digestive system where a person (or animal) experiences hard feces that are difficult to eliminate; it may be extremely painful, and in severe cases (fecal impaction) lead to symptoms of bowel obstruction. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Look up incontinence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

  • Nervousness
  • Anxiety
  • Agitation
  • Rage
  • Insomnia
  • Muscle spasms and rigidity

Paradoxical side effects are usually a result of too high a dose (sometimes deliberate) and/or combination with alcohol. Adjusting the dosage usually causes them to cease. In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which a hydroxyl group (-OH) is bound to a carbon atom of an alkyl or substituted alkyl group. ...


Concentrations of alprazolam in cigarette smokers may be reduced up to 50% when compared to non-smokers.[3].


Long-term treatment with alprazolam may lead to physical and/or psychological dependence. Users often develop a tolerance to the drug's sedative effects, though tolerance to its anxiolytic efficacy rarely develops when used at theraputic dosage levels. An anxiolytic is any drug or therapy used in the treatment of anxiety. ...


There is now a general consensus among many psychiatrists that alprazolam (a so-called 'high-potency' benzodiazepine) poses a particularly high risk for misuse, abuse and dependence. Withdrawal after long-term treatment should be done slowly over a period of weeks (or even months) to avoid serious withdrawal symptoms such as agitation, panic attacks, rebound anxiety, muscle cramps and seizures. Some patients may benefit from a substitution with diazepam or clonazepam as these drugs remain in the bloodstream longer and have a somewhat lower risk of dependency. This article is about the medical term, epileptic seizure, as distinct from psychogenic non-epileptic seizure. ... Diazepam (IPA: ), marketed under brand names Valium, Stesolid, Seduxen, Bosaurin and Apozepam)[1] is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Clonazepam (marketed by Roche under the trade-name Klonopin® in the United States and Rivotril® in Europe, Brazil and Canada) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ...


A proper dosage of Alprzolam is 4mg per day. At doses higher than this, patients have an increased potential for emotional and physical dependence. Patients who have this dependence may find it difficult to discontinue use and should seek a healthcare professional immediately so they may put you on a proper regimen to discontinue use. In addition to dependence, this medication may cause withdrawal symptoms, and in some cases has been known to cause seizures. The use of this medication may also cause a reaction called rebound anxiety. When a patient discontinues use, they may experience the symptoms they had before taking medication, but this is usually short lived. Symptoms may also be accompanied other reactions including changes in mood, anxiety or sleep. Rebound anxiety is usually a result of abrupt discontinuation of this medication; patients who taper off are less likely to experience these symptoms. (www.xanax.com)


Contraindications

Use of alprazolam should be avoided in individuals with the following conditions:

Women who are pregnant should avoid alprazolam. Children of mothers who are taking alprazolam are considered at risk for withdrawal symptoms during the postnatal period. Some children born under these conditions have been reported to have neonatal flaccidity and respiratory problems. Likewise, nursing mothers should avoid alprazolam due to the fact that Benzodiazepines are known to be passed into breast milk. This can cause infants to become lethargic and loose weight. [4] [5] Myasthenia gravis (MG, Latin: grave muscle weakness) is a neuromuscular disease leading to fluctuating weakness and fatiguability. ... Ataxia (from Greek ataxiā, meaning failure to put in order) is unsteady and clumsy motion of the limbs or trunk due to a failure of the gross coordination of muscle movements. ... In medicine, hypoventilation exists when ventilation is inadequate (hypo) to perform gas exchange. ... Hepatitis is a gastroenterological disease, featuring inflammation of the liver. ... Cirrhosis is a consequence of chronic liver disease characterized by replacement of liver tissue by fibrotic scar tissue as well as regenerative nodules, leading to progressive loss of liver function. ... Sleep apnea (alternatively sleep apnoea) is a common sleep disorder characterized by brief interruptions of breathing during sleep. ... alprazolam 2mg tablets The benzodiazepines (pronounced , which are considered minor tranquilizers) are a class of drugs with sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, amnestic and muscle relaxant properties. ...


Elderly individuals should be cautious in the use of alprazolam due to the possibility of increased sensitivity to side effects, especially loss of coordination and drowsiness. [6]


Eating grapefruits or drinking grapefruit juice should be avoided by those taking alprazolam.


Patients at a High Risk for Abuse and Dependence

At a particularly high risk for misuse, abuse, and dependence are:

  • Patients with a history of alcohol or drug abuse and/or dependence
  • Emotionally unstable patients
  • Patients with severe personality disorders
  • Patients with chronic pain or other physical disorders

Patients from the aforementioned group should be monitored very closely during therapy for signs of abuse and development of dependence. Discontinue therapy if any of these signs are noted. Long-term therapy in these patients is not recommended.


Recreational use

alprazolam 2mg tablets
alprazolam 2mg tablets

Alprazolam, like all benzodiazepines, has the potential for abuse, especially in individuals prone to addiction. Although it is not manufactured illegally, it is often diverted to the black market. The state of relaxation, anxiolysis, disinhibition and euphoria induced by benzodiazepines is the main reason for their illicit use. Image File history File linksMetadata Xanax2mg. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Xanax2mg. ...


Injecting alprazolam is highly dangerous. When crushed in water, it will not dissolve, potentially causing severe damage to arteries. While it is somewhat soluble in alcohol, the combination of the two, particularly when injected, can easily cause a serious (and potentially fatal) overdose. Alprazolam may also be insufflated. Section of an artery An artery or arterial is also a class of highway. ... In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which a hydroxyl group (-OH) is bound to a carbon atom of an alkyl or substituted alkyl group. ...


Alprazolam is sometimes used with other recreational drugs to relieve the panic or distress of dysphoric reactions to psychedelics such as LSD and also to promote sleep in the "come-down" period following use of recreational drugs with stimulant or insomniac properties (such as LSD, cocaine, amphetamines, DXM, and MDMA). It is also often used in conjunction with marijuana or heroin to potentiate the relaxing effect. It is also sometimes used by heroin addicts to suppress withdrawal symptoms. Look up dysphoria in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The word psychedelic is a neologism coined from the Greek words for mind, ψυχη (psyche), and manifest, δηλειν (delein). ... For other articles with similar names, see LSD (disambiguation). ... For other articles with similar names, see LSD (disambiguation). ... Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... Amphetamine (alpha-methyl-phenethylamine), also known as speed or crank, is a stimulant used to diminish the appetite, control weight, and treat disorders including narcolepsy and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. ... This article needs cleanup. ... ecstasy and religious ecstasy MDMA, most commonly known today by the street name ecstasy, is a synthetic entactogen of the phenethylamine family whose primary effect is to stimulate the brain to rapidly secrete large amounts of serotonin, causing a general sense of openness, empathy, energy, euphoria, and well-being. ... A Cannabis sativa plant The drug cannabis, also called marijuana, is produced from parts of the cannabis plant, primarily the cured flowers and gathered trichomes of the female plant. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Legal status

In the United States, alprazolam is a prescription drug and is assigned to Schedule IV of the Controlled Substances Act by the Drug Enforcement Administration. Internationally, alprazolam is included under the United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances[7]. The Controlled Substances Act (CSA), Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970, is the legal foundation of the United States governments fight against the abuse of drugs and other substances. ... The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 (21 USC 801 et sequitur). ... Since 1973, the DEA has enforced the drug laws in the United States. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ...


References

External links

  • Link page to external chemical sources.


Benzodiazepines edit

Adinazolam, Alprazolam, Bromazepam, Brotizolam, Camazepam, Chlordiazepoxide, Cinolazepam, Clobazam, Clonazepam, Clorazepate, Clotiazepam, Cloxazolam, Diazepam, Doxefazepam, Estazolam , Ethyl loflazepate, Etizolam, Fludiazepam, Flunitrazepam, Flurazepam, Gidazepam, Halazepam, Ketazolam, Loprazolam, Lorazepam, Lormetazepam, Benzodiazepine tablets The benzodiazepines are a class of drugs with hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, amnestic and muscle relaxant properties. ... Adinazolam is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Bromazepam (marketed under brand names Compendium®, Creosedin®, Durazanil®, Lectopam®, Lexaurin®, Lexomil®, Lexotan®, Lexotanil®, Normoc®, Somalium®) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Brotizolam (marketed under brand name Lendormin) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Camazepam (marketed under the brand name Albego) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Chlordiazepoxide (marketed under the trade name Librium®) is a hypnotic drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Cinolazepam is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Clobazam is triazolobenzodiazepine, also known as a 1,5-benzodiazepine, meaning that its diazepine ring has its nitrogen atoms at the 1 and 5 positions instead of the usual 1 and 4. ... Clonazepam (marketed by Roche under the trade-name Klonopin® in the United States and Rivotril® in Europe, Brazil and Canada) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Clorazepate (marketed under the brand names Tranxene® and Tranxilium®) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Clotiazepam (marketed under brand name Trecalmo) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Cloxazolam (marketed under brand name Sepazon) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Diazepam (IPA: ), marketed under brand names Valium, Stesolid, Seduxen, Bosaurin and Apozepam)[1] is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Doxefazepam (marketed under brand name Doxans) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Estazolam (ProSom®) is a benzodiazepine commonly prescribed for short-term treatment of insomnia. ... Ethyl loflazepate (marketed under brand name Meilax®) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Etizolam (marketed under brand name Sedekopan) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Fludiazepam (marketed under the brand name Erispan) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Flunitrazepam (formerly marketed under the trade name Rohypnol in North America, pronounced ) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Flurazepam (marketed as Dalmane) is a benzodiazepine derivative which is used as a hypnotic. ... Gidazepam is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Halazepam is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Ketazolam (marketed under brand names Anseren, Anxon, Contamex, Loftran, Marcen, Sedotime, Solatran, Unakalm) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Loprazolam is a medicine of the Benzodiazepine family. ... Lorazepam (marketed under the brand names Ativan®, Temesta®, Tavor®) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Lormetazepam (Noctamid®, Ergocalm®, Loramet®, also known as methyllorazepam, is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ...


 
 

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