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Encyclopedia > Taekwondo

Taekwondo

A WTF taekwondo sparring match
Also known as Taekwon-Do, Tae Kwon-Do, Tae Kwon Do
Focus Striking
Country of origin Flag of Korea Korea
Olympic Sport Since 2000 (WTF regulations)
Taekwondo
Hangul 태권도
Hanja 跆拳道
Revised Romanization Taegwondo
McCune-Reischauer T'aekwŏndo

Taekwondo (태권도; IPA: /tɛkwɒndoʊ/) is a Korean martial art and Chinese combat sport. Taekwondo is the national sport of South Korea. It is also regarded as the world's most popular martial art in terms of number of practitioners,[1] and sparring, or kyeorugi, is an official Olympic sporting event. In Korean hanja, tae (태; 跆) means to trample with the foot; kwon (권; 拳) means fist; and do (도; 道) means way, taekwondo is loosely translated as to the foot and hand way. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (667x1000, 170 KB) A Taekwondo fight. ... The World Taekwondo Federation (WTF) is the International Federation (IF) member of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) for the competition events of the martial art of Taekwondo. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... The World Taekwondo Federation (WTF) is the International Federation (IF) member of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) for the competition events of the martial art of Taekwondo. ... Jamo redirects here. ... Korean writing systems Hangul Hanja Hyangchal Gugyeol Idu Mixed script Korean romanization Revised Romanization of Korean McCune-Reischauer Yale Romanization Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. ... Korean writing systems Hangul Hanja Hyangchal Gugyeol Idu Mixed script Korean romanization Revised Romanization of Korean McCune-Reischauer Yale Romanization The Revised Romanization of Korean is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea. ... McCune-Reischauer romanization is one of the two most widely used Korean language romanization systems, along with the Revised Romanization of Korean, which replaced (a modified) McCune-Reischauer as the official romanization system in South Korea in 2000. ... Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... A combat sport is a competitive sport involving the use of punch, kick, throw, joint locks, and/or a weapon for attack and defence. ... A National sport is a sport which has been declared to be the sport of a nation by its government such as Lacrosse and ice hockey in Canada. ... Sparring in wushu (sport) using a dao (sword) and gun (staff) Sparring is a form of training common to many martial arts. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... Korean writing systems Hangul Hanja Hyangchal Gugyeol Idu Mixed script Korean romanization Revised Romanization of Korean McCune-Reischauer Yale Romanization Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. ...


Taekwondo's popularity has resulted in the varied evolution of the martial art into several domains: as with many other arts, it combines combat techniques, self-defense, sport, exercise, meditation and philosophy. This article is about evolution in biology. ... Self defense refers to actions taken by a person to defend onself, ones property or ones home. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ...


There are two main systems of Taekwondo: Kukkiwon system, whos sparring system named "Shihap Kyorugi" is an event at the summer Olympics and is governed by the World Taekwondo Federation (WTF); and International Taekwondo Federation (ITF), which was founded by General Choi Hong Hi, the father of Taekwondo. Although there are great doctrinal and technical differences among the two taekwondo styles and organizations, the art in general emphasizes kicks thrown from a mobile stance, employing the leg's greater reach and power (compared to the arm). Circular motions that generate power are of central importance. Also important to the generation of power is the movement of the hips while performing a punch or a block. Taekwondo training generally includes a system of blocks, punches, and open-handed strikes and may also include various take-downs or sweeps, throws, and joint locks. Kukkiwon, also known as the World Taekwondo Headquarters, is an organization in the Gangnam-gu district of Seoul, South Korea. ... Olympic Games Summer Olympic Games Medal count Winter Olympic Games Medal count Olympic sports Medal counts Participating NOCs Olympic symbols Olympics WikiProject Olympics Portal Athens 2004 • Beijing 2008 Torino 2006 • Vancouver 2010 ... The World Taekwondo Federation (WTF) is the International Federation (IF) member of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) for the competition events of the martial art of Taekwondo. ... The International Taekwon-Do Federation (ITF) was founded in 1966 by General Choi Hong Hi six years before his exile from South Korea in 1972 and seven years before the WTF. His first visit of good will to North Korea was in 1980, when he introduced Taekwon-Do there. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Doctrine, from Latin doctrina, (compare doctor), means a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the body of teachings in a branch of knowledge or belief system. ...

Contents

History

See also: Korean martial arts

The oldest Korean martial art was an amalgamation of unarmed combat styles developed by the three rival Korean kingdoms of Goguryeo, Silla and Baekje.[2] Young men were trained in unarmed combat techniques to develop strength, speed, and survival skills. The most popular of these techniques was subak, with taekkyeon being the most popular of the segments of subak. Practitioners from a Korean martial arts school in Calgary do a demonstration Korean martial arts (Hangul: 무술 or 무예, Hanja: 武術 or 武藝) are the martial arts that are native to, or were adapted and modified by, Korea. ... Chinese name Russian name Goguryeo or Koguryo was an ancient kingdom located in southern Manchuria, southern Russian Maritime province, and the northern and central parts of the Korean peninsula. ... For other uses, see Silla (disambiguation). ... Baekje (October 18 BCE–August 660 BCE), originally Sipje, was a kingdom in the southwest of the Korean Peninsula. ... Subak, (or Subakhi, Subak-chigi) is a Korean traditional martial art. ... Taekyon, or Taekkyon is a traditional Korean martial art, probably stemming from Subak. ...

Taekwondo practitioners demonstrating their techniques.

Those who demonstrated strong natural aptitude were selected as trainees in the new special warrior corps, called the Hwarang. It was believed that young men with a talent for the liberal arts may have the grace to become competent warriors. These warriors were instructed in academics as well as martial arts, learning philosophy, history, a code of ethics, and equestrian sports. Their military training included an extensive weapons program involving swordsmanship and archery, both on horseback and on foot, as well as lessons in military tactics and unarmed combat using subak. Although subak was a leg-oriented art in Goguryeo, Silla's influence added hand techniques to the practice of subak. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (492x618, 22 KB) Demonstration of Taekwondo techniques From en:Image:Demonstration. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (492x618, 22 KB) Demonstration of Taekwondo techniques From en:Image:Demonstration. ... The Hwarang were an elite group of male youth in Silla, an ancient Korean kingdom that lasted until the 10th century. ... Subak, (or Subakhi, Subak-chigi) is a Korean traditional martial art. ... Chinese name Russian name Goguryeo or Koguryo was an ancient kingdom located in southern Manchuria, southern Russian Maritime province, and the northern and central parts of the Korean peninsula. ... For other uses, see Silla (disambiguation). ...


In spite of Korea's rich history of ancient and traditional martial arts, Korean martial arts faded into obscurity during the Joseon Dynasty. Korean society became highly centralized under Korean Confucianism and martial arts were lowly regarded in a society whose ideals were epitomized by its scholar-kings.[3] Formal practices of traditional martial arts such as subak and taekkyeon were reserved for sanctioned military uses. However folk practice of taekkyeon as a kicking game still persisted into the 19th century.[2] Joseon redirects here. ... Korean Confucianism is the form of Confucianism developed in Korea. ... Subak, (or Subakhi, Subak-chigi) is a Korean traditional martial art. ... Taekyon, or Taekkyon is a traditional Korean martial art, probably stemming from Subak. ...


Modern Taekwondo

During the Japanese occupation (1910-1945), the practice of tae-kyon was banned.[4] Although the art essentially vanished[5], some aspects of taekkyeon may have survived through underground teaching and folk custom. As the Japanese colonization established a firm foothold in Korea, the few Koreans who were able to attend Japanese universities were exposed to Okinawan and Japanese martial arts, and some received black belts in these arts. Koreans in China were also exposed to Chinese martial arts. Flag of the Japanese Empire Anthem Kimi ga Yoa Korea under Japanese Occupation Capital Keijo Language(s) Korean, Japanese Religion Shintoisma Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor of Japan  - 1910–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1925 Emperor Taisho  - 1925–1945 Emperor Showa Governor-General of Korea  - 1910–1916 Masatake Terauchi  - 1916–1919 Yoshimichi... Karate training at Shuri Castle c. ... Japanese martial arts refers to the enormous variety of martial arts native to Japan. ... In many martial arts, each practitioners level is marked by the colour of the belt. ... Kung fu redirects here. ...


After World War II and the liberation of Korea, several Kwans (schools) arose. They included: Chung Do Kwan, Moo Duk Kwan, Jidokwan (or Yun Moo Kwan), Chang Moo Kwan, Han Moo Kwan, Oh Do Kwan, Jung Do Kwan, Kang Duk Won,and Song Moo Kwan. All taught Japanese-influenced systems.[6] Most were based on Japanese Karate, most notably Shotokan Karate. As these arts began to be taught openly by Koreans who had learned it in Japan, they were taught under such names as kongsudo and tangsudo. According to Steven D. Capener[7]: For other uses, see Guan. ... Chung Do Kwan, founded in 1944, is the first of nine schools or Kwans teaching what came to be known as Taekwondo. ... Moo Duk Kwan is a distinct school/organization of the Korean martial arts. ... Jidokwan is one of the original nine schools of the modern Korean martial arts that became Taekwondo and was founded in what is now South Korea at the end of World War II. Its name translates as School of Wisdom. Jidokwan logo The foundations of what was to eventually become... At the end of World War II, several Kwans arose. ... Han Moo Kwan founded in August of 1954 by Great Grand Master Kyo Yoon Lee ( 10th Dan ), is one of the nine original Kwans that later formed Kukkiwon Taekwondo. ... Oh Do Kwan is one of the original taekwondo schools in Korea. ... Jung Do Kwan was founded in 1956 by Young Woo Lee, and was the last of the original nine Kwans that formed the Kukkiwon. ... Kang Duk Won was one of the original 9 kwans that eventually merged to create the Kukkiwon system. ... Song Moo Kwan is The Ever Youthful House Of Martial Arts Training. ... For other uses, see Karate (disambiguation). ... Shotokan (松涛館) is a school of karate, reflecting the style of master Gichin Funakoshi (1868-1957), who first brought karate from Okinawa to mainland Japan. ...

This process of development can be broadly outlined as follows: Japanese karate called kongsudo or tangsudo was introduced to Korea just after liberation from Japan by Koreans who had learned karate in Japan. Upon returning, these Koreans opened karate gymnasiums promoting what they were teaching as karate, much like the process followed by the early Judo instructors. Well after these schools became established, the need to "Koreanize" was felt. The process of Koreanization consisted of three main aspects. The first was the selection of a new, non-Japanese name. The second was the creation of a system of techniques and training which was distinctly different from that of karate, and the third was the attempt to establish t'aegwondo's existence and development within the historical flow of Korean civilization.

The liberation of Korea also brought renewed interest in indigenous arts. Song Duk-ki gave a taekkyon demonstration for Republic of Korea President Syngman Rhee. [8] Korean nationalism led to the development of a new, clearly Korean art from the Japanese Karate base, influenced by memories of past Korean martial arts and by a desire to create an art that could be practiced as a competitive sport.[9],[10] This is a Korean name; the family name is Rhee Syngman Rhee or Lee Seungman or Yee Sung-man (March 26, 1875 – July 19, 1965) was the first president of South Korea. ...


In 1952, at the height of the Korean War, South Korea held a massive show of patriotism, including a martial arts display where all the Kwans of Korea displayed their skills. Major Nam Tae Hi stole the show when he smashed 13 roof tiles with a forefist punch. Following the demonstration, President Syngman Rhee instructed General Choi Hong Hi to introduce the martial arts to the Korean army.[11]


By the end of the Korean War, nine schools of martial arts had emerged, and South Korean President Syngman Rhee ordered that the various schools unify under a single system. A governmental body selected a naming committee's submission of "tae-kwon-do". Following the submission of the name "taekwondo" on April 11, 1955 by General Choi Hong Hi, the name was unanimously accepted.[12] The Korean Taekwondo Association (KTA) was formed in 1959 to facilitate the unification.[13] Shortly thereafter, taekwondo made its debut worldwide. Standardization efforts in South Korea stalled, as the kwans continued to teach differing styles. Another request from the Korean government for unification resulted in the formation of the Korea Tae Soo Do Association, which changed its name back to the Korean Taekwondo Association in 1965 following a change of leadership. Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... For Korea as a whole, see Korea. ... This is a Korean name; the family name is Rhee Syngman Rhee or Lee Seungman or Yee Sung-man (March 26, 1875 – July 19, 1965) was the first president of South Korea. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Tae Soo Do was a name under which the major Martial Arts Kwans (or schools) of post-Korean war South Korea unified in 1962, after briefly dropping the name Taekwondo, and prior to the switch back to that name in 1965 at the behest of General Choi Hong Hi Tae...


General Choi is also known to be the author of the first English Taekwondo syllabus book, entitled "Taekwon-Do" published by Daeha Publication Company in 1965. General Choi later founded the ITF on March 22nd 1966 in Seoul, South Korea. Choi claimed to have studied Korean martial arts when young and earned a black belt in Shotokan karate in Japan from a mysterious man named Mr. Kim. However, every Kwan senior disagrees with this statement. Subsequently, Choi fell out of favor with the authorities in South Korea and moved his organization to Canada in 1972. It is also worth noting that he is regarded by ITF taekwondo practitioners as the founder of taekwondo and equally worth noting that all the major Kwan leaders disagree and state that Taekwondo was founded by many men, not one. Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Shotokan (松涛館) is a school of karate, reflecting the style of master Gichin Funakoshi (1868-1957), who first brought karate from Okinawa to mainland Japan. ...


In 1972, the Korea Taekwondo Association Central Dojang was opened. A few months later, the name was changed to the Kukkiwon. The following year, the WTF was formed. The International Olympic Committee recognized the WTF and taekwondo sparring in 1980, and the sport was accepted as a demonstration event at the 1988 Seoul and the 1992 Barcelona Summer Olympic Games. It became an official medal event as of the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games. Taekwondo is one of two Asian martial arts (judo being the other) in the Olympic Games. Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kukkiwon, also known as the World Taekwondo Headquarters, is an organization in the Gangnam-gu district of Seoul, South Korea. ... Stamp The International Olympic Committee (French: Comité International Olympique) is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas on June 23, 1894. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the martial art and sport. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ...


Both the ITF and WTF operate internationally, and taekwondo is one of the most popular martial arts in the world. Although competition is a significant feature of taekwondo, many practitioners study taekwondo for personal development, to learn self-defense, or for a combination of reasons.


Organizations

The two different systems of Taekwondo are named after their respective organisations the ITF and the Kukkiwon. The ITF was founded in 1966 by General Choi Hong Hi. After his death in 2002, a number of succession disputes splintered the ITF into three different groups, all claiming to be the original. Two of the three are located in Austria, with the third in Canada. The unofficial training headquarters of the International Taekwondo Federation are located at the Taekwondo Palace located in Pyongyang, North Korea and was founded in the mid-1990s. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Four concrete paving bricks broken with a knife-hand strike. Breaking techniques are often practiced in taekwondo.
Four concrete paving bricks broken with a knife-hand strike. Breaking techniques are often practiced in taekwondo.

The Kukkiwon is headquartered in South Korea and was founded in 1972 by a group of Kwan leaders from the KTA. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (785x719, 193 KB) Photo of sabumnim Duke Lee breaking four concrete paving bricks, courtesy of J. K. Lee Black Belt Academy and Scott D. Feldstein. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (785x719, 193 KB) Photo of sabumnim Duke Lee breaking four concrete paving bricks, courtesy of J. K. Lee Black Belt Academy and Scott D. Feldstein. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Kukkiwon, also known as the World Taekwondo Headquarters, is an organization in the Gangnam-gu district of Seoul, South Korea. ...


Although the terms "WTF" and "Kukkiwon" are often mistakenly used interchangeably, the Kukkiwon is a completely different organization which trains and certifies instructors and issues official dan and pum certificates worldwide. The Kukkiwon has its own unique physical building that contains the administrative offices of Kukkiwon (World Taekwondo Headquarters) in Seoul, South Korea and is the system of Taekwondo. The WTF is just a tournament committee and is not a style or a system. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


The three ITF's are private organizations. There are many other private organizations like the ATF, ATA, ITU, ITW, ATFF, ITO, ITAF, ITFA, IAT, USSTA, OTA, FOTA, PTFOA, and so on. Events and competitions held by private organizations are mostly closed to other Taekwondo students. However, the WTF-sanctioned events allow any person, regardless of school affiliation or martial arts style, to compete in WTF events as long as he or she is a member of the WTF Member National Association in his or her nation, which is open to anyone to join, and holds a Dan certificate issued by Kukkiwon. The major technical differences among these many organizations revolve around the patterns, called hyeong 형, pumsae 품새, or teul 틀, sets of prescribed formal sequences of movements that demonstrate mastery of posture, positioning, and technique, sparring rules for competition (e.g. ITF light-contact versus WTF full-contact), and philosophy. A hyung, poomsae or tul (casually referred to as forms) is a martial arts form that is typically used in a Korean martial art. ...


In addition to these private organizations, the original schools (kwans) that formed the organization that would eventually become the Kukkiwon continue to exist as independent fraternal membership organizations that support the WTF and the Kukkiwon. The official curriculum of the kwans is that of the Kukkiwon. The kwans also function as a channel for the issuing of Kukkiwon dan and pum certification (black belt ranks) for their members. Each kwan has its own individual pledge of tenets and manners that describes the organization's goals for personal improvement. For example, the tenets of Oh Do Kwan and the ITF are: courtesy (ye-ui 예의), integrity (yom-chi 염치), perseverance (in-nae 인내), self-control (geuk-gi 극기), and indomitable spirit (baek-jeol-bul-gul 백절불굴). The Jidokwan manners are: view, feel, think, speak, order, contribute, have ability, and conduct rightly. For other uses, see Guan. ... For other uses, see Guan. ... Jidokwan is one of the original nine schools of the modern Korean martial arts that became Taekwondo and was founded in what is now South Korea at the end of World War II. Its name translates as School of Wisdom. Jidokwan logo The foundations of what was to eventually become...


Some organizations also recognize one or two additional tenets beyond the five original Oh Do Kwan tenets; these are community service (sa-hui-bong-sa 사회봉사) and love (sa-rang 사랑).


Features

Stretching to increase flexibility is an important aspect of taekwondo training.
Stretching to increase flexibility is an important aspect of taekwondo training.
See also: List of Taekwondo techniques and Kick

Taekwondo is famed for its use of kicking techniques,especially which distinguishes it from martial arts such as karate or southern styles of kung fu. The rationale is that the leg is the longest and strongest weapon a martial artist has, and kicks thus have the greatest potential to execute powerful strikes without successful retaliation. Image File history File links A young Tae Kwon Do practicioner warms up. ... Image File history File links A young Tae Kwon Do practicioner warms up. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Because the specific techniques learned to progress to the next rank vary from school to school, this is only a partial listing of techniques in general. ... For other uses, see Kick (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Karate (disambiguation). ... Alternative meaning: Kung Fu (TV series) Kung fu or gongfu (功夫, Pinyin: gōngfu) is a well-known Chinese term used in the West to designate Chinese martial arts. ...


Taekwondo as a sport and exercise is popular with people of both sexes and of many ages. Physically, Taekwondo develops strength, speed, balance, flexibility, and stamina. An example of the union of mental and physical discipline is the breaking of boards, which requires both physical mastery of the technique and the concentration to focus one's strength. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


A Taekwondo student typically wears a uniform (dobok 도복), often white but sometimes black or other colors, with a belt (tti 띠) tied around the waist. The belt indicates the student's rank. The school or place where instruction is given is called the dojang 도장.


Although each Taekwondo club or school will be different, a Taekwondo student can typically expect to take part in most or all of the following:

  • Learning the techniques and curriculum of Taekwondo
  • Both anaerobic and aerobic workout, including stretching
  • Self-defense techniques (hosinsul 호신술)
  • Patterns (also called forms, poomsae 품새, teul 틀, hyeong 형)
  • Sparring (called kyeorugi 겨루기, or matseogi 맞서기 in the ITF), which may include 3-, 2- and 1-step sparring, free-style, arranged, and point sparring, and other types
  • Relaxation and meditation exercises
  • Throwing and/or Falling techniques (dunjigi and torojigi)
  • Breaking (also called destruction; gyokpa). Using techniques to break boards for testing, training and martial arts demonstrations. Demonstrations often also incorporate bricks, tiles, blocks of ice or other materials. Can be separated into two types:
    • Power breaking - using straightforward techniques to break as many boards etc as possible.
    • Special techniques - breaking fewer boards but using jumping or flying techniques to attain greater heights, distances, or to clear obstacles.
  • Exams to progress to the next rank
  • A focus on mental and ethical discipline, justice, etiquette, respect, and self-confidence

Some Taekwondo instructors also incorporate the use of pressure points, known as ji ap sul as well as grabbing self-defense techniques borrowed from other martial arts, such as Hapkido and Judo. A hyung, poomsae or tul (casually referred to as forms) is a martial arts form that is typically used in a Korean martial art. ... Sparring in wushu (sport) using a dao (sword) and gun (staff) Sparring is a form of training common to many martial arts. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article is about Martial art. ... This article is about the martial art and sport. ...


Ranks, belts, and promotion

Taekwondo ranks are separated into "junior" and "senior" or "student" and "instructor" sections. The junior section typically consists of ten ranks indicated by the Korean word geup 급 (also Romanized as gup or kup). The junior ranks are usually identified by belts of various colors, depending on the school, so these ranks are sometimes called "color belts". Geup rank may be indicated by stripes on belts rather than by colored belts. Students begin at tenth geup (usually indicated by a white belt) and advance toward first geup (usually indicated by a red belt with a black stripe as 1st Guep).


The senior section is made up of nine full ranks of black belt. These ranks are called dan 단, also referred to as "black belts" and "degrees" (as in "third dan" or "third-degree black belt"). Black belts begin at first degree and advance to second, third, and so on. The degree is often indicated on the belt itself with stripes, Roman numerals, or other methods; but sometimes black belts are plain and unadorned regardless of rank.


To advance from one rank to the next, students typically complete promotion tests in which they demonstrate their proficiency in the various aspects of the art before a panel of judges. Promotion tests vary from school to school, but may include such elements as the execution of patterns, which combine various techniques in specific sequences; the breaking of boards, to demonstrate the ability to use techniques with both power and control; sparring and self-defense, to demonstrate the practical application and control of techniques; and answering questions on terminology, concepts, history, and so on, to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the art. For higher dan tests, students are sometimes required to take a written test or to submit a research paper in addition to taking the practical test.


Promotion from one geup to the next can proceed fairly rapidly, since schools often allow geup promotions every two, three, or four months. Students of geup rank learn the most basic techniques first, then move on to more advanced techniques as they approach first dan.


In contrast, promotion from one dan to the next can take years. The general rule is that a black belt may advance from one rank to the next only after the number of years equivalent to the rank. For example, a newly-promoted third-degree black belt may not be allowed to promote to fourth-degree until three years have passed. Some organizations also have age requirements related to dan promotions, and may grant younger students poom 품 (junior black belt) ranks rather than dan ranks until they reach a certain age. Dan ranks usually have titles associated with them, such as "master" and "instructor". At some schools though it doesn't matter if you are a poom or a dan you have the same titles and respect associated with it. However, these titles and their associations with specific ranks vary among schools and organizations. Example: According to the Kukkiwon and the World Taekwondo Federation Master is 5th Degree (dan or poom), and Grandmaster is from 7th Degree. Neither Dan has nothing to do with the title of instructor or Sabumnim. To be a Sabumnim, one must take the course at Kukkiwon and become certified as such. Other systems have different rules about this subject. To learn more about those rules, check with the organizations. Kukkiwon, also known as the World Taekwondo Headquarters, is an organization in the Gangnam-gu district of Seoul, South Korea. ... The World Taekwondo Federation (WTF) is the International Federation (IF) member of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) for the competition events of the martial art of Taekwondo. ...


The two main Taekwondo organizations have their own rules and standards when it comes to ranks and the titles that go with them; for details, see Kukkiwon and International Taekwondo Federation. Kukkiwon, also known as the World Taekwondo Headquarters, is an organization in the Gangnam-gu district of Seoul, South Korea. ... The International Taekwon-Do Federation (ITF) was founded in 1966 by General Choi Hong Hi six years before his exile from South Korea in 1972 and seven years before the WTF. His first visit of good will to North Korea was in 1980, when he introduced Taekwon-Do there. ...


Philosophy

Taekwondo Philosophy varies greatly depending on what Kwan roots the philosophy comes from. Example, Taekwondo Jidokwan's philosophy is as follows:


Leadership (Jidoja):


1. A leadership imbued with wisdom and refinement.


2. A courageous activist who thinks before his action.


3. A patriot who is devoted to the welfare of his/her nation.


4. An innovator who is demanded by the world.



The objectives of Instructor Education


1. To help maintain self-perfection which is respected by the public.


2. To help form an avant-garde in organizing national force to exterminate the aggressors.


3. To help achieve ideological innovation in Taekwondo spirit.


4. To help actively participate in the service to the public for the community development.


5. To help foster high hopes and great ambition by encouraging savings.



The Spirit of The Eight Manners of Solemnity


1. View Rightly


2. Feel Rightly


3. Think Rightly


4. Speak Rightly


5. Order Rightly


6. Contribute Rightly


7. Use Abilities


8. Conduct Rightly


Credo of Taekwondo Jidokwan


1. Taekwondo for myself.


2. Taekwondo for the Jidokwan.


3. Taekwondo for our country.

 Jidokwan Pledge 

1. I will observe the rules and absolutely obey the order of Jidokwan.


2. I will attain physical and mental discipline in the spirit of Jidokwan.


3. I will devote myself to the creation of new tradition and achievement of Jidokwan


ITF Philosophy


Although the philosophy is interpreted slightly differently through each ITF based organization this a brief overview of the ITF philosophy. Due to a belief about the upsurge in the agro behavior of many in today’s society, [14] confusion has become common over the basic moral values that many people once shared. Analysts have noted that many people are misguided, left to search for their own values in a disillusioned society where war, crime and corruption is common. General Choi Hong Hi believed through the philosophy of TaeKwon-Do that we could make the world a more peaceful place.[14] In a time where much is corrupt it is hard for many people to find their path to justice, to tell right from wrong, or to even resist temptation into doing that which one would believe is wrong. TaeKwon-Do's philosophy aims not to occur only in the dojang (designated training area) but in all areas of one's life.


TaeKwon-Do’s philosophy can be mainly summed up by two things, the oath, and the tenets.


Oath

I shall observe the tenets of Taekwon-Do


All students must swear to carefully observe, acknowledge and live by each one of the TaeKwon-Do tenets.[15][14]


I shall respect my instructors and seniors


Students vow to respect their instructors and those senior to them (both in age and rank). An instructor must also act respectfully to all students and persons in order to be respected and therefore not misusing TaeKwon-Do. [15]


I shall never misuse Taekwon-Do


Students should never misuse TaeKwon-Do to harm others, for their own personal gain or for any other manner that is unjust.[14] [15][16]


I shall be a champion of freedom and justice


The 4th line, “I shall be a champion of freedom and justice”, can apply to many areas of life and although many may think one would have to do something amazing to achieve this, this part of the oath can be respected by even the littlest things students do in their normal daily activities. If one becomes more open-minded to understanding others' ideologies, or the way others go about their lives instead of being quick to judge, then maybe the world would be a more understanding and accepting place, allowing people to have the freedom they deserve. By accepting this belief, one is bringing justice to this world and therefore being a champion of justice. [15]


I shall build a more peaceful world


The final line of the oath is “I shall build a more peaceful world”. Students can obtain this goal by going about their daily lives in a more peaceful manner. If everyone did this, the world would obviously become a more peaceful place.[16]Although some may think this means to never show any aggression, it does not mean that a student would be prohibited from defending oneself against an attack directed towards them. That would be defeating the purpose of TaeKwon-Do, an art of unarmed self-defence. However, this does not mean that a student may provoke aggressive behaviour from another individual, as this would be breaking the oath. In this world, conflicts can often occur over common misconceptions of information. One must understand the full story and have all the facts before one can truly make a justified judgement. [15] [14][17]


Tenets

Courtesy (Ye Ui/예의) Showing courtesy to all, respecting others, having manners as well as maintaining the appropriate etiquette at all times, both within and outside the dojang (designated training area). [15]


Integrity (Yom Chi/염치) Although it may be similar to the definition provided in the common dictionary, this form of integrity takes on a wider role. In TaeKwon-Do, integrity means not only to determine what is right or wrong but also having the conscience to feel guilt if one has done wrong and to have the integrity stand up for what is right. [14]


Perseverance (In Nae/인내) One will persevere time and time again until a result is achieved which is adequate towards what one was trying to achieve. [14]


Self-control (Guk-Gi/극기) This means to not only have control over one's physical acts but also your own mental thoughts and actions. [14]


Indomitable Spirit (Baekjul Boolgool/백절불굴) To have indomitable spirit means to have the courage to stand up for what you believe in [14], no matter what odds you are up against, and to always give 100% effort in whatever you do.


Competition

Taekwondo competition typically involves sparring, breaking, patterns, and/or self-defense (hosinsul). However, in Olympic taekwondo competition, only sparring is contested; and in Olympic sparring the WTF competition rules are used. These rules are available at the WTF website.[18] Sparring in wushu (sport) using a dao (sword) and gun (staff) Sparring is a form of training common to many martial arts. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A hyung, poomsae or tul (casually referred to as forms) is a martial arts form that is typically used in a Korean martial art. ...

Taekwondo sparring match in Madrid (Spain).
Taekwondo sparring match in Madrid (Spain).
Rachel Marcial of the US Armed Forces team (blue) competing in a taekwondo match.
Rachel Marcial of the US Armed Forces team (blue) competing in a taekwondo match.

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 448 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (503 × 673 pixel, file size: 358 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 448 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (503 × 673 pixel, file size: 358 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

WTF

Under WTF and Olympic rules, sparring is a full-contact event and takes place between two competitors in an area measuring 10 meters square. Each match or bout consists of three non-stop rounds of contact with rest between rounds. Junior fighters fight in 2-minute rounds with a 30-second break, while senior fighters fight in 3-minute rounds with 30-second breaks. Points are awarded for permitted, accurate, and powerful techniques to the legal scoring areas; light contact to a scoring area does not score any points. A kick or punch that makes contact with the opponent's hogu (a trunk protector that functions as a scoring target) scores one point; a kick to the head scores two points. Punches to the head are not allowed. If a competitor is knocked down by a scoring technique and the referee counts, then an additional point is awarded to the opponent. A hogu is the armour worn by practitioners of Taekwondo during sparring. ...


At the end of three rounds, the competitor with the most points wins the match. If, during the match, one competitor gains a 7-point lead over the other, or if one competitor reaches a total of 12 points, then that competitor is immediately declared the winner and the match ends. In the event of a tie at the end of three rounds, a fourth "sudden death" overtime round will be held to determine the winner, after a 30-second rest period.


ITF

The ITF sparring rules are similar, but differ from the WTF rules in several respects. Most importantly, sparring is a light- rather than full-contact event. Moreover, hand attacks to the head are allowed; flying techniques score more points than grounded techniques; the competition area is slightly smaller (9 meters square instead of 10 meters); and competitors do not wear the hogu used in Olympic-style sparring (although they are required to wear approved foot and hand protection equipment). The ITF competition rules and regulations are available at the ITF information website.[19]

Common styles of ITF Sparring Gear
Common styles of ITF Sparring Gear

ITF competitions also feature performances of patterns, breaking and "special techniques", a category where competitors preform prescribed board breaks at great heights. This USPS stamp depicts an 80s breakdancer and a boombox. ...


AAU Competitions are almost the same thing except that there are different styles of pads and gear that you are allowed to wear. If you find anything that has the Olympic symbol that does not have WTF on it then it is approved.

The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... Asian Games Logo The Asian Games, also called the Asiad, is a multi-sport event held every four years among athletes from all over Asia. ... The 23rd South East Asian Games Philippines 2005 Logo The South East Asian Games, or SEA Games for short (even shorter: SEAGames or SEAG), is a biannual multi-sport event involving participants from the current 11 countries of Southeast Asia. ... South Asian Games(also known as SAF Games or SAG & formerly known as South Asian Federation Games) are a bi-annual multi-sport event held in South Asia. ...

Korean commands

Official WTF trunk protector (hogu), forearm guards and shin guards
Official WTF trunk protector (hogu), forearm guards and shin guards

In taekwondo, Korean language commands are often used. For words used in counting, see Korean numerals. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (480 × 640 pixel, file size: 133 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Taekwondo Metadata This... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (480 × 640 pixel, file size: 133 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Taekwondo Metadata This... This article is mainly about the spoken Korean language. ... Korean language has two regularly used sets of numerals, Sino-Korean and native Korean For both native and Sino-Korean numerals, the teens (11 through 19) are represented by a combination of tens and the ones places. ...

Word Hangeul Meaning
Charyeot 차렷 Attention
Gyeongnye 경례 Bow
Baro 바로 Return
Swieo 쉬어 At ease, relax
Kihap 기합 Spirit Yell
Choon Bee 준비 Ready
See-jak 시작 Begin
Kal-yo 갈려 Break (separate)
Kye-sok 계속 Continue
Keu-mahn 그만 Finish (stop)
Dwee-ro Dor-ai" 뒤로 돌아 Turn around (about turn)
Haesan 해산 Dismiss

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Look up Taekwondo in
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Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Practitioners from a Korean martial arts school in Calgary do a demonstration Korean martial arts (Hangul: 무술 or 무예, Hanja: 武術 or 武藝) are the martial arts that are native to, or were adapted and modified by, Korea. ... Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ...

References

  1. ^ Tae Kwon Do: The Ultimate Reference Guide to the World's Most Popular Martial Art, by Park Yeon Hee et al. (New York: 1989)
  2. ^ a b Capener, Steven D.; H. Edward Kim (ed.) (2000). Taekwondo: The Spirit of Korea (portions of). Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Republic of Korea. 
  3. ^ Cummings, B. (2005). Korea's Place in the Sun. New York, NY: W.W. Norton. 
  4. ^ Kyungji Kim (1986). "Taekwondo: a brief history". Korea Journal. Retrieved on 2007-11-16.
  5. ^ Henning, Stanley (2000). "Traditional Korean Martial Arts". volume 9, issue 1. Journal of Asian Martial Arts. Retrieved on 2008-01-17.
  6. ^ Mitchell, David (1988). The Overlook Martial Arts Handbook. Woodstock, NY: Overlook Press, 161. 
  7. ^ Capener, Steven D. (Winter 1995). "Problems in the Identity and Philosophy of T'aegwondo and Their Historical Causes". Korea Journal. Retrieved on 2008-01-14.
  8. ^ TKD history information [1]
  9. ^ Dohrenwend, Robert. "The Truth about Taekwondo (Parts 1,2)". volumes 22,23. Dragon Times.
  10. ^ Burdick, Dakin (1997). "People & Events of Taekwondo's Formative Years". volume 6, issue 1. Journal of Asian Martial Arts. Retrieved on 2008-01-14.
  11. ^ Oh Do Kwan (2006). Taekwon-Do Pioneers. TaeKwon History. Oh Do Kwan. Retrieved on 2008-03-25.
  12. ^ Sik, Kang Won; Lee Kyong Myung. A Modern History of Taekwondo. 
  13. ^ KTA (2003). History. Korea Taekwondo Association. www.koreataekwondo.org. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i International Taekwondo Federation (2006). ITF Information. TaeKwon-Do Philosophy. ITF Information. Retrieved on 2008-03-05.
  15. ^ a b c d e f International Taekwondo Foundation of New Zealand (2007). A plain english explanation of the ITF Student Oath. Student Oath. Grant Eccles. Retrieved on 2008-03-05.
  16. ^ a b International Taekwondo Federation (2007). TaeKwon-Do Philosophy. TaeKwon-Do Philosphy. International. Retrieved on 2008-03-05.
  17. ^ Internation TaeKwon-Do Federation of New Zealand. (2006). Techniques handbook. Auckland, New Zealand: ITFNZ.
  18. ^ World Taekwondo Federation (2004). Kyorugi rules. Rules. www.wtf.org. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  19. ^ International Taekwondo Federation (2000). Competition Rules and Regulations. Rules. www.itf-information.com. Retrieved on 2007-09-06.

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External links

Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... Bājíquán (Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; literally eight extremes fist; Japanese: , Hakkyokuken) is a Chinese martial art that features explosive, short range power and is famous for its elbow strikes. ... For other meanings of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer. ... Angkorian warriors as depicted on bas reliefs at Angkor Wat Bokator/Boxkator, or more formally, Labok Katao(which means wielding a wooden stick to fight lions) (ល្បុក្កតោ), is an ancient Khmer martial art said to be the predecessor of all Southeast Asian kickboxing styles. ... Capoeira (IPA: ,Tupi-Guarani word for - clear area) is a Brazilian blend of martial art, game, and dance originated in Brazil, from the regions known as Bahia, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo. ... This article is about the Fujian style of White Crane. ... For other uses, see Karate (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see kempo (disambiguation). ... Kicking to left side Kickboxing refers to sport-fighting using kicks and punches and sometimes throws and bows representing a certain martial art or can be practiced for general fitness, or as a full-contact sport. ... BAMA LETHWEI Lethwei or Lethawae (Read as Let-whae, but quickly) ; also known as Burmese Boxing and Myanmar Traditional Boxing, is a form of kickboxing which originated in Myanmar (Burma). ... For the drink with a similar-sounding name, see Mai Tai. ... Pradal Serey (; English: Khmer Boxing) is the name of the centuries old kickboxing martial arts of Cambodia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Savate (pronounced ), also known as boxe française, French boxing, French Kickboxing or French Footfighting, is a French martial art which uses both the hands and feet as weapons and combines elements of western boxing with graceful kicking techniques. ... SIKARAN is a form of Philippine Martial Arts whose history dates back to the early 1500s before the Spaniards came, It is the art of foot-fighting where the farmers use their strong legs to drive the partners outside the designated line (pitak). ... Silat or Pencak Silat is an umbrella term for a martial art form originating from the regions of the Malay Archipelago. ... Subak, (or Subakhi, Subak-chigi) is a Korean traditional martial art. ... Ever since 1669, when Huang Zongxi first described Chinese martial arts in terms of a Shaolin or external school versus a Wudang or internal school,[1] Shaolin has been used as a synonym for external Chinese martial arts regardless of whether or not the particular style in question has any... Taekyon, or Taekkyon is a traditional Korean martial art, probably stemming from Subak. ... Taido ( 躰道 / taidō ) is a Japanese martial arts or budo created in 1965 by Seiken Shukumine (1925 - 2001). ... For the 1994 Hong Kong film, see Wing Chun (film). ... WingTsunâ„¢, often shortened to WT, is a particular school of the Wing Chun style of Kung Fu developed by a student of Grandmaster Yip Man named Leung Ting. ... Like other southern Chinese martial arts, Choy Lei Fut features Five Animal techniques based on the tiger, dragon, crane, leopard, and snake but is distinguished from other southern styles by long, swinging, circular movements and twisting body motions more indicative of northern styles. ... For other uses, see Grapple. ... Aikido ) is a Japanese martial art developed by Morihei Ueshiba as a synthesis of his martial studies, philosophy, and religious beliefs. ... Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) is a martial art and combat sport that focuses on grappling and especially ground fighting with the goal of gaining a dominant position and using joint-locks and chokeholds to force an opponent to submit. ... Catch wrestling is a popular style of wrestling. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... This article is about the martial art and sport. ... Jujutsu )  , literally meaning the art of softness, is a Japanese martial art consisting primarily of grappling techniques. ... Kinomichi, calligraphy by Masamichi Noro Kinomichi 氣之道 is a Martial art (budo 武道 in Japanese ), founded by Masamichi Noro 野呂昌道 in Paris, France, in 1979. ... Kurash is the native ancient type of upright jacket wrestling practiced in Uzbekistan. ... Mallayuddha (literally wrestling combat)[1] is the martial art of classical Indian wrestling. ... Mongolian wrestling is a traditional Mongolian sport that has existed in Mongolia for centuries. ... Varzesh-e Pahlavani (Persian varzeÅ¡-e pahlavānÄ« ورزش پهلوانی) meaning the Sport of the Heroes, also known as Varzesh-e Bastani (Persian varzeÅ¡-e bāstnÄ« ورزش باستانی), meaning the Sport of the Ancients, is a traditional discipline of gymnastics and wrestling of Iran, which was originally an academy of physical training for... Pehlwani Modern wrestling, or Pehlwani , is a synthesis of an indigenous Aryan form of wrestling that dates back at least to the 5th century BC [1] and a Persian form of wrestling brought into South Asia by the Mughals. ... Sambo (Russian: ) -- (also called Sombo in the US and sometimes written in all-caps) is a modern martial art, combat sport and self-defense system developed in the former Soviet Union, and recognized as an official sport by the USSR All-Union Sports Committee in 1938, presented by Anatoly Kharlampiev. ... Shuai jiao (Chinese: 摔跤 or 摔角; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shuai-chiao) is the modern Chinese term for Chinese and Mongolian wrestling. ... Image:Ssireum-1. ... For other uses, see Sumo (disambiguation). ... Ancient Greek wrestlers (Pankratiasts) Wrestling is the act of physical engagement between two unarmed persons, in which each wrestler strives to get an advantage over or control of their opponent. ... YaÄŸlı GüreÅŸ (IPA:) is the Turkish national sport. ... For other uses, see Weapon (disambiguation). ... Battōjutsu ) is a Japanese term meaning techniques for drawing a sword. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the sport, which is distinguished from stage fencing and academic fencing (mensur). ... Gatka (Punjabi: , ) is a traditional Sikh martial art. ... Haidong Gumdo, also spelled Haedong Kumdo, is a name coined around 1982 and used for several Korean martial art organizations that use swords. ... Hojōjutsu (捕縄術) or Nawajutsu, (縄術) is the traditional Japanese martial skill of restraining a person using cord or rope. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Iaido (居合道 iaidō), also sometimes called iaijutsu (居合術 iaijutsu) or battojutsu (抜刀術 battōjutsu) is the art of drawing the katana, cutting down the opponent, flipping blood from the blade, and then re-sheathing the katana in one fluid movement. ... Jōdō ), meaning the way of the jō, or jōjutsu ) is a Japanese martial art using short staves called jō. The art is similar to bōjutsu, and is strongly focused upon defense against the Japanese sword. ... Jogo do Pau. ... JÅ«kendō ) is the Japanese martial art of bayonet fighting. ... Juttejutsu is the Japanese martial art of using a jitte or jutte. ... Kendo ), or way of the sword, is the martial art of Japanese fencing. ... Kenjutsu ) is the Japanese martial art specializing in the use of the Japanese sword (katana). ... This article contains a trivia section. ... KyÅ«jutsu ) is the traditional Japanese martial art of wielding a bow. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Naginatajutsu (なぎなた術, 長刀術 or 薙刀術) is the Japanese Martial art of wielding the naginata, a weapon resembling the medieval European glaive. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Shurikenjutsu ) is a general term describing the traditional Japanese martial arts of throwing shuriken, which are small, hand-held weapons such as metal spikes (bo shuriken), circular plates of metal known as hira shuriken, and knives (tantō). Shuriken-jutsu was usually taught among the sogo-bugei, or comprehensive martial arts... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sōjutsu (槍術, sometimes incorrectly read as yarijutsu) is the art of fighting with the Japanese spear, yari (槍). Sōjutsu is typically only a single component of curriculum in comprehensive Japanese koryu schools; for example Tenshin Shoden Katori Shinto-ryu includes spear fighting techniques. ... For the fighting styles that combine different arts, see hybrid martial arts. ... Hybrid martial arts (also known as hybrid fighting systems) refer to martial arts or fighting systems that incorporate techniques and theories from several particular martial arts. ... 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