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Encyclopedia > Tadamichi Kuribayashi
Tadamichi Kuribayashi
July 7, 1891c. 23 March 1945

Lt. General Tadamichi Kuribayashi
Place of birth Nagano Prefecture, Japan
Place of death Iwo Jima, Japan
Allegiance Empire of Japan
Service/branch Imperial Japanese Army
Years of service 1914 - 1945
Rank General
Unit 109th Division, Ogasawara Army Group
Commands Imperial Japanese Army
Battles/wars World War II (Battle of Hong Kong, Battle of Iwo Jima)
Awards Order of the Rising Sun with Gold and Silver Star (2nd class),
Order of the Rising Sun Gold Rays with Neck Ribbon (3rd class),
Order of the Precious Crown,
Grand Cordon of the Order of the Sacred Treasure

Tadamichi Kuribayashi (Japanese: 栗林忠道 Kuribayashi Tadamichi) (July 7, 1891 in Nagano city, JapanMarch 23, 1945 on Iwo Jima, Japan) was a General in the Imperial Japanese Army, best known as overall commander of the Japanese garrison during most of the Battle of Iwo Jima in World War II. is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Tadamichi_Kuribayashi1. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Nagano Prefecture (長野県; Nagano-ken) is located on Honshu island, Japan. ... For other uses, see Iwo Jima (disambiguation). ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister (many other Prime Ministers preceded the below list)  - 1916–1918 Count Masatake Terauchi  - 1937-1939, 1940-1941 Prince Fumimaro Konoe  - 1941–1944 Hideki... The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (KyÅ«jitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun), or more officially Army of the Greater Japanese Empire was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (KyÅ«jitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun), or more officially Army of the Greater Japanese Empire was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants British Army Canadian Army British Indian Army Royal Hong Kong Regiment Imperial Japanese Army Commanders Mark Aitchison Young Christopher Michael Maltby Sakai Takashi Strength 15,000 troops 50,000 troops Casualties 4,500 killed 8,500 POWs 706 killed 1,534 wounded Pacific campaigns 1941-42 Pearl Harbor – Thailand... Combatants  United States  Empire of Japan Commanders Holland Smith Tadamichi Kuribayashi â€  Strength 110,000 21,000 Casualties 8,226 dead 19,189 wounded,[1] 494 missing[1] Total: 27,909 20,703 dead,[1] 216 captured[1] Total: 20,919 The Battle of Iwo Jima was fought between the United... Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun The Order of the Rising Sun or Kyokujitsu sho(旭日章) is a Japanese Order (decoration), established in 1875 by Emperor Meiji of Japan. ... The Order of the Precious Crown (宝冠章) is a Japanese Order (decoration), established on January 4, 1888 by Emperor Meiji of Japan. ... The Order of the Sacred Treasures ) is a Japanese Order (decoration), established on January 4, 1888 by Emperor Meiji of Japan. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Nagano (長野市, Nagano-shi) is the capital city of Nagano Prefecture, situated in the northern part of the prefecture near the junction of the Chikuma River and the Sai River, on the main island of HonshÅ«, Japan. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... For other uses, see Iwo Jima (disambiguation). ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (KyÅ«jitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun), or more officially Army of the Greater Japanese Empire was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... Combatants  United States  Empire of Japan Commanders Holland Smith Tadamichi Kuribayashi â€  Strength 110,000 21,000 Casualties 8,226 dead 19,189 wounded,[1] 494 missing[1] Total: 27,909 20,703 dead,[1] 216 captured[1] Total: 20,919 The Battle of Iwo Jima was fought between the United... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Assigned by Prime Minister Hideki Tojo to defend the island of Iwo Jima, Kuribayashi led a force of 21,000 men without air or naval support against the United States invasion force of 100,000. In the ensuing battle almost all Japanese soldiers fought to the death. Only 216 surrendered. The general died near the end of the battle and has since been recognized by the Japanese government for his dedication in commanding the staunch defense of the island against overwhelming odds, with the certain knowledge that he and his men would perish in the inevitable defeat. Emblem of the Office of Prime Minister of Japan Kantei, Official residence of PM The Prime Minister of Japan ) is the usual English-language term used for the head of government of Japan, although the literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Prime Minister of the Cabinet. ... Hideki Tojo (KyÅ«jitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機;  ) (December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a General in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 18, 1941 to July 22, 1944. ... For other uses, see Iwo Jima (disambiguation). ... There is still dispute as to whether Japan is a constitutional monarchy or a republic. ... In military science, defense (or defence) is the art of preventing an enemy from conquering territory. ...


Kuribayashi sent many letters home to his family prior to the engagement. The letters remain a valuable chronicle of the time.[citation needed]


His wife Yoshii was only about 40 when Kuribayashi died in Iwo Jima at the age of 53 and she subsequently worked hard to bring up their children without a father. It was reported that she once saw Kuribayashi returning home in a dream. Many years later, she would visit Iwo Jima to commemorate her fallen husband.

Contents

Life before the war

Kuribayashi was born into a samurai family, and after graduating from Nagano high school passed the college entrance exam in Shanghai. Although he had aspired to be a journalist, Kuribayashi was persuaded by his high school teachers to join the Imperial Japanese Army Academy. After graduating from the Academy in 1914, he trained as a cavalry officer. In 1923 he graduated from the Army War College with splendid marks and received a military sabre from Emperor Hirohito. Kuribayashi married Yoshie Kuribayashi in December of that year. Together they had three daughters and a son. For other uses, see Samurai (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... The Imperial Japanese Army Academy ) was the principal officer’s training school for the Imperial Japanese Army. ... The Army War College (Japanese: Rikugun Daigakkō; Short form: 陸大 Rikudai) of the Empire of Japan was founded in 1882 in Minato, Tokyo to modernize and Westernize the Imperial Japanese Army. ... Hirohito (裕仁), the Shōwa Emperor (昭和天皇), (April 29, 1901 - January 7, 1989) reigned over Japan from 1926 to 1989. ...


He was designated as the deputy military attaché to Washington DC in 1928. For two years Kuribayashi traveled across the United States, conducting extensive military and industrial research. For a short time he studied at Harvard University. He precisely evaluated the overwhelming industrial capacity of the US. In one of his letters to his family he said, "It is desperate to enter the war with the USA." After returning to Tokyo he was promoted to the rank of Major and appointed as the first IJA military attaché to Canada in 1931. A military attaché is a military expert who is part of a diplomatic mission. ... Flag Seal Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location Location of Washington, D.C., with regard to the surrounding states of Maryland and Virginia. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ...


During his services in IJA staff headquarters in Tokyo he wrote lyrics for several martial songs. In 1940 Kuribayashi was promoted to Major General.


Battle of Iwo Jima

Main article: Battle of Iwo Jima
See also: Planning for the Battle of Iwo Jima

Two truths were certain to Kuribayashi: Iwo Jima would eventually fall to the United States, and he and his garrison would all perish. Nevertheless he was determined to make the fall of Iwo Jima as costly as possible to the US. General Kuribayashi had carefully studied other American assaults and determined that it would be wisest not to seriously contest the beach landings. Instead, the defense of Iwo Jima was fought almost entirely underground. However, to appease those in the Japanese High Command, he committed a battalion of troops to defensive positions just off the beaches. American naval gunfire and intense air support would wipe out nearly all of these defenders before the first LVTs touched the volcanic ash of the Iwo shore. Combatants  United States  Empire of Japan Commanders Holland Smith Tadamichi Kuribayashi â€  Strength 110,000 21,000 Casualties 8,226 dead 19,189 wounded,[1] 494 missing[1] Total: 27,909 20,703 dead,[1] 216 captured[1] Total: 20,919 The Battle of Iwo Jima was fought between the United... U.S. Sixth Fleet during the invasion In anticipation of the Battle of Iwo Jima, Lieutenant General Tadamichi Kuribayashi prepared a defense that broke with Japanese military doctrine. ... Download high resolution version (640x793, 72 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (640x793, 72 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Iwo Jima (disambiguation). ... The Landing Vehicle Tracked (LVT) was an amphibious vehicle used by the United States Navy, Marine Corps and Army during World War II. It was widely known as amphtrack, amtrak, amtrac etc. ...


The Japanese honeycombed the island with more than 30 km (18 miles) of tunnels, 5,000 caves, and pillboxes. He also instructed his troops that each man should kill 10 of the enemy before they were killed in turn. Kuribayashi strictly forbade the banzai charge—he viewed it as ineffective, especially because the loud scream before the suicidal charge gave the enemy early warning. His men proceeded with the "silent" charge, which confused the Americans, who were accustomed to the traditional loud banzai charge, as in the Battle of Saipan. Bunkers in Albania A bunker is a defensive military fortification. ... Banzai charge (or banzai attack) is a term related to the Japanese samurai spirit and ideology of not accepting the shame of defeat. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Richmond K. Turner Holland Smith Yoshitsugu Saito â€  Chuichi Nagumo â€  Strength 71,000 31,000 Casualties 3,426 killed; 13,160 wounded 24,000 KIA and 5,000 suicides; 921 prisoners The Battle of Saipan was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World...


General Kuribayashi’s death remains a mystery. His men provided contradictory reports and his remains could not be traced. He was most likely killed in action upon leading the final assault. The general's body could not be identified afterwards for he had taken off his rank badge to fight as a regular soldier. Less credible theories of his death include suicide (seppuku) or murder by a fellow Japanese soldier. Seppuku (Japanese: 切腹, belly-cutting) is a form of Japanese ritual suicide by disembowelment. ...


The US declared Iwo Jima secure on March 26, 1945, after 6,800 U.S. Marines were killed and more than 17,000 wounded. Only 216 of the 21,000 Japanese defenders survived to be captured. March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Portrayal in film

Kuribayashi is portrayed by actor Ken Watanabe in Letters from Iwo Jima, a film directed by Clint Eastwood about the Battle of Iwo Jima from the Japanese perspective. The film was released in December 2006. Eastwood also directed a precursor, Flags of Our Fathers, which told the story of the Battle of Iwo Jima from the American perspective. It was released in October 2006. Ken Watanabe , born October 21, 1959) is a Japanese Oscar-nominated stage, film, and television actor. ... Letters from Iwo Jima (Japanese: 硫黄島からの手紙) a 2006 Academy Award and Golden Globe-winning critically-acclaimed [1][2][3]war film starring Ken Watanabe and Kazunari Ninomiya among others, and directed by Clint Eastwood, is about the Battle of Iwo Jima from the perspective of Japanese soldiers. ... This article is about the actor/producer/director. ... Marines raising the US flag on Iwo Jima in a publicity still from Flags of Our Fathers. ...


A tentative title for Letters from Iwo Jima was "Lamps Before the Wind," taken from a line in a letter from Kuribayashi to his son, Taro: "The life of your father is just like a lamp before the wind." [1]


References

  1. ^ James Bradley, Flags of Our Fathers, page 148
  • Tadamichi Kuribayashi; Kazutoshi Hando (2006). 栗林忠道 硫黄島からの手紙 (in Japanese). Tokyo: Bungeishunjū. ISBN 4163683704. OCLC 77551976. 

The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Tadamichi Kuribayashi
  • WW2DB: Tadamichi Kuribayashi

  Results from FactBites:
 
Battle of Iwo Jima - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5377 words)
Tadamichi Kuribayashi, commander of the Japanese garrison defending Iwo Jima
In late May, Lieutenant General Tadamichi Kuribayashi was summoned to the office of the Prime Minister, General Hideki Tojo, who informed the general that he had been chosen to defend Iwo Jima to the last.
Kuribayashi was further apprised of the importance of this assignment when Tojo pointed out that the eyes of the entire nation were focused on the defense of Iwo Jima.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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