FACTOID # 6: Michigan is ranked 22nd in land area, but since 41.27% of the state is composed of water, it jumps to 11th place in total area.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Tabun (nerve agent)
Tabun
Discovery
Discovered by Gerhard Schrader
Discovered in 1936
Chemical characteristics
Chemical name Ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate
Chemical family Organophosphorus compound
Chemical formula C5H11N2O2P
NFPA Rating
  • Health - 4
  • Flammability - 2
  • Reactivity - 1
Boiling point 247.5 °C (477.5 °F) / 907.17°R
Freezing/melting point −50 °C (−58 °F) / 401.67°R
Vapor pressure 0.07 mmHg (9 Pa) at 25 °C
Vapor density (Air=1) 5.6
Liquid density 1.0887 g/cm³ at 25 °C
1.102 g/cm³ at 20 °C
Solubility in water 9.8 g/100 g at 25 °C
7.2 g/100 g at 20 °C
Specific gravity Not available
Appearance and color Colorless to brown liquid.
Faintly fruity odor (none when pure)
Fire and Explosion Data
Flashpoint 78 °C (172 °F) / 631.67°R
Unusual hazards Fires involving this chemical may result
in the formation of hydrogen cyanide

Tabun or GA (Ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate) is an extremely toxic substance that is one of the world's most dangerous military weapons. Because it fatally interferes with normal functioning of the mammalian nervous system, it is classified as a nerve agent. As a chemical weapon, it is classified as a weapon of mass destruction by the United Nations according to UN Resolution 687, and its production is strictly controlled and stockpiling outlawed by the Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993. Tabun is the first of the so-called G-series nerve agents (along with GB (sarin), GD (soman) and GF (cyclosarin)). Dr. Gerhard Schrader (25 Feb. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ... A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... Note: This page soon to be renamed National Fire Protection Association. ... The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which it can change its state from a liquid to a gas throughout the bulk of the liquid at a given pressure. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Density (symbol: ρ - Greek: rho) is a measure of mass per unit of volume. ... A substance is soluble in a fluid if it dissolves in that fluid. ... Relative density (also known as specific gravity) is a measure of the density of a material. ... Variation in the physical appearance of humans is believed by anthropologists to be an important factor in the development of personality and social relations in particular physical attractiveness. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... It has been suggested that flame be merged into this article or section. ... Flash point −17. ... Nerve agents (also known as nerve gases, though these chemicals are liquid at room temperature) are a class of phosphorus-containing organic chemicals (organophosphates) that disrupt the mechanism by which nerves transfer messages to organs. ... Early detection of chemical agents Sociopolitical climate of chemical warfare While the study of chemicals and their military uses was widespread in China, the use of toxic materials has historically been viewed with mixed emotions and some disdain in the West (especially when the enemy were doing it). ... Weapons of Mass Destruction is also the name of rapper Xzibits 2004 album. ... United Nations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 687 was adopted at the 2981st meeting on April 3, 1991, to welcome the restoration of the independence of Kuwait. ... Chemical Weapons Convention Opened for signature January 13, 1993 at Paris Entered into force April 29, 1997 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by 50 states and the convening of a Preperatory Commission Parties 170 The Chemical Weapons Convention is an arms control agreement which outlaws the production, stockpiling and... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... Sarin or GB (O-Isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is an extremely toxic substance. ... Boiling point 198 °C (388 °F) Freezing/melting point −42 °C (−44 °F) Vapor pressure 0. ... Cyclosarin or GF (Cyclohexyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is an extremely toxic substance that is one of the worlds most dangerous weapons of war. ...


Tabun is a colourless to brown liquid (depending on purity) It is volatile (evaporating readily at normal temperatures), although less volatile than either sarin or soman. Although odorless when pure, tabun is commonly described as having a faint fruity odor in small quantities and a "fishy" scent in large ones due to common manufacturing impurities.

Contents


Effects of overexposure

The exact symptoms of overexposure are similar to those created by all nerve agents, and are described in more detail in that article. Tabun, like all nerve agents, is toxic even in minute doses. The number and severity of symptoms which appear vary according to the amount of the agent absorbed and rate of entry into the body. Very small skin dosages sometimes cause local sweating and tremors accompanied with characteristically constricted pupils with few other effects. Tabun is about half as toxic as sarin by inhalation, but tabun in very low concentrations is more irritating to the eyes than sarin. Nerve agents (also known as nerve gases, though these chemicals are liquid at room temperature) are a class of phosphorus-containing organic chemicals (organophosphates) that disrupt the mechanism by which nerves transfer messages to organs. ...


The effects of exposure appear much more slowly when tabun is absorbed through the skin rather than inhaled: although a victim may absorb a lethal dose in 1 to 2 minutes, death may be delayed for 1 to 2 hours. Inhaled lethal dosages kill in 1 to 10 minutes, and liquid in the eye kills almost as rapidly. Most of what is known about lethal dosages are known from animal studies on monkeys.


Alternative names

Tabun is occasionally referred to names other than tabun or GA:

  • Ethyl dimethylplosphoramidocyanidate
  • Dimethylaminoethoxy-cyanophosphine oxide
  • Dimethylamidoethoxyphosphoryl cyanide
  • Ethyldimethylaminocyanophosphonate
  • Ethyl ester of dimethylphosphoroamidocyanidic acid
  • Ethyl phosphorodimethylamidocyanidate
  • EA1205

History

For an in-depth discussion, see main article on nerve agent history

Tabun, the first known nerve agent, was discovered accidentally in 1936 by the German researcher Dr. Gerhard Schrader. Dr. Schrader was experimenting with a class of compounds called organophosphates, which kill insects by interrupting their nervous systems, in order to create a more effective insecticide for the IG Farben pharmaceutical conglomerate at Elberfield. Instead of a new insecticide, however, he discovered tabun, a chemical which is enormously toxic to humans as well as to insects. Nerve agents (also known as nerve gases, though these chemicals are liquid at room temperature) are a class of phosphorus-containing organic chemicals (organophosphates) that disrupt the mechanism by which nerves transfer messages to organs. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Dr. Gerhard Schrader (25 Feb. ... An organophosphate (sometimes abbreviated OP) is the general name for any organic compound containing phosphorus. ... A insecticide is a pesticide used against insects in all development forms. ... IG Farben (short for Interessen-Gemeinschaft Farbenindustrie AG) was a German conglomerate of companies formed in 1925 and even earlier during World War I. IG Farben held nearly a total monopoly on the chemical production, later during the time of Nazi Germany. ...


During World War II as part of the Grün 3 program, a plant for the manufacture of tabun was established in Dyhernfurth (now Brzeg Dolny, Poland), producing the nerve agent under the codename Trilon-83. Run by Anorgana GmbH, the plant began production in 1942. Large scale manufacturing of the agent resulted in problems with the product's degradation over time and only around 12,500 tons of material were manufactured before the plant was over-run by the advancing Soviet forces. The plant initially produced shells and aerial bombs using a 95:5 mix of tabun and chlorobenzene, designated "Variant A" before switching in the latter half of the war to "Variant B," an 80:20 mix of tabun and chlorobenzene designed to make the mixture disperse more easily. The Soviet government had the plant dismantled and taken back to Russia. Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... Brzeg Dolny (German: Dyhernfurt) is a town in the Lower Silesian Voivodship of southern Poland. ... This article is about the year. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Chlorobenzene is an aromatic organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5Cl. ...


Like the other Allied governments, the Soviets soon abandoned GA for GB and GD. Large quantities of the German-manufactured agent were dumped into the sea. In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ...


Since GA is much easier to produce than the other G-series weapons and the process is comparatively widely understood, countries which are developing a nerve agent capability but which lack advanced industrial facilities often start by producing GA.


During the Iran-Iraq War, Iraq employed large quantities of chemical weapons against ground forces of Iran. Although the most commonly used agents were mustard gas and sarin, tabun and cyclosarin were also used. Combatants Iran Iraq Casualties Est. ... Airborne exposure limit 0. ... Sarin or GB (O-Isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is an extremely toxic substance. ... Cyclosarin or GF (Cyclohexyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is an extremely toxic substance that is one of the worlds most dangerous weapons of war. ...


See also

Nerve agents (also known as nerve gases, though these chemicals are liquid at room temperature) are a class of phosphorus-containing organic chemicals (organophosphates) that disrupt the mechanism by which nerves transfer messages to organs. ...

References


This article forms part of the series
Blood agents: Cyanogen chloride (CK) – Hydrogen cyanide (AC)
Blister agents: Lewisite (L) – Sulfur mustard gas (HD, H, HT, HL, HQ) – Nitrogen mustard gas (HN1, HN2, HN3)
Nerve agents: G-Agents: Tabun (GA) – Sarin (GB) – Soman (GD) – Cyclosarin (GF) | V-Agents: VEVGVMVX
Pulmonary agents: ChlorineChloropicrin (PS) – Phosgene (CG) – Diphosgene (DP)
Incapacitating agents: Agent 15 (BZ) – KOLOKOL-1
Riot control agents: Pepper spray (OC) – CS gasCN gasCR gas .

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m