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Encyclopedia > Tabriz
Tabriz
تبریز
Tabriz City Hall, built in 1934, by Arfa'ol molk, with the aid of German engineers.
Nickname: The City of Firsts
Tabriz (Iran)
Tabriz
Coordinates: 38°05′N 46°18′E / 38.083, 46.3
Country Flag of Iran Iran
Province East Azarbaijan
Population (2005)
 - Total 1,597,319
  estimate
Time zone IRST (UTC+3:30)

Tabriz (Azeri and Persian: تبریز; is the largest city in north-western Iran with an estimated population of 1,597,319 (2007 est.)[1]. Tabriz is situated north of the volcanic cone of Sahand south of the Eynali mountain. It is the capital of East Azarbaijan Province. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Wikitext. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Tabriz_City_Hall. ... EXAMPLE:Laughbox,Blondie,BamBam,Pinkie,etc. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 723 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,024 × 849 pixels, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Red_pog2. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Iran consists of 30 provinces: Provinces are governed from a local center, mostly the largest local city. ... East Azarbaijan province enjoys some of Irans most favorable climatic conditions. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Iran Standard Time (IRST) is the time zone used in Iran. ... The Azerbaijani language, also called Azeri, Azari, Azeri Turkish, or Azerbaijani Turkish, is the official language of the Republic of Azerbaijan. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Sahand (in Persian سهند) is the highest mountain (about 3800m) located in the Iranian province of East Azarbaijan. ... A view of Tabriz laid on Einali. ... East Azarbaijan or East Azerbaijan (Persian: آذربایجان شرقی, Ä€zārbāijān-e Sharqi; Azeri: Şərqi AzÉ™rbaycan) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ...

Contents

The City of Firsts

Because of Tabriz location (as Gate of West for Iran), many signs of modern life in Iran had been appeared for the first time in this city. Based on this phenomenon many of Tabrizis believe that Tabriz is the city of first modern life in Iran. There is also a book published in this matter by Samad Sardarnia including the first innovations that takes place for first time inside Tabriz. Lists of most important of them are listed in Tabriz City of Firsts. Image File history File links Acap. ... This article should appear in one or more categories. ...


History

Etymology

The founding of Tabriz is shrouded in mystery. According to various sources[2][3][4][5], the city was a site of the Biblical Garden of Eden. For other uses, see Garden of Eden (disambiguation). ...


Earliest mentioning of Tabriz appears in Assyrian king Sargon II's epigraph in 714 B.C.[6]. Also called Gazaca, in 4th century B.C.E. Tabriz became the capital of Atropatene, named after Atropates,governor (satrap) of the Achaemenid province of Media that later became one of Alexander the Great's generals[7][8]. Sargon II (right), king of Assyria (r. ... Azerbaijan or Azerbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan, Azərbeycan) is a country in the Caucaus region, adjacent to the Caspian Sea. ... Atropates (Greek Aτρoπάτης, from Old Persian Aturpat protected by fire[1]) was a Mede nobleman who served Darius III, then Alexander the Great, and eventually founded an independent kingdom and dynasty that was named after him. ...


Later references date back as early as the Sassanian period[5]. According to some sources[9], including Encyclopedia Britannica[7], the name Tabriz is said to derive from "tap-riz" ("causing heat to flow" in Iranian languages), from the many thermal springs in the area. Other sources [10][11] claim that in A.D. 246, to avenge his brother's death, king Khosraw I of Armenia defeated Ardashir I of Sassanids and changed the name of the city from Shahistan to Tauris, deriving from "ta-vrezh" ("this revenge" in Grabar). In A.D. 297, it became the capital of Tiridates III, king of Armenia [12]. Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... 1913 advertisement for the 11th edition, with the slogan When in doubt — look it up in the Encyclopædia Britannica The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelled with æ, the ae-ligature) was first published in 1768–1771 as The Britannica was an important early English-language general encyclopedia and is still... The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family. ... Grabar meaning literary, Armenian was very developed by the time it came to be written down at the beginning of the 5th century. ... Events Narseh of Persia and Diocletian conclude a peace treaty between Persia and Rome. ...


Medieval History

In A.D. 791, Zubaidah, the wife of Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid, rebuilt Tabriz after a devastating earthquake and beautified the city so much as to obtain the credit for having been its founder[12]. The Avars invade Europe again, but are defeated by Charlemagne in 796. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ...


After the Mongol invasion, Tabriz came to eclipse Maragheh as the later Ilkhanid capital of Azarbaijan until sacked by Tamerlane in 1392[5]. In 1295, Ghazan Khan, the Mongol ruler of Persia, made it the chief administrative center of an empire stretching from Egypt to the Oxus River and from the Caucasus to the Indian Ocean. Under his rule new walls were built around the city, and numerous public buildings, educational facilities, and caravansaries were erected. The Byzantine Gregory Choniades is said to have served as the city's Orthodox bishop during this time. Maragheh or Maraghah is a town in the East Azarbaijan Province of Iran, on the Safi River. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... Iranian Azerbaijan or Iranian Azarbaijan (Persian: آذربایجان ایران; Ä€zārbāijān-e Irān), (Azeri: اذربایجان, c. ... For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ... Events December 16 - Emperor Go-Kameyama of Japan abdicates in favor of rival claimant Go-Komatsu, ending the nanboku-cho period of competing imperial courts James of Jülich is boiled alive for pretending to be a bishop and ordaining his own priests Korean founder of the Joseon Dynasty General... Events Mongol leader Ghazan Khan is converted to Islam, ending a line of Tantric Buddhist leaders. ... Ghazan Khan was ruler of the Ilkhanate from 1295 to 1305. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... A brick wall A wall is a usually solid structure that defines and sometimes protects an area. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Gregory Choniades (Choniates, Chioniades) (d. ... Greek Orthodox Church can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches: the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, headed by the Patriarch of Constantinople, who is also the first among equals of the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ...


From 1375 to 1468, Tabriz was the capital of Kara Koyunlu state in Azarbaijan[13], and from 1469 to 1501 the capital of Ak Koyunlu state. Events October 24 - Valdemar IV of Denmark dies and is succeeded by his grandson Olaf III of Denmark. ... August 26 - Baeda Maryam succeeds his father Zara Yaqob as Emperor of Ethiopia. ... Flag of the Kara Koyunlu For the district in Turkey, see Karakoyunlu. ... Events July 26 - Battle of Edgecote Moor October 17 - Prince Ferdinand of Aragon wed princess Isabella of Castile. ... 1501 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag of the Ak Koyunlu (Colours are speculative) The Akkoyunlu or the White Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: AÄŸqoyunlular/Akkoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled present-day Azerbaijan, eastern Anatolia, northern Iraq and western Iran from 1378 to 1508. ...


In 1501, Shah Ismail I entered Tabriz and proclaimed it the capital of his Safavid dynasty. In 1514, after the Battle of Chaldiran, Tabriz fell for few months to Ottomans, yet was returned and remained a capital of Safavid Iranian empire until 1548, when Shah Tahmasp I moved Safavid capital to Qazvin. 1501 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Safavid Empire at its Greatest Extent After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Safavids (Persian: ; Azerbaijani: ) were an Iranian[1] Shia dynasty of mixed Azerbaijani[2] and Kurdish[3] origins, which ruled Persia from 1501/1502 to 1722. ... 1514 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of Chaldiran was a military conflict that occurred on 23 August 1514 and ended with a decisive military victory of the Ottoman Empire over the Safavids. ... Safavid Empire at its Greatest Extent After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Safavids (Persian: ; Azerbaijani: ) were an Iranian[1] Shia dynasty of mixed Azerbaijani[2] and Kurdish[3] origins, which ruled Persia from 1501/1502 to 1722. ... Events Mary I of Scotland sent to France Births September 2 - Vincenzo Scamozzi, Italian architect (died 1616) September 29 - William V, Duke of Bavaria (died 1626) Francesco Andreini, Italian actor (died 1624) Giordano Bruno, Italian philosopher, astronomer, and occultist (burned at the stake) 1600 (died 1600) Honda Tadakatsu, Japanese general... Shah Tahmasp greets the exiled Humayun Tahmasp I (1514-1576) was an influential Shah of Persia of the Safavid Dynasty. ... For other uses, see Qazvin (disambiguation). ...


The Ottomans occupied Tabriz on a number of occasions during and after the Safavid reign, including the period from 1585 to 1603. Nevertheless, by the 17th century it was a major commercial center, carrying out trade with Ottoman Empire, Russia, central Asia, and India. Later, the city was again occupied (1724) by the Ottomans, and it was held by Russia in 1828. The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Contemporary History

Constitutionalists of Tabriz The two men in the center are Sattar Khan & Bagher Khan
Constitutionalists of Tabriz The two men in the center are Sattar Khan & Bagher Khan

Tabriz was the city where the Constitutional Revolution of Iran started[citation needed] in 1906 and where its leaders, Sattar Khan and Bagher Khan came from. An American who died defending the Constitutional Revolution, Howard Baskerville, is buried in Tabriz. Image File history File links TabrizRevolutionaries. ... Image File history File links TabrizRevolutionaries. ... The Persian Constitutional Revolution was a revolution in Iran against the despotic rule of the last Qajar Shah. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... A picture of Sattar Khan. ... Bagher Khan (1870s , Tabriz - November , 1911, Persian: باقر خان), honorarily titled Sālār-e Melli (Persian: سالار ملی meaning Leader of the Nation), was one of the key figures in the Persian Constitutional Revolution Constitutionalists of Tabriz The two men in the center are Sattar Khan & Bagher Khan [edit] See also Persian Constitutional... Howard Baskerville, an Iranian hero from America. ...


The famous Iranian historian and philosopher, Ahmad Kasravi, was born in a nearby village called Hokmavar. Samad Behrangi, a famous writer and musicians, along with Ali Salimi, Vahid Houseini, and Bigjeh-Khani were tar specialists from this city. Ahmad Kasravi Tabrizi (b. ... Samad Behrangi (صمد بهرنگی) (July?, 1939 – 1967) was an Azeri Iranian writer. ... Qolam Hossein Bigjeh-Khani Qolam Hossein Bigjeh-Khani was an Iranian musician and tar player. ... Tar can be produced from corn stalks by heating in a microwave. ...


After World War II, the Soviets set up the communist Azerbaijan People's Government in North Western Iran with its capital at Tabriz. The new communist government, under the leadership of Jafar Pishevari, held power for a year from 1946, then was retaken by Iran (on 1947) after the forced Soviet withdrawal. A surcharged stamp published under the name of Azarbaijan Peoples Government The Azerbaijan Peoples Government (APG) was a short-lived, Soviet-backed client state (November 1945 - November 1946) in northern Iran. ... Sayyid Jafar Pishevari (جعفر پیشه‌وری) was the founder and chairman of the Democratic Republic of South Azerbaijan (November 1945 – November 1946). ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Historical Timeline

  • 4 BCE: It is the capital of Atropatene, named after Iranian governor of the province (appointed by Alexander the Great).
  • 297: It becomes the capital of Tiridates III, the king of Armenia.
  • 791: Tabriz is rebuilt by Zubaidah, wife of Harun al-Rashid, after being destroyed by an earthquake.
  • 858: An earthquake destroys large parts of Tabriz.
  • 1041: An earthquake destroys large parts of Tabriz.
  • 1296: The Mongol Il-Khan Mahmud Ghazan makes Tabriz his capital.
  • 1501: Ismail Safavi crowned as Shah in Tabriz, founding the Safavid dynasty
  • 1548: Tabriz is replaced by Qazvin as the capital of the Safavid kingdom. Tabriz was considered too exposed to a potential Ottoman invasion.
  • 1721: An earthquake destroys large parts of Tabriz.
  • 1780: Another earthquake destroys large parts of Tabriz.
  • 1826: Tabriz is occupied by the Russians.
  • 1828: Qajar army enters back in Tabriz.
  • 1850: Báb, the founder of the Bábí Faith and Forerunner of Bahá'u'lláh is executed in Tabriz.
  • 1906 - 1908: Tabriz becomes the centre of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution.
  • 1927: An earthquake destroys large parts of Tabriz.
  • 1941: Tabriz occupied by the Soviet troops.
  • 1945: December: Becomes the capital of a short-lived Soviet-backed autonomous Azerbaijan People's Government.
  • 1946: Tabriz University is opened.
  • 1947: Iranian troops take back Tabriz.

Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC 1 BC 1 2 Events Archelaus becomes... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Events Narseh of Persia and Diocletian conclude a peace treaty between Persia and Rome. ... The Avars invade Europe again, but are defeated by Charlemagne in 796. ... Bold textItalic text == Headline text ==He was born a 4 headed man but 3 of his 4 heads died along with all but one of his 90 hearts. ... Events Patriarch Ignatius is imprisoned and (December 25) deposed to be succeeded by patriarch Photius I. Louis the German invades West Francia, hoping to secure Aquitaine from his brother Charles the Bald, but fails. ... Events December 10 - Empress Zoe of Byzantium elevates her adoptive son to the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire as Michael V. Revolt at Worcester against the naval taxes of Harthacanute. ... March 30 - Edward I stormed Berwick-upon-Tweed, sacking the then Scottish border town with much bloodshed. ... 1501 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Safavid Empire at its Greatest Extent After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Safavids (Persian: ; Azerbaijani: ) were an Iranian[1] Shia dynasty of mixed Azerbaijani[2] and Kurdish[3] origins, which ruled Persia from 1501/1502 to 1722. ... Events Mary I of Scotland sent to France Births September 2 - Vincenzo Scamozzi, Italian architect (died 1616) September 29 - William V, Duke of Bavaria (died 1626) Francesco Andreini, Italian actor (died 1624) Giordano Bruno, Italian philosopher, astronomer, and occultist (burned at the stake) 1600 (died 1600) Honda Tadakatsu, Japanese general... For other uses, see Qazvin (disambiguation). ... Year 1721 (MDCCXXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1780 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Shrine of the Báb in Haifa, Israel. ... Shrine of Baháulláh Baháulláh (ba-haa-ol-laa Arabic: Glory of God) (November 12, 1817 - May 29, 1892), born Mírzá usayn-`Alí (Persian: ), was the founder of the Baháí Faith. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Iranian Constitutional Revolution (also Persian Constitutional Revolution and Constitutional Revolution of Iran) took place between 1905 and 1911. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... A surcharged stamp published under the name of Azarbaijan Peoples Government The Azerbaijan Peoples Government (APG) was a short-lived, Soviet-backed client state (November 1945 - November 1946) in northern Iran. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Excavation Sites

Excavation founding in 2000 in Blue mosque site, belongs to 3000 ago.
Excavation founding in 2000 in Blue mosque site, belongs to 3000 ago.

In 2002, during a construction project behind the Blue Mosque (Part of Silk Road Project), historical graves buried in a special way have been found. The construction company had hidden the finding for several months. Finally, the site was revealed by one of the workers who was involved at the construction site. Analyses has shown that the background of the graves to be more than 2000 years old. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 524 pixelsFull resolution (2334 × 1528 pixel, file size: 884 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The content of this image was reviewed by Bubamara and afterwards uploaded by FlickrLickr. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 524 pixelsFull resolution (2334 × 1528 pixel, file size: 884 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The content of this image was reviewed by Bubamara and afterwards uploaded by FlickrLickr. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Damaged Historical Sites

There are nomerious historical sites inside Tabriz that were damaged by natural disasters or by human hand. Some of the most famous samples sites are listed below:

  • There were some hills that have constructed with the ashes produced by Zardostans before Islam. They have remained up to just few years before revolution on 1979. They have destroyed before revolution during an agricaltural development project.
  • Large parts of Tabriz Ark Castel, whole of Tabriz National Library Building and whole of Tabriz City Theater Hall, has been damaged for making new Friday Mosque (1981).
  • Shanb Ghazan Building (Palace of Mongol Kings), Damaged by Tabriz Municipality before revolution (1979).
  • Tabriz City Gates, 3 of 4 main entrance gates damaged by Tabriz Municipality before revolution (1979), Currently one of them exist behind Ghari Bridge.
  • Shahgoli Palace building has been reconstructed completely by City Municipality.
  • Blue Mosque Building has been damaged completely by earthquake (currently, it has been reconstructed as its first shape) on 1780.
  • Bagh-e Shomal Palace has been damaged completely by City Municipality.

The US flag flies over The US Consulate near Arg e Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran, during Irans Constitutionalist Revolution. ... Shah Goli in summer. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Governing system

The city's most responsible person is mayor who is elected by municipal board of the city. According to the Iranian laws the municipal board is periodically elected by the city residents.


Tabriz City Hall (Saat Tower building) is used as the Municipal central office.


Here is the List of Tabriz Mayors. Here is the list of Tabriz Mayors: سردار همايون والی قاسم1287 حاج سيد الغفار (ناظم العداله) حاج سيف شرف الدوله اسماعیل اعظم افخم الملک مید میرزا یاور سردار منضم احمد خان مشایخی احمدی نيساری صدق السلطان نصراله فیلسوف زاه حاج کاظم العداله محمد علی خان تربیت جلا لدين کيهان حسینقلی جلیلی(ارفع الملک) علامیر میر مصطفی محمود خان غفاری مرتضی امین ابوالقاسم جهانگیری عبدالحمید حکیمی محمد هادی عبدالله سررشته دار حاج ميرزا آقا بلوری علی اصغر خان اعتصام اسماعیل خان بهادری غلامرضا الهامی اقبال آذر(اقبال السلطان) آتش بیات ماکو عبدالله رحیمی هدایت الله کلانتری سعید سراج مير(ذکاءالدوله) فتح الله موثق عبدالحسین وجدانی بشير فرهمند صفائی محمود روحانی علینقی مولوی مجید نسرین پور سید علی پیشداد سید مهدی نبوی دکتر جهانشاهی محسن فروزان قوام شيرای جاويدان سعید مجتهدی لطفعلی قوامی سرهنگ حسین وخشوری 1340 سرتیب حسنقلی وکیل 1343 ابوالفضل اديب 1344 پيشداد 1345 مصطفی امیر پناه 1346 محمد علی ظهیر 1347 عبدالعلی شاهید 1350 سرتیپ جواد مصر 1352 حسن اسکندری 1353 حمید وارسته 1354 حسن شهیدی 1358 مجید اقتصاد خواه 1358 محمد صادق پشمینه 1359 اسماعیل قدری 1361 میر ولی موسوی 1362 محسن عزتی 1363 میر طاهرموسوی 1365 فریدون درویش زاده 1372 محمد اشرف نیا 1376 عباداله فتح الهی 1378 References http://www. ...


Climate

Dry hot Summers and Snowy cold Winters. Daytime temperatures usually reach at least 30 degrees Celsius (high 80s Fahrenheit) in June and July and may drop well below freezing in January and February. The weather is almost windy. The Rain rarly occurs between June and August. The climate compares well with that of Denver, Colorado. Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Location of Denver in Colorado Location of Colorado in the United States Coordinates: , Country State Founded [1] November 22, 1858 Incorporated November 7, 1861 Government  - Type Strong Mayor/Weak Council  - Mayor John Hickenlooper (D) Area [1]  - City & County  154. ...


Culture

A sample of Tabriz rugs

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 479 KB) Summary A sample of Tabriz rugs. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 479 KB) Summary A sample of Tabriz rugs. ...

Language

The predominant language in the city is Azerbaijani (Azeri Turkic),It is one of the branches of Western (oghuz) Turkic languages, also almost all inhabitants of the city can speak and understand Persian as well. The Azerbaijani language, also called Azeri, Azari, Azeri Turkish, or Azerbaijani Turkish, is the official language of the Republic of Azerbaijan. ... Farsi redirects here. ...


See also: Oghuz languages, Turkic languages The Oghuz languages, a major branch of the Turkic language family, are spoken by more than 110-130 million people (including second language speakers) in an area spanning from the Balkans to China. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ...


Literature

The music and folksongs of Tabriz are popular and traditions have a long history among its people. Prominent Iranian Azeri poet Mohammad Hossein Shahriar was born in Tabriz. The handicrafts in the Bazaar of Tabriz, and in particular the Tabriz rug is famous world-wide. The culture, social values, language and the music is a mixture of what exists in rest of Iran as well as the. The Azeri (also known as Azerbaijani) population of Iran is mainly found in the northwest provinces: East Azarbaijan, West Azarbaijan, Ardabil, Zanjan, and many regions of Hamadan and Markazi. ... Seyyed Mohammad Hossein Behjat-Tabrizi (Persian: سید محمدحسین بهجت تبریزی)‎ (1906-September 18, 1988), chiefly known by his pen name as Shahriar (or Shahryar / Shahriyar شهریار), was an Iranian Azeri poet, writing in Persian and Azerbaijani. ... The Bazaar of Tabriz, located in Tabriz, Iran, is one of the oldest and largest bazaars in the Middle East. ... A Tabriz carpet with a fish design medallion. A Tabriz carpet is a type of Azerbaijani rug from the area of Tabriz. ...


Tabriz also has a special place in Persian literature, as the following sample of verses from some of Iran's best poets and authors illustrates: Kelileh va Demneh Persian manuscript copy dated 1429, from Herat, depicts the Jackal trying to lead the Lion astray. ... A Meeting of Some Iranian Poets: (L to R) Morteza Keyvan, Ahmad Shamlou, Nima Yooshij, Siavash Kasraie, and Hushang Ebtehaj. ...


ساربانا بار بگشا ز اشتران
شهر تبريز است و کوی دلبران


Oh Sārbān, have camels' cargo unloaded,
For Tabriz is neighborhood of the beloved.
Molana
Rumi redirects here. ...


عزیزی در اقصای تبریز بود
که همواره بیدار و شبخیز بود


A beloved lived in Tabriz away from sight,
who was always alert and awake at night
Bustan of Sadi Bostan (pronounced Bustān) is a book of combined poetry and prose by Perisan writer and legend Saadi, completed in 1257CE. It is the first work of Sadi, and its title means the fruit orchard. ...


تا به تبریزم دو چیزم حاصل است
نیم نان و آب مهران رود و بس


As long as I live in Tabriz, two things I need not worry of,
The half loaf of bread and the water of Mehran-rud are enough!
Khaqani Afdhaluddin Badil Ibrahim ibn Ali Khaqani Shirvani (b. ...


Art of Rug

Tabriz is the number one center for production of the famous Turkish-Persian Rug.


Nowaday Tabrizian carpets are the most wanted in world markets, having many customers in western countries from Europe to California.


Tabrizian rugs and carpets usually have ivory backgrounds with blue, rose, and indigo motifs. Rugs and carpets often have very symmetrical and balanced designs. They usually have a single medallion that is surrounded with vines and palmettos and are of excellent quality.


Tabrizian modern rugs are in many different designs and colors.


Music

The classical music of Azerbaijan is called mugam (more accurately spelled muğam), and is usually a suite with poetry and instrumental interludes. The sung poetry sometimes includes tahrir segments, which use a form of throat singing similar to yodelling. The poetry is typically about divine love and is most often linked to Sufi Islam.


In contrast to the mugam traditions of Central Asian countries, Azeri mugam is more free-form and less rigid; it is often compared to the improvised field of jazz.[2]


UNESCO proclaimed the Azerbaijani mugam tradition a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity on November 7, 2003.


Ashiqs are travelling bards who sing and play the saz, a form of lute. Their songs are semi-improvised around a common base.


See also:Music of Azerbaijan Music of Azerbaijan includes various arrays of styles that reflect influences from the musics of the Caucasus, Central Asia, and Iran. ...


Food and Confectionary

Sample of Tabrizi traditional food. Shown here: Kufteh Tabrizi.
Sample of Tabrizi traditional food. Shown here: Kufteh Tabrizi.

Kufteh Tabrizi is a special food prepared in Tabriz. Some restaurants offer Kufteh Tabrizi on their menu but the quality is not as good as when it is prepared by Tabriz families at home. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 1421 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tabriz Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 1421 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tabriz Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used...


Tabriz is also famous for its delicious cookies, some of which are Tabriz specialities, including Ghorabiye, Eris, Nogha and many others. They can be bought at markets: the most famous markets for this purpose are Rex (in Imam Ave near to Ferdowsi Ave.), Tashrifat (Abrassan Sq.), Karimi (Valieasr Quarter) and Eftekhari (Mansour Street)," Ayubi"(Abrassan Sq.)


Tourism

Museums

Azarbaijan Museum, Tabriz
Azarbaijan Museum, Tabriz
  • Museum of Azarbaijan in Khomeyni Street
  • Measurement Museum
  • Tabriz Constitution House (Museum of Constitution Revolution) in Bazaar
  • Shahryar Literature Museum (House of Late Poet Shahryar) in Maqsoudieh Quarter
  • Museum of Ostad Bohtouni in Laklar Quarter
  • Museum of Qajar in Sheshghelan Quarter
  • Museum of Nature in Azadi Street near to Abresan Crossway
  • Musem of Iran municipalities history in saat (municipality) tower of Tabriz

Image File history File linksMetadata Azerbaijan-Museum. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Azerbaijan-Museum. ... Azerbaijan Museum, 1st floor. ...

Monuments

Armenian illuminated manuscript of 1337, done by Avag in Sultania / Tabriz.
Armenian illuminated manuscript of 1337, done by Avag in Sultania / Tabriz.

Several times in its history (e.g., in 858, 1041, and 1721), Tabriz was devastated by earthquakes which wiped out most of the historic monuments. One important monument that has survived these earthquakes is the Tabriz Citadel (Ark-e Tabriz or Ark-e Alishah), a ruin of vertical book-shaped elements. The Blue Mosque of Tabriz (مسجد کبود Gouy-Masjed) is another important monument in the city. Here is a list of city's monuments: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (860x614, 58 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Illuminated manuscript ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (860x614, 58 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Illuminated manuscript ... In the strictest definition of illuminated manuscript, only manuscripts decorated with gold or silver, like this miniature of Christ in Majesty from the Aberdeen Bestiary (folio 4v), would be considered illuminated. ... // March 16 - Edward, the Black Prince is created Duke of Cornwall. ... The US flag flies over The US Consulate near Arg e Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran, during Irans Constitutionalist Revolution. ... Masjed -i Kabud Goy Masjed (in Persian Masjed-i Kabud) also known as the blue mosque is a famous historic mosque in Tabriz, Iran. ...

  • Ark-e Tabriz
  • Shrine in Eynali Mountain
  • Grand Bazaar of Tabriz
  • Shah Gholi (Pool Of King)
  • Goy Masjid (Blue Mosque)
  • Jameh Mosque of Tabriz, located at raste-koucheh
  • Saheb ol Amr
  • The Amir Nezam House
  • The Behnam House (School of Architecture, Islamic Art University of Tabriz)
  • The House of Mashrouteh (constitution)
  • The House of Bolourchian
  • Charm Sazi-e Khosravi (Faculty of Applied Arts)
  • Seyed Hamzeh Grave
  • Maqbaratoshoara (Tumb of Poets)
  • Saat Tower (Tabriz City Hall)
  • Tabriz Fire Fighting Tower
  • 2-Kamal Tomb,in Abbasi street
  • Tabriz Railway Station
  • Tarbiyat street
  • Bagh Golestan park
  • El-Gholi park
  • Baghlar Baghi park
  • Ghari Bridge, 2 Historical Bridges on Mehran Rud
  • Armenian church of Saint Mary
  • Armenian church of Adontist
  • Catholic church of Tabriz
  • Asurian church
  • Aji chai Bridge,an old bridge on the Aji-chai river, beside the airport street
  • Kandovan Tourism Village

The US flag flies over The US Consulate near Arg e Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran, during Irans Constitutionalist Revolution. ... A view of Tabriz laid on Einali. ... The Bazaar of Tabriz, located in Tabriz, Iran, is one of the oldest and largest bazaars in the Middle East. ... Shah Gholi in summer. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Saheb ol Amar, Tabriz The bulding was built as a mosque by Shaah Tahmasb Safavai on the east side of Saaheb Aabaad square at 1636, Tabriz, Iran at 1636. ... The Amir Nezam House in Tabriz The Amir Nezam House (Persian: خانه امیرنظام, Khaneh-e Amir Nezam), or The Qajar Museum of Tabriz, is an historical building in the Shesh-gelan district (محلة ششگلان, Mahaleh-e Shesh-gelan), one of the oldest quarters of the city of Tabriz, Iran. ... The Behnam House in Tabriz (for a somewhat wider view see [1]). The building in view is the Winter Building which stands to the North of the inner courtyard and faces towards the South. ... Tabriz Poets Tomb (Maqbarat-o-shoara). ... Saat Tower or Tabriz City Hall is the head office of the municipal government of Tabriz, the capital of East Azarbaijan Province, Iran. ... Tarbiyat is a pedestrian street in center of Tabriz. ... 2nd Ghari bridge entrance. ...

Major Hotels

A view of Tabriz Hotel Pars.
A view of Tabriz Hotel Pars.
  • Hotel Pars (Hotel El Gholi) (International, 5 star) in Shah Goli
  • Hotel Shahryar (International, 5 star) in El-Gholi Street
  • Hotel Gostaresh (4 star) in Abresan Sq.
  • Hotel Tabriz ( International, 4 star ) in Abresan Sq.
  • Hotel Azarbaijan in Shahnaz Street
  • Hotel Ark in Shahnaz Street
  • Hotel Darya (3 star) in Khomeyni Street
  • Hotel Park in Khomeyni Street
  • Hotel Negin
  • Hotel Sina, in front of Golestan Park (Gunga Bashi)
  • Hotel Marmar, in Drvazeh Tehran
  • Kandovan Tourism Cliff (Rocky) Hotel (5 star), located at Kandovan touristy village.It is the first of its kind in Iran and the second in the world after Turkey's rocky hotel.
  • and many hostels (with low cost) in Ferdowsi Street

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 538 pixel Image in higher resolution (963 × 648 pixel, file size: 181 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tabriz User:Marmoulak... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 538 pixel Image in higher resolution (963 × 648 pixel, file size: 181 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tabriz User:Marmoulak... A view of Kandovan rock houses. ...

Transportation

A boulevard in Tabriz.
A boulevard in Tabriz.

From ancient times Tabriz was known as a transportation center between West and East. Also, it was located on the ancient Silk Road. Image File history File linksMetadata Tabrizave. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Tabrizave. ... The Silk Road extending from Southern Europe through Arabia, Egypt, Persia, India till it reaches China. ...


International and Intercity

Currently Tabriz is linked to the world by Sento International Road, Iran Railway and Tabriz International Airport. Tabriz International Airport (Persian: فرودگاه بین المللی تبریز) is an airport that serves Tabriz, Iran. ...


Inside City

Tabriz has general bus and taxi systems. There are also some private groups who serves as Tele Taxi's. Currently Tabriz metro and tramway system is under construction.


Metro Network (Subway Urban Train Network)

Tabriz does not have a completed subway train network at the moment. The government of Iran had planned to finish 6km of line No.1 of subway urban train network of Tabriz in 2006 but they could not reach to this goal because of financial problems.


See also: http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=382628


Education & Research

Universities & Research Centres

Tabriz University's clock tower.
Tabriz University's clock tower.

Tabriz University is one of Iran's most prestigious schools of higher education. A list of the universities and research centers in the city follows: Image File history File linksMetadata Tabriz-uni. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Tabriz-uni. ... External links Official website of University of Tabriz List of chancellors of University of tabriz Categories: University stubs | Iranian universities ...

Tabriz Universitys tower. ... Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) is public medical school located in Tabriz, East Azarbaijan Province, Iran. ... Sahand University of Technology (دانشگاه صنعتي سهند) is a research institution and university of engineering and science in Iran (Persia), offering both undergraduate and postgraduate studies. ...

Famous Schools

Roshdiye School Building.
  • Roshdieh School is the first modern Iranian school which was established by Haj-Mirza Hassan Roshdieh. Currently its building is used as the Tabriz branch of the National Iranian Documents and Library Office.
  • Memorial School (American School of Tabriz) was opened on 1891 and is one of the most famous schools of its type. After World War II the school is changed to Parvin High School under Iran education ministry's management. Currently it is divided into three separate high schools.
  • Vahdat Technical College is another famous school in Tabriz. It was developed by the Germans during World War II. The main building has the shape of an A (the first letter of Germany in German Language).
  • Ferdowsi High School- one of the largest and most prominent academic high schools in Tabriz.
  • Tiz'houshan School - middle and high school built in 1989.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (760x1016, 130 KB) Roshdiye School (recently used as National Iranian Documents and Library Office in Tabriz). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (760x1016, 130 KB) Roshdiye School (recently used as National Iranian Documents and Library Office in Tabriz). ... Roshdieh schools building in Tabriz, Artesh Ave. ... Memorial School (American School of Tabriz) was opened on 1891 is one of the most famous schools of its type. ... Ferdowsi Tousi (فردوسی طوسی in Persian) (more commonly transliterated Firdausi, Ferdosi or Ferdusi) (935–1020) is considered to be one of the greatest Persian poets to have ever lived. ...

Religious Schools

  • Valiiasr religious school
  • Talebiieh Islamic Sciences School

Libraries

  • Tabriz National Library ( Central Library of Tabriz ) was the biggest library in Tabriz. It has been reconstructed during last decade. It has numerous pieces of hand written Iranian literature.
  • Tarbiat Library.
  • Library of Helal Ahmar.
  • Library of Farhangsara Tabriz.
  • Library of Shahid Motahhari.

Tabriz National Library was founded in 1956 by Nakhjavani in Tabriz, Iran. ...

Sport

Tabrizi people are fans of soccer. The city is the site of three Iranian major soccer teams:

Tabriz also has two stadiums for soccer: Teraktor Sazi Football Club (Persian: ) is an Iranian football club based in Tabriz, Iran. ...

Takhti Stadium is a multi-use stadium in Tabriz, Iran. ... Yadegare Imam Stadium is a multi-use stadium in Tabriz, Iran, and is one of the largest stadiums anywhere in the world. ...

Famous Tabrizians

Sufi:

For the missionary, see Shams Tabraiz (missionary). ...

Politician, Reformist:

A picture of Sattar Khan. ... Hello Friends and Family, this guy was a revolutionary and thats all ... Sheykh Mohammad Tabrizi, or Khiabani (1880 - 1920), was a Persian cleric and a representative to the parliament. ... Sayyed Hasan Teqizadeh - سيدحسن تقي زاده Sayyed Hasan[1] Taqizadeh[2] (سيدحسن تقي زاده) (September, 1878, Tabriz, Iran — January, 1970, Tehran, Iran)[3] was an influential politician and diplomat[4] during the Qajar dynasty under the reign of Mohammad Ali Shah, as well as the Pahlavi dynasty under the reign of Reza Shah[5] and Mohammad... Ahmad Kasravi Tabrizi (b. ... Iraj Mirza was also active in politics. ... Mirzā AbdulRahim Tālibov Tabrizi (ميرزا عبدالرحیم طالبف تبریزی) Mirzā AbdulRahim Tālibov Tabrizi (Persian: ), (1834, Tabriz — 1911, Tehran) was an Iranian intellectual and social reformer. ... Ali Soheili in royal court uniform Ali Soheili (1896 – 1958) was a Prime Minister of Iran. ... Ibrahim Hakimi (1871 – October 19, 1959) was a Prime Minister of Iran. ... Jam was one of the more successful of the Iranian Primiers Mahmud Jam (1880 – 1969) was a Prime Minister of Iran. ...

Poet, Writer:

  • Qatran Tabrizi, poet
  • Homam Tabrizi, poet
  • Parvin E'tesami, poetess
  • Mohammad Hoseyn Behjat Tabrizi (Shahriyar), poet
  • Abu'l Majd Tabrizi, compiler of Safina-yi Tabriz and also a writer
  • Samad Behrangi, Famous Children's books writer
  • Reza Baraheni, novelist, poet, critic and political activist
  • Gholamhossein Saedi, writter, novelist, and political activist

Abu Mansur Qatran Adudi ( 1009 - 1072) was a royal Persian poet. ... Homam-e Tabrizi (Persian: همام تبریزی) or Homamiddin ibni Ala-e Tabrizi was an Iranian poet. ... Parvin Etesami is one of Irans greatest poetesses. ... Seyyed Mohammad Hossein Behjat-Tabrizi (Persian: سید محمدحسین بهجت تبریزی)‎ (1906-September 18, 1988), chiefly known by his pen name as Shahriar (or Shahryar / Shahriyar شهریار), was an Iranian Azeri poet, writing in Persian and Azerbaijani. ... Safīna-yi Tabriz (The Vessel of Tabriz or The Treasury of Tabriz, Persian: ) is an important encyclopedic manuscript from 14th century Ilkhanid Iran compiled by Abul Majd Muhammad b. ... Safīna-yi Tabriz (The Vessel of Tabriz or The Treasury of Tabriz, Persian: ) is an important encyclopedic manuscript from 14th century Ilkhanid Iran compiled by Abul Majd Muhammad b. ... Samad Behrangi (صمد بهرنگی) (July?, 1939 – 1967) was an Azeri Iranian writer. ... Reza Baraheni (born 1935) is an exiled Iranian novelist, poet, critic and political activist. ... Gholam Hossein Saedi (in Persian: غلامحسین ساعدی; January 4 - 1936 - November 23 - 1985) was an Iranian socialist novelist and playwright best known for the screenplay of the famous Iranian movie Gaav. ...

Scientist:

  • Javad Heyat, one of Iranian Pioneers of Cardiac Surgery
  • Mohsen Hashtroodi, Mathematician

Mohsen Hashtroodi Mohsen Hashtroodi (Persian: محسن هشترودی) (December 13, 1907, Tabriz — September 4, 1976, Tehran) was an Iranian mathematician. ...

Clegry:

  • Allameh Tabatabaei, one of the most prominent thinkers of contemporary Shia Islam
  • Allameh Mohammad Taghi Jafari, philosopher , thinker

Allameh Tabatabaei (1892-1981) is one of the most prominent thinkers of contemporary Shia Islam. ...

Artist:

  • Farhad Fakhredini, musician, Conductor of National Orchestra
  • Kamal Tabrizi, movie producer

Kamal Tabrizi ( in Farsi :کمال تبریزی ) is an Iranian director. ...

Other:

  • Karim Bagheri, footballist
  • Gader Mizbani, Cyclist
  • Ahad Kazemi, Cyclist

for a complete list: Tabrizis. Karim Bagheri(کريم باقري in Persian) (born February 24, 1974 in Tabriz, Iran) is a professional soccer attacking midfielder. ... This is a list of famous people from Tabriz, Iran: Samad Behrangi, Famous Childrens books writer Sattar Khan, nationalist revolutionary leader Bagher Khan, nationalist revolutionary Mohammad Khiabani, cleric, a political leader during Irans constitutionalist revolution Hassan Taghizadeh, mystrious politician, strategist in constitutionalist revolution and former president of Iranian...


Major Industries

Heavy Industries

Tabriz is one of Iran's most important industrial cities. Its products include cement, machine tools, vehicles, petrochemical and many other industrial products. Some of the major industrial complexes in the city are listed below:

  • Machine Sazi-e-Tabriz , Producer of machine tools
  • Iran Tractor Manufacturer Company (ITMCO) , Producer of various types of vehicles
  • Tabriz Petrochemical Complex , One of main pertrochemical companies in the country
  • Tabriz Oil Refinery Complex , The main oil refinery in the north west of country
  • Iran Khodro , Tabriz , It is a branch of Iran Khodro Indistrial Group, producer of a variety cars
  • Rakhsh Khodro Diesel,Tabriz , Producer of various types of heavy vehicles and cars
  • ‎‎I.D.E.M. Co. Iranian Diesel Engine Manufacturing Co. , The leading manufacturer of diesel engines in middle east
  • Charkheshgar Co. , The leading manufacturer of different types of auto gearbox in Iran
  • Motogen Co. , The leading manufacturer of different type of electromotors in Iran
  • Sahand Forklift Truck Co. , Manufacturer of different type of Forklift Trucks
  • Azarbaijan Galass industrial Company, Producer of any kind of standard glasses
  • Tabriz Wire and Cable Co. (Simcat) , Producer of power wire and cables

Major Chocolate Factories

Tabriz food industries, specially in chocolate manufacturing, are famous. That could be the reason to honor the city as Chocolate City of Iran also. Some of the most famous chocolate industries of inside the city are:

  • Aidin (Dadash Baradar Co.)
  • ANATA (Nejati Industrial Group)
  • Shirin Asal co.
  • Chichak (Iran chocolate Co.)
  • Aysuda (Shokouh Shad Shanjan Co.)

See also

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Iranian Azerbaijan. ... The Azerbaijani language is a language of the Oghuz branch of Turkic languages mutually intelligible with the Turkish of Turkey, Turkmenistan, Iran, the Balkans and the Middle East. ... This article is about the Azerbaijani ethnic group. ... The Azeri (also known as Azerbaijani) population of Iran is mainly found in the northwest provinces: East Azarbaijan, West Azarbaijan, Ardabil, Zanjan, and many regions of Hamadan and Markazi. ... A Seljuk Prince. ... The Persian Constitutional Revolution was a revolution in Iran against the despotic rule of the last Qajar Shah. ...

Sister Cities

Image File history File links Flag_of_Azerbaijan. ... Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov Area  - City 260 km²  (100. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Vietnam. ... Saigon redirects here. ...

Photo Gallery of Tabriz


For a more extensive photo gallery of Tabriz see Tabriz City Photo Gallery. Photo Gallery of Tabriz City      Major monuments in Tabriz Amir Nezam House • Ark-e Tabriz • Bagh-e Golestan • Bazaar of Tabriz • Behnam House • Blue Mosque • Charm Sazi-e Khosravi • Eynali • Ghari Bridge • Kandovan • Maqbaratoshoara • Saat Tower • Saheb ol Amr • Saied Hamzeh Grave • Shah-gholi • Tabriz Constitution House • Tabriz Fire Fighting...

Notes

  1. ^ World Gazetteer. "Tabriz", Online Edition, 2007
  2. ^ David Rohl. Legend: The Genesis of Civilisation, Arrow Books, Ltd., 1998, ISBN 0712682295
  3. ^ Jeffery Donley. The Everything History of the Bible Book, Adams Media, 2006, ISBN 1593375565, p. 59
  4. ^ Etta B. Donaldson. "A Journey to the Garden of Eden", The American Magazine, Crowell-Collier Publishing Co., 1893, p. 439
  5. ^ a b c Andrew Burke and Mark Elliott. Iran, Lonely Planet, 2004, ISBN 1740594258, p. 133
  6. ^ Vartan Gregorian. The Road to Home: My Life and Times, Simon and Schuster, 2003, ISBN 068480834X, p. 2
  7. ^ a b Encyclopedia Britannica. "Tabriz", Online Edition, 2007
  8. ^ http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/v3f1/v3f1a020.html
  9. ^ Gholam-Reza Sabri-Tabrizi. Iran: A Child's Story, a Man's Experience, International Publishers Co., 1989, p. 72, ISBN 0717806820
  10. ^ "Tabrīz." Microsoft Encarta 2007 [DVD]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation, 2006.
  11. ^ Samuel Graham Wilson. Persian Life and Customs, Oliphant, Anderson and Ferrier, 1896, p.323
  12. ^ a b Edward Backhouse Eastwick. Journal of a Diplomate's Three Years' Residence in Persia, Smith, Elder and Co., 1864, p. 327
  13. ^ V. Minorsky. "Jihān-Shāh Qara-Qoyunlu and His Poetry (Turkmenica, 9)", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 16, No. 2 (1954), p. 277

References

  • North, S.J.R., Guide to Biblical Iran, Rome 1956, p. 50
  • http://www.iranchamber.com
  • Editorial Board, East Azarbaijan Geography, Iranian Ministry of Education, 2000 (High School Text Book in Persian)

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Tabriz
  • Tabriz Historical Buildings Virtual Library - Related to Tabriz University
  • Tabriz Information
  • Tabriz Culture & Information Center
  • Tabriz City
  • Tabriz from Encyclopaedia of the Orient
  • Tabriz Municipal Office
  • tabrizinfo.com
  • Tabriz Municipality News Agency
  • Tabriz Metro
  • Hundreds of Tabriz Pictures

Coordinates: 38°05′N, 46°17′E Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


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