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Encyclopedia > Taboo

A taboo is a strong social prohibition (or ban) against words, objects, actions, discussions, or people that are considered undesirable or offensive by a group, culture, society, or community. Breaking a taboo is usually considered objectionable or abhorrent. Some taboo activities or customs are prohibited by law and transgressions may lead to severe penalties. Other taboos result in embarrassment, shame and rudeness. Taboo can mean a social prohibition or ban. ... Tapu (or tabu) is a concept existing in many Polynesian societies, including traditional Māori, and Tongan cultures. ... Social refers to human society or its organization. ... A ban is, generally, any decree that prohibits something. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... In law, a sentence forms the final act of a judge-ruled process, and also the symbolic principal act connected to his function. ... Embarrassment is an unpleasant emotional state experienced upon having a socially or professionally unacceptable act or condition witnessed by or revealed to others. ... For other uses, see Shame (disambiguation). ... Look up Rudeness in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

Etymology

Common etymology traces the word back to the Tongan tapu[1][2] or the Fijian tabu[3] meaning "under prohibition", "not allowed", or "forbidden".[3] In its modern use in Tonga, the word tapu also means "sacred" or "holy", although often in the sense of being restricted or protected by custom or by law. For example, the main island in the Kingdom of Tonga, where the capital Nuku'alofa is situated and most of the population resides, is called "Tongatapu". In this context, it means "Sacred South", rather than "forbidden south". Tapu (or tabu) is a concept existing in many Polynesian societies, including traditional Māori, and Tongan cultures. ...


The use of the word taboo drawn from tapu (meaning "not allowed") dates back to 1777 and an English explorer, Captain James Cook, visiting a place he named "the Friendly Islands" (now Tonga). Describing the Tongans, he wrote: This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... See also explorations, sea explorers, astronaut, conquistador, travelogue, the History of Science and Technology and Biography. ... Captain James Cook may refer to: James Cook - British explorer, navigator, and map maker Captain James Cook (TV miniseries) - 1987 Australian television miniseries This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ...

"Not one of them would sit down, or eat a bit of any thing.... On expressing my surprise at this, they were all taboo, as they said; which word has a very comprehensive meaning; but, in general, signifies that a thing is forbidden.... When any thing is forbidden to be eat, or made use of, they say, that it is taboo."

Some Solomon Islanders say that their languages have a word tabu (pronounced "tam-boo") that means holy. It refers to places in the bush where holy spirits reside (usually marked with an object, such as a giant clam shell or stone carving). Those areas should not be disturbed unless a ceremony is taking place, therefore they are places that should not be touched.


Examples

Taboos can include:

Some taboos originated by acts of authority, be it legal, social or religious, over a period of time. When not in "polite society", discussions on taboos are allowed in humorous expression, such as comedy and satire like South Park, The Simpsons or Beavis and Butthead. Halal (حلال, alāl, halaal) is an Arabic term meaning permissible. In the English language it most frequently refers to food that is permissible according to Islamic law. ... The circled U indicates that this can of tuna is certified kosher by the Union of Orthodox Congregations. ... A variety of vegetarian food ingredients Vegetarianism is the practice of a diet that excludes all animal flesh, including poultry, game, fish, shellfish or crustacea, and slaughter by-products. ... Cannibal redirects here. ... Sexual behavior is a form of physical intimacy that may be directed to reproduction (one possible goal of sexual intercourse) and/or to the enjoyment of activity involving sexual gratification. ... A bagpiper in military uniform. ... An interpersonal relationship is some relationship or connection between two people. ... Fornication, or simple fornication, is a term which refers to consensual sexual intercourse between two persons not married to each other[1]. In contrast adultery is consensual sex where one or both of the partners are married to someone else. ... This article is about the act of adultery. ... Interreligious marriage, traditionally (especially in the Catholic Church) called mixed marriage, is marriage (either religious or civil) between partners professing different religions. ... Frederick Douglass with his second wife Helen Pitts Douglass (sitting) who was white, a famous 19th century American example of miscegenation. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Incest is defined as sexual relations between closely related persons (often within the immediate family) such that it is either illegal or socially taboo. ... Look up Bestiality in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Not to be confused with Ephebophilia. ... Look up Necrophilia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up paraphilia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Burping, also known as belching, ructus, or eructation involves the release of gas from the digestive tract (mainly esophagus and stomach) through the mouth. ... Flatulence is the presence of a mixture of gases in the digestive tract of mammals. ... Anatomy of the anus and rectum For the death metal band Defecation, see Defecation (band). ... Manneken Pis of Brussels. ... Woman masturbating, 1913 drawing by Gustav Klimt. ... Nose picking in progress Nose-picking is the act of extracting mucus or foreign bodies from the nose with a finger. ... This article is about male circumcision. ... Sex assignment refers to the assigning of sex at the birth of a baby. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Porn redirects here. ... Nude redirects here. ... ... Also see Alcoholism and Drug addiction. ... Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ... In cartoons, profanity is often depicted by substituting symbols for words, as a form of non-specific censorship. ... Obscenity in Latin obscenus, meaning foul, repulsive, detestable, (possibly derived from ob caenum, literally from filth). The term is most often used in a legal context to describe expressions (words, images, actions) that offend the prevalent sexual morality of the time. ... The term vulgar originally meant of the common people, from the Latin vulgus. ... A joke is a short story or ironic depiction of a situation communicated with the intent of being humorous. ... A comedy is a dramatic performance of a light and amusing character, usually with a happy conclusion to its plot. ... 1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene. ... This article is about the TV series. ... Simpsons redirects here. ... Beavis and Butt-head is an animated comedy show that aired on US TV station MTV from 1993 to 1997. ...


Origin

There are varying explanations for the origin of taboos. While some explanations are anthropological and explain taboos using history and cultural experiences, other explanations are psychoanalytical and explain taboos as an unconscious phenomenon passing through generations. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Psychoanalysis is a family of psychological theories and methods within the field of psychotherapy that seeks to elucidate connections among unconscious components of patients mental processes, and to do so in a systematic way through a process of tracing out associations. ...


Steven Pinker (anthropological/biological)

Steven Pinker in How the Mind Works suggests that taboos have developed culturally from more basic instincts. With regard to taboos regarding the dead, he proposes that the human brain has evolved a hard-wired repulsion to many carriers of disease – an "intuitive microbiology". Only with the modern development of scientific microbiology have humans been able to rationalize these taboos. Pinker suggests similar explanations for the incest taboo and other things that cause the reflex emotion of disgust. Steven Pinker Steven Arthur Pinker (born September 18, 1954) is a prominent Canadian-born American experimental psychologist, cognitive scientist, and popular science writer known for his spirited and wide-ranging advocacy of evolutionary psychology and the computational theory of mind. ... How the Mind Works is a book by American cognitive scientist Steven Pinker, published in 1996. ... This article is about biological evolution. ... An agar plate streaked with microorganisms Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. ... The incest taboo refers to the cultural prohibition of sexual activity or marriage between persons defined as close relatives; the degree of which is determined by the society in which the persons live. ...


Sigmund Freud (psychoanalytical)

Sigmund Freud provided an analysis of taboo behaviours, highlighting strong subconscious motivations driving such prohibitions. In this system, described in his collection of essays Totem and Taboo, Freud postulates a link between forbidden behaviours and the sanctification of objects to certain kinship groups. Freud also states here that the only two "universal" taboos are that of incest and patricide, which formed the eventual basis of modern society. Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Totem and Taboo: Resemblances Between the Mental Lives of Savages and Neurotics was a book written by Sigmund Freud published in German as Totem und Tabu: Einige Übereinstimmungen im Seelenleben der Wilden und der Neurotiker in 1913. ... Incest is defined as sexual relations between closely related persons (often within the immediate family) such that it is either illegal or socially taboo. ... Patricide is (i) the act of killing ones father, or (ii) a person who kills his or her father. ...


German psychologist Wilhelm Wundt explains that taboos were originally nothing other than an objectified fear of a "demonic" power which was believed to lie hidden in a tabooed object.[4] Sigmund Freud believes this to be a superficial explanation having nothing to do with the true origins of taboos. He claims that many similarities between taboo-holders and obsessive neurotics point to "a psychological condition that prevails in the unconscious".[5] Freud believes this "unconsciousness" is central to understanding the history of taboos. He then reconstructs the history of taboo based on the model of obsessional prohibitions as follows: Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt (August 16, 1832-August 31, 1920) was a German psychologist, physiologist, and professor who is, along with William James, regarded as the father of psychology. ... This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... OCD redirects here. ...

"Taboos, we must suppose, are prohibitions of primæval antiquity which were at some time externally imposed upon a generation of primitive men; they must, that is to say, no doubt have been impressed on them violently by the previous generation. These prohibitions must have concerned activities towards which there was a strong inclination. They must then have persisted from generation to generation, perhaps merely as a result of tradition transmitted through parental and social authority."[6]

And so, "Anyone who has violated a taboo becomes taboo himself because he possesses the dangerous quality of tempting others to follow his example."[7]


Taboo on the dead

Main article: Taboo on the dead

The 'taboo' on the dead includes the taboo against touching of a corpse and those who are caring for it; the taboo against mourners of the dead; and the taboo against anything associated with the dead (e.g., the dead person's name). The taboo on the dead includes the taboo against touching of the dead and those surrounding them; the taboo against mourners of the dead; and the taboo against anything associated with the dead. ...


Examples

Corpses

  • Among the Māori anyone who had handled a corpse or taken any part in its burial was in the highest degree unclean and was almost cut off from social intercourse with his fellow-men. He could not enter any house, or come into contact with any person or thing without infecting them. He might not even touch food with his hands, which, owing to their uncleanness, had become quite useless. "Food would be set for him on the ground, and he would then sit or kneel down, and, with his hands carefully held behind his back, would gnaw at it as best he could. In some cases he would be fed by another person, who with outstretched arm contrived to do it without touching the tabooed man." The mourners of the dead were also secluded from the public. When their period of mourning was near completion, "all the dishes he had used in his seclusion were diligently smashed, and all the garments he had worn were carefully thrown away."[8]

This article is about the Māori people of New Zealand. ...

Mourners

  • Among the Shuswap of British Columbia widows and widowers in mourning are secluded and forbidden to touch their own head or body; the cups and cooking vessels which they use may be used by no one else. [...] No hunter would come near such mourners, for their presence is unlucky. If their shadow were to fall on anyone, he would be taken ill at once. They employ thorn-bushes for bed and pillow, in order to keep away the ghost of the deceased; and thorn bushes are also laid all around their beds.[9]
  • Among the Agutainos, who inhabit Palawan, one of the Philippine Islands, a widow may not leave her hut for seven or eight days after the death; and even then she may only go out at an hour when she is not likely to meet anybody, for whoever looks upon her dies a sudden death. To prevent this fatal catastrophe, the widow knocks with a wooden peg on the trees as she goes along, thus warning people of her dangerous proximity; and the very trees on which she knocks soon die."[10]

This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Palawan is an island province of the Philippines located in the Mimaropa region. ... The Philippine islands is a commonly mistaken description for the Philippines. ...

Naming the dead

The taboo on naming the dead prohibits any utterance of a dead man's name—any other words similar to it in sound. Some examples follow: The taboo against naming the dead is a kind of taboo on the dead whereby the name of a recently deceased person, and any other words similar to it in sound, may not be uttered. ...

  • Among the Guaycurus of Paraguay, when a death had taken place, the chief used to change the name of every member of the tribe; and from that moment everybody remembered his new name just as if he had borne it all his life.[11]
  • After a Yolngu man named Bitjingu died, the word bithiwul "no; nothing" was avoided.[12] In its place, a synonym or a loanword from another language would be used for a certain period, after which the original word could be used again; but in some cases the replacement word would continue to be used.

Guaycurus are (were?) a tribe of South American Indians on the Paraguay. ... For Yolngu language see Yolngu Matha. ... Synonyms (in ancient Greek, συν (syn) = plus and όνομα (onoma) = name) are different words with similar or identical meanings. ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ...

Origins and causes

Sigmund Freud traces back the origin of the dangerous character of widowers and widows to the danger of temptation. A man who has lost his wife must resist a desire to find a substitute for her; a widow must fight against the same wish and is moreover liable to arouse the desires of other men. Substitutive satisfactions of such a kind run counter to the sense of mourning and they would inevitably kindle the ghost's wrath.[13] Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ...


Freud explains that the fundamental reason for the existence of such taboos is the fear of the presence or of the return of the dead person's ghost. It is exactly this fear that leads to a great number of ceremonies aimed at keeping the ghost at a distance or driving him off.[14]


The Tuaregs of Sahara, for example, dread the return of the dead man's spirit so much that "[they] do all they can to avoid it by shifting their camp after a death, ceasing for ever to pronounce the name of the departed, and eschewing everything that might be regarded as an evocation or recall of his soul. Hence they do not, like the Arabs, designate individuals by adding to their personal names the names of their fathers. [...] they give to every man a name which will live and die with him."[15] In many cases the taboo remains intact until the body of the dead has completely decayed,[16] but until then the community must disguise itself so that the ghost shall not recognize them. For example, the Nicobar Islanders try to disguise themselves by shaving their heads.[17] For other uses, see Tuareg (disambiguation). ... Map of Nicobar Islands The Nicobar Islands are an island chain in the eastern Indian Ocean, and are part of India, located southeast of the Indian subcontinent, separated by the Bay of Bengal by about 1,300 km. ...


Artists

Artists that have worked with the theme of death include Bill Viola, Damien Hirst, Lennie Lee and Joel-Peter Witkin. Bill Viola (born America, 1951) is a contemporary video artist. ... Damien Hirst (born June 7, 1965) is an English artist and the most prominent of the group that has been dubbed Young British Artists (or YBAs). ... Lennie Lee, Young British Artist, was born March 4, 1958 in Johannesberg, South Africa. ... Joel-Peter Witkin Joel-Peter Witkin (born September 13, 1939, in Brooklyn, New York City) is an American photographer. ...


Psychologist Wilhelm Wundt associates the taboo to a fear that the dead man's soul has become a demon.[18] Moreover, many cases show a hostility toward the dead and their representation as malevolent figures.[19] Edward Westermarck notes that "Death is commonly regarded as the gravest of all misfortunes; hence the dead are believed to be exceedingly dissatisfied with their fate [...] such a death naturally tends to make the soul revengeful and ill-tempered. It is envious of the living and is longing for the company of its old friend."[20] Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt (August 16, 1832-August 31, 1920) was a German psychologist, physiologist, and professor who is, along with William James, regarded as the father of psychology. ... “Fiend” redirects here. ... Edward Alexander Westermarck (November 20, 1862 - September 3, 1939) was a Finnish philosopher and sociologist. ...


Taboo on rulers

Main article: Taboo on rulers

The taboo on rulers includes both taboos on people coming into contact with a ruler and the taboos on the ruler himself. ...

Examples

  • The Nubas of East Africa believe that they would die if they entered the house of their priestly king; however they can evade the penalty of their intrusion by baring the left shoulder and getting the king to lay his hands on it.[21]
  • In West Africa, in the woods of Shark Point near Cape Padron, in Lower Guinea, a priestly king named Kukulu once lived alone. Forbidden from touching a woman or leaving his house, or even leaving his chair, in which he would sleep, the natives feared that if he lay down no wind would rise and navigation would be stopped.[22]
  • The ancient kings of Ireland were subject to a number of strange restrictions as listed in The Book of Rights. The king, for instance, may not stay in a certain town on a particular day of the week; he may not cross a river on a particular hour of the day; he may not encamp for nine days on a certain plain, and so on.[23]

Nuba (not to be confused with Nubia, a region extending from southern Egypt to northern Sudan) is a collective term used for the peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains, in Kordofan province, Sudan, Africa. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  Geographic East Africa, including the UN subregion and East African Community East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... Lower Guinea can refer to the coastal part of either the Republic of Guinea the wider Guinea region Lower Guinean forests Middle Guinea Upper Guinea Categories: | ...

Taboo on warriors

Examples

Restrictions placed on a victorious slayer are unusually frequent and as a rule severe.[24]

  • In Timor, the leader of the expedition is forbidden "to return at once to his own house. A special hut is prepared for him, in which he has to reside for two months, undergoing bodily and spiritual purification. During this time he may not go to his wife nor feed himself; the food must be put in his mouth by another person."[25]
  • In some Dyak tribes, men returning from a successful expedition are obliged to keep to themselves for several days and abstain from various kinds of food; they may not touch iron nor have any intercourse with women.[26]
  • In Logea, an island in the neighborhood of New Guinea, "men who have killed or assisted in killing enemies shut themselves up for about a week in their houses. They must avoid all intercourse with their wives and friends, and they may not touch food with their hands. They may eat vegetable food only which is brought to them cooked in special pots. The intention of these restrictions is to guard the men against the smell of the blood of the slain; for it is believed that if they smelt the blood they would fall ill and die.
  • In the Toaripi or Motumotu tribe of south-eastern New Guinea a man who has killed another may not go near his wife, and may not touch food with his fingers. He is fed by others, and only with certain kinds of food. These observances last till the new moon."[26]

Timor is an island at the south end of the Malay Archipelago, divided between the independent state of East Timor, and West Timor, part of the Indonesian province of East Nusa Tenggara with the surface of 11,883 sq mi (30,777 km²). The name is a variant of timur...

See also

This entry incorporates text from the public domain Eastons Bible Dictionary, originally published in 1897. ... Avoidance speech, or mother-in-law languages, is a feature of many Australian Aboriginal languages and some North American languages whereby in the presence of certain relatives it is taboo to use everyday speech style, and instead a special speech style must be used. ... For other uses, see Censor. ... A dictionary definition of Indecent not conforming with accepted standards of behaviour or morality. ... It has been suggested that Office etiquette be merged into this article or section. ... // In sociology, manners are the unenforced standards of conduct which show the actor to be cultured, polite, and refined. ... Faux Pas redirects here. ... The incest taboo refers to the cultural prohibition of sexual activity or marriage between persons defined as close relatives; the degree of which is determined by the society in which the persons live. ... Jacob wrestling an angel, by Gustave Doré (1832-1883), a shared Judeo-Christian story. ... Menstrual taboo is a term which refers to the way in which menstruation as a word and as a topic is avoided in Western culture. ... Morality (from the Latin manner, character, proper behavior) has three principal meanings. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... Naming taboo was a taboo of saying or writing names (specifically characters) of the emperors and ancestors in China and neighboring nations in the ancient Chinese cultural sphere. ... Look up paraphilia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Shunning is the act of deliberately avoiding association with, and habitually keeping away from an individual or group. ... For other uses, see Sin (disambiguation). ... Social stigma is severe social disapproval of personal characteristics or beliefs that are against cultural norms. ... This article is about practices and beliefs in relation to various animals as food. ... Totem and Taboo: Resemblances Between the Mental Lives of Savages and Neurotics was a book written by Sigmund Freud published in German as Totem und Tabu: Einige Übereinstimmungen im Seelenleben der Wilden und der Neurotiker in 1913. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Online Etymology dictionary. etymonline.com. Retrieved on 2007-06-05.
  2. ^ Online dictionary. Lexico Publishing Group, LLC. Retrieved on 2007-06-05.
  3. ^ a b A Grammar of Boumaa Fijian, By Robert M. W. Dixon page 368
  4. ^ Freud 1950, p. 24
  5. ^ Freud 1950, pp. 26–30
  6. ^ Freud 1950, p. 31
  7. ^ Freud 1950, p. 32.
  8. ^ Freud 1950, p. 52, quoting Frazer 1911, 138f
  9. ^ Frazer 1990, p. 142, quoting Boas 1890, 643f.
  10. ^ Frazer 1990, p. 144, quoting Blumentritt 1891, p. 182.
  11. ^ Frazer 1990, p. 357.
  12. ^ Dixon 2002, p. 27.
  13. ^ Freud 1950, p. 54.
  14. ^ Freud 1950, p. 57.
  15. ^ Frazer 1922, p. 3.
  16. ^ Freud (1990, 372).[verification needed]
  17. ^ Frazer 1922, p. 5.
  18. ^ Freud 1950, p. 58, quoting Wundt 1906, p. 49.
  19. ^ Freud 1950, p. 58.
  20. ^ Freud 1950, p. 59, quoting Westermarck 1906–8, 2, 534f.
  21. ^ Freud 1950, pp. 41–42, quoting Frazer 1911, p. 132.
  22. ^ Frazer 1911, 3f., quoting Bastian 1874–5, [1, 287 & 355].
  23. ^ Frazer 1911, 11f.
  24. ^ Freud 1950, p. 39.
  25. ^ Freud 1950, p. 39, quoting Müller 1857, 2, 252.
  26. ^ a b Freud 1950, p. 39, quoting Frazer 1911, p. 167.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Bastian, A. (1874–5), Die deutsche Expedition an der Loango-Küste [2 vols.] Jena. 
  • Blumentritt, F. (1891), Über die Eingeborenen der Insel Palawan  Globus, 59: [181ff.]
  • Boas, F. (1890), "Second General Report on the Indians of British Columbia", Report of Sixtieth Meeting of the British Association  [562ff.]
  • Brown, W (1845), New Zealand and its Aborigines, London 
  • Dixon, R. M. W. (2002), Australian Languages: Their Nature and Developments, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-47378-0 
  • Frazer, J. G. (1911), "Taboo and the Perils of the Soul", The Golden Bough (3rd ed., Part II ed.), London 
  • Frazer, J. G. (1990), "Taboo and the Perils of the Soul", The Golden Bough (3rd ed., Part II ed.), New York: St. Martin's Press  [1st ed., 1913.]
  • Freud, Sigmund (1950), trans. Strachey, ed., Totem and Taboo:Some Points of Agreement between the Mental Lives of Savages and Neurotics, New York: W. W. Norton & Company, ISBN 0-393-00143-1 
  • Kulick and Willson, Taboo: Sex, Identity, and Erotic Subjectivity in Anthropological Fieldwork 1995
  • Müller, S. (1857), Reizen en Onderzoekingen in den Indischen Archipel, Amsterdam 
  • Tregear, E. (1890), "The Maoris of New Zealand", Journal of the Anthropological Institute xix 
  • Zweifel, J. & Moustier, M. (1880), Voyage aux sources du Niger, Marseilles 

Robert Malcolm Ward DIXON is Professor of Linguistics at Latrobe University, in Melbourne Australia. ... Sir James George Frazer (January 1, 1854, Glasgow, Scotland – May 7, 1941), was a Scottish social anthropologist influential in the early stages of the modern studies of mythology and comparative religion. ... Sir James George Frazer (January 1, 1854, Glasgow, Scotland – May 7, 1941), was a Scottish social anthropologist influential in the early stages of the modern studies of mythology and comparative religion. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Don Kulick is professor of Anthropology and director of the Center for the Study of Gender and Sexuality at New York University. ... Margaret Wilson is the name of: Margaret Wilson (born 1947), New Zealand politician Margaret Willson (anthropologist) is a lecturer and Research Associate in the Department of Anthropology at Northern Washington University. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
taboo. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (224 words)
Taboos are commonly placed on a clan’s ancestral guardian, called the totem.
The breaking of a taboo usually requires extermination of the offender or some sort of ceremonial purification in order to remove the taint from the community.
Often the mana of a taboo is so great that the offender will suffer punishment, even death, merely through fear of its powers.
Taboo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (362 words)
A taboo is a strong social prohibition (or ban) relating to any area of human activity or social custom declared as sacred and forbidden; breaking of the taboo is usually considered objectionable or abhorrent by society.
When an activity or custom is classified as taboo it is forbidden and interdictions are implemented concerning the topic, such as the ground set apart as a sanctuary for criminals.
No taboo is known to be universal, but some (such as the cannibalism and incest taboos) occur in the majority of societies.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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