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Encyclopedia > Tabernacle

The Tabernacle is known in Hebrew as the Mishkan ( משכן "Place of [Divine] dwelling"). It was to be a portable central place of worship for the Hebrews from the time they left ancient Egypt following the Exodus, through the time of the Book of Judges when they were engaged in conquering the land of Canaan, until the time its elements were made part of the final Temple in Jerusalem about the 10th century BC. “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Portable communications devices refer to hand-held or wearable devices. ... It has been suggested that Pharaoh of the Exodus be merged into this article or section. ... Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. ... For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... A drawing of Ezekiels Visionary Temple from the Book of Ezekiel 40-47 The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) // Overview Events Partition of ancient Israel into the Kingdoms of Judah and Israel (c. ...


The English word "tabernacle" is derived from the Latin word tabernaculum meaning "tent, hut, booth". Tabernaculum itself is a diminutive form of the word taberna, meaning "tavern". The word Sanctuary is also used as its name, as well as the phrase "the tent of meeting." Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Ajax prepares to violate the sanctuary of Athena by abducting Cassandra by force: red-figure vase, c. ...

The Tabernacle (reconstruction)

Contents

Image File history File links Tabernakel_536x282. ... Image File history File links Tabernakel_536x282. ...

Hebrew mishkan

The Hebrew word, however, points to a different meaning. Mishkan is related to the Hebrew word to "dwell", "rest", or "to live in", referring to the "[In-dwelling] Presence of God", the Shekhina (or Shechina) (based on the same Hebrew root word as Mishkan), that dwelled or rested within this divinely ordained mysterious structure. Shekinah (שכינה - alternative transliterations Shechinah, Shekhina, Shechina) is the English spelling of the Hebrew language word that means the glory or radiance of God, or God resting in his house or Tabernacle amongst his people. ...


The Hebrew word for a "neighbor" is shakhen from the same root as mishkan. The commandments for its construction are taken from the words in the Book of Exodus when God says to Moses: "They shall make me a sanctuary, and I will dwell (ve-shakhan-ti) among them. You must make the tabernacle (mishkan) and all its furnishings following the plan that I am showing you." (Exodus 25:8-9). Thus the idea is that God wants this structure built so that it may be a "dwelling", so to speak, for his presence within the Children of Israel following the Exodus. This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... The Children of Israel, or Bnei Yisrael (בני ישראל) in Hebrew (also Bnai Yisrael, Bnei Yisroel or Bene Israel) is a Biblical term for the Israelites. ... It has been suggested that Pharaoh of the Exodus be merged into this article or section. ...


It is a crucial component for understanding many of the foundations of Judaism, such as the Shabbat (Jewish Sabbath), the Jewish priesthood who were commanded to serve in it, and the meaning and atonement of the sin of the Golden calf. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Aaronites be merged into this article or section. ... Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin: imagery influenced by the Greco-Roman bacchanal In the Hebrew Bible the golden calf was an idol made by Aaron for the Israelites during Mosess unexpectedly long absence. ...


Contents

The detailed outlines for the Tabernacle and its leaders are enumerated in the Book of Exodus: This article is about the second book in the Torah. ...

  • Chapter 25 [1] : Materials needed, the Ark, the table for 12 showbread, the Menorah.
  • Chapter 26 [2] : The Tabernacle, the beams, partitions.
  • Chapter 27 [3] : The copper altar, the enclosure, oil.
  • Chapter 28 [4] : Vestments for the priests, ephod garment, ring settings, the breastplate, robe, head-plate, tunic, turban, sashes, pants.
  • Chapter 29 [5] : Consecration of priests and altar.
  • Chapter 30 [6] : Incense altar, washstand, anointing oil, incense.

Builders

In chapter 31 [7] the main builder and architects are specified:

"God spoke to Moses, saying: I have selected Bezalel son of Uri son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah, by name. I have filled him with a divine spirit, with wisdom, understanding and knowledge, and with all types of craftsmanship. He will be able to devise plans as well as work in gold, silver and copper, cut stones to be set, carve wood, and do other work. I have also given him Oholiab son of Achisamakh of the tribe of Dan. I have placed wisdom in the heart of every naturally talented person. They will thus make all that I have ordered, the Communion Tent, the Ark of the Covenant, the ark cover to go on it, all the utensils for the tent, the table and its utensils, the pure menorah and all its utensils, the incense altar, the sacrificial altar and all its utensils, the washstand and its base, the packing cloths, the sacred vestments for Aaron the priest, the vestments that his sons wear to serve, the anointing oil, and the incense for the sanctuary. They will thus do all that I command." (Exodus 31:1-11)

Bezalel is the name of a personage from the Bible and is the name of Israels national school of art. ... Ohliab is more correctly given as Aholiab - of the tribe of Dan - possibly a root of The Tuatha de Danaan - a tribe based on matrilinear succession. ... A late 19th-century artists conception of the Ark of the Covenant, employing a Renaissance cassone for the Ark and cherubim as latter-day Christian angels The Ark of the Covenant (ארון הברית in Hebrew: aron habrit) is described in the Hebrew Bible as a sacred container, wherein rested the stone... Incense is a preparation of aromatic organic materials, intended to release fragrant smoke when burned. ...

Organization

The tabernacle of the Hebrews, during the Exodus, was a portable worship facility comprised of a tent draped with colorful curtains, see diagram: [8]. It had a rectangular, perimeter fence of fabric, poles and staked cords. This rectangle was always erected when they would camp, oriented to the east. In the center of this enclosure was a rectangular sanctuary draped with goats'-hair curtains, and the roof was made from rams' skins, see diagram: [9]. Inside, it was divided into two areas, the Holy Place and the Most Holy Place. See diagram: [10] These two 'compartments were separated by a curtain or veil. Entering the first space, one would see 3 pieces of sacred furniture: a seven-branched oil lampstand on the left (south), a table for twelve loaves of show bread on the right (north) and straight ahead before the dividing curtain (west) was an altar for incense-burning. Beyond this curtain was the cube-shaped inner room known as the (Holy of Holies) or (kodesh hakodashim). This sacred space contained a single article called the Ark of the covenant (aron habrit), see diagram: [11]. A late 19th-century artists conception of the Ark of the Covenant, employing a Renaissance cassone for the Ark and cherubim as latter-day Christian angels The Ark of the Covenant (ארון הברית in Hebrew: aron habrit) is described in the Hebrew Bible as a sacred container, wherein rested the stone...


Incorporated into Temple in Jerusalem

When King David conquered Jerusalem and his son King Solomon built the first temple known as Solomon's Temple, all the elements of the tabernacle were incorporated into the newly built permanent temple. David and Goliath by Caravaggio, c. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Artists depiction of Solomons court (Ingobertus, c. ... Solomons Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Beit HaMikdash), also known as the First Temple, was, according to the Bible, the first Jewish Temple in Jerusalem. ...


Significance for Sabbath

The concluding instructions for the Tabernacle's construction are stated at the end of the Book of Exodus, chapter 31 [12], and in that same chapter, immediately following the words about the Tabernacle, God reminds Moses about the importance of the Jewish Sabbath: This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ...

"God told Moses to speak to the Israelites and say to them: You must still keep my sabbaths. It is a sign between me and you for all generations, to make you realize that I, God, am making you holy. Keep the Sabbath as something sacred to you. Anyone doing work shall be cut off spiritually from his people, and therefore, anyone violating it shall be put to death. Do your work during the six week days, but keep Saturday as a Sabbath of sabbaths, holy to God. Whoever does any work on Saturday shall be put to death. The Israelites shall thus keep the Sabbath, making it a day of rest for all generations, as an eternal covenant. It is a sign between me and the Israelites that during the six weekdays God made heaven and earth, but on Saturday, he ceased working and rested." (Exodus: 31: 12-17). [13]

The rabbis of the Mishna derive from this juxtaposition of subject-matter, the fact that the commandment to rest on the Sabbath day, as stated in Genesis 2:1-3 "Heaven and earth, and all their components, were completed. With the seventh day, God finished all the work that He had done. He ceased on the seventh day from all the work that he had been doing. God blessed the seventh day, and he declared it to be holy, for it was on this day that God ceased from all the work that he had been creating to function." [14] is not pushed aside by the commandments to construct the Tabernacle. Not only that, but the very definition of what constitutes "work" or "actvity" that must not be done by any Israelite, on pain of death (only when there was a Sanhedrin, and only with acceptable witnesses present), is defined by the 39 categories of activity needed for the construction of the Tabernacle and for its functioning as the center of the sacrifices enumerated in the Book of Leviticus. The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, Repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... A Sanhedrin (Hebrew: ; Greek: , [1] synedrion, sitting together, hence assembly or council) is an assembly of 23[2] judges Biblically required in every city. ... // The 39 categories of activity prohibited on Shabbat (or 39 melachot, or lamed tet avot melachot), are activities that Jews are prohibited to do on Shabbat. ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ...


Relationship to the Golden Calf

Artist's impression of the Ark of the Covenant

Some rabbis have commented on the proximity of the narrative of the Tabernacle with that of the episode known as the sin of the Golden Calf which begins in the Book of Exodus 32:1-6 [15]. Maimonides asserts that the Tabernacle and its accoutrements, such as the golden Ark of the Covenant and the golden Menorah were meant as "alternates" to the human weakness and needs for physical idols as seen in the Golden Calf episode. Other scholars, such as Nachmanides disagree and maintain that the Tabernacle's meaning is not tied in with the Golden Calf but instead symbolizes higher mystical lessons that symbolize God's constant closeness to the Children of Israel. Ark of the Covenant [ca. ... Ark of the Covenant [ca. ... Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin: imagery influenced by the Greco-Roman bacchanal In the Hebrew Bible the golden calf was an idol made by Aaron for the Israelites during Mosess unexpectedly long absence. ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... A late 19th-century artists conception of the Ark of the Covenant, employing a Renaissance cassone for the Ark and cherubim as latter-day Christian angels The Ark of the Covenant (ארון הברית in Hebrew: aron habrit) is described in the Hebrew Bible as a sacred container, wherein rested the stone... A coin issued by Mattathias Antigonus, c. ... Nahmanides is the common name for Moshe ben Nahman Gerondi; the name is a Greek translation of the Hebrew Ben Nahman, meaning Son of Nahman. He is also commomly known as Ramban, being an acronym of his Hebrew name and title, Rabbi Moshe ben Nahman, and by his Catalan name...


Blueprint for synagogues

Synagogue construction over the last two thousand years has followed the outlines of the original Tabernacle, which was of course also the outline for the temples in Jerusalem until they were destroyed. Every synagogue has at its front an ark, aaron kodesh, containing the Torah scrolls comparable to the Ark of the Covenant which contained the tablets with Ten Commandments. This is the holiest spot in a synagogue equivalent to the Holy of Holies. A synagogue (from Ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogē, assembly; Hebrew: beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: , shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish place of religious worship. ... “Tora” redirects here. ... A late 19th-century artists conception of the Ark of the Covenant, employing a Renaissance cassone for the Ark and cherubim as latter-day Christian angels The Ark of the Covenant (ארון הברית in Hebrew: aron habrit) is described in the Hebrew Bible as a sacred container, wherein rested the stone... This 1768 parchment (612x502 mm) by Jekuthiel Sofer emulated the 1675 Decalogue at Amsterdam Esnoga synagogue. ... It has been suggested that Kadosh Kadoshim be merged into this article or section. ...

A modern Menorah replica (right)
A modern Menorah replica (right)

There is also usually a constantly lighted lamp, ner tamid, or a candelabrum lighted during services, near this spot similar to the original Menorah. At the center of the synagogue is a large elevated area, known as the bimah where the Torah is read. This is equivalent to the Tabernacle's altars upon which incense and animal sacrifices were offered. On the main holidays the priests, kohanim, gather at the front of the synagogue to bless the congregation as did their priestly ancestors in the Tabernacle from Aaron onwards. Yarmulke and Menorah from the Harry S. Truman collection Skullcap: Jewish yarmulke or kippah with Hebrew lettering. ... Yarmulke and Menorah from the Harry S. Truman collection Skullcap: Jewish yarmulke or kippah with Hebrew lettering. ... A coin issued by Mattathias Antigonus, c. ... It has been suggested that Aaronites be merged into this article or section. ... The Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin Aaron (אַהֲרֹן, Standard Hebrew (w/o vowels) AHRvN, Tiberian Hebrew (), was, according to biblical accounts, one of two brothers who play a unique part in the history of the Hebrew people. ...


Prayer in the Tabernacle

Twice a day a priest would stand in front of the golden prayer altar and burn fragrant incense. Other procedures were also carried out in the Tabernacle.


Other uses

Within Catholicism, a tabernacle is a cupboard or boxlike receptical for the exclusive reservation of the blessed Sacrament - the bread and wine used during the rite of Holy Communion. In the Early Christian times such tabernacles containing the sacred species were kept within private houses where Christians met for church, for fear of persecution. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church... In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... The Eucharist is either the Christian sacrament of consecrated bread and wine or the ritual surrounding it. ... The Early Christians is a term used to refer to the early followers of Jesus of Nazareth, before the emergence of established Christian orthodoxy. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch...


The Tabernacle is also seen in some Christian circles as representing Jesus Christ.[citation needed] Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


In Seventh-day Adventist theology, emphasis is placed on understanding the earthly sanctuary as a symbol or type of the "heavenly sanctuary". The theology of the Seventh-day Adventist Church largely resembles that of mainstream Protestant Christianity, and in particular evangelicalism. ... Typology is a theological doctrine or theory of types and their antitypes found in scripture. ... In Seventh-day Adventist theology, the heavenly sanctuary teaching asserts that many aspects of the Hebrew tabernacle or sanctuary are representative of heavenly realities. ...


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Tabernacle (669 words)
That is, at the present time in ecclesiastical usage it is only the name for the receptacle or case placed upon the table of the high altar or of another altar in which the vessels containing the Blessed Sacrament, as the ciborium, monstrance, custodia, are kept.
tabernacle must either be gilded or covered with white silk (no. 4035, ad 4); but the exterior is to be equipped with a mantle-like hanging, that must be either always white or is to be changed according to the
tabernacle, or in a small cupboard arranged in the reredos or predella of the altar.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Tabernacle (1219 words)
Tabernacle (Exodus 35-36) and that the customary place of the latter was in the very midst of the encampment (Numbers 2:1 sqq.
tabernacle, under the special care of the Levites of the family of Gerson, accompanied the Israelites through their wanderings in the wilderness; during marches, it came after the first six tribes and before the other six (Numbers 2:3-34); in encampments, it occupied the middle of the camp, three tribes being on each side.
BROWN, The Tabernacle (6th ed., 1899); ORR, The Problem of the O.T. (New York, 1906); OTTLEY, Aspects of the O.T. (Oxford, 1897); WELLHAUSEN, Prolegomena (Edinburgh, 1885); WESTCOTT, Essay on the General Significance of the Tabernacle in The Epistle to the Hebrews (New York, 1889), 233 sqq.; B HR, Symbolik des mosaisch.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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