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Encyclopedia > Taal Volcano
Taal Volcano

Aerial photo of Taal Volcano
Elevation 400 metres (1,312 feet)
Location Talisay and San Nicolas, Batangas, Luzon, Philippines
Coordinates 14°0′7″N, 120°59′34″E
Type Stratovolcano
Last eruption 1977


Taal Volcano is an active volcano on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. This is located in Talisay and San Nicolas in Batangas. It consists of an island in Lake Taal, which is situated within a caldera formed by an earlier very large eruption. It is about 50 km from the capital, Manila. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A topographical summit is a point on a surface which is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. ... Talisay is a 4th class municipality in the province of Batangas, Philippines. ... San Nicolas is a 5th class municipality in the province of Batangas, Philippines. ... Batangas is a province of the Philippines located on the southwestern part of Luzon in the CALABARZON region. ... Map of the Philippines showing the island groups of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Mountains can be characterized in several ways. ... A cutaway diagram of a stratovolcano Mount Damavand, a stratovolcano in Māzandarān, Iran Mount St. ... For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... Map of the Philippines showing the island groups of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. ... Talisay is a 4th class municipality in the province of Batangas, Philippines. ... San Nicolas is a 5th class municipality in the province of Batangas, Philippines. ... Batangas is a province of the Philippines located on the southwestern part of Luzon in the CALABARZON region. ... Satellite image showing Taal Lake with volcano island within it Taal Lake is a freshwater lake on the island of Luzon in the Philippines, situated within a caldera formed by very large eruptions between 500,000 and 100,000 years ago. ... Satellite image of Santorini. ... Nickname: Motto: Linisin Ibangon Maynila Map of Metro Manila showing the location of Manila Coordinates: 14°35 N 121° E Country Region Districts 1st to 6th districts of Manila Barangays 897 Incorporated (city) June 10, 1574 Government  - Mayor Alfredo Lim (2007-2010 GO)  - Vice Mayor Isko Moreno (AM/PDP-Laban...


The volcano has erupted violently several times, causing loss of life in the populated areas surrounding the lake, the current death toll standing at around 5,000 - 6,000. Because of its proximity to populated areas and eruptive history, the volcano has been designated a Decade Volcano worthy of close study to prevent future natural disasters. A map showing locations of the 16 Decade Volcanoes The Decade Volcanoes are 16 volcanoes identified by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earths Interior (IAVCEI) as being worthy of particular study in light of their history of large, destructive eruptions and proximity to populated areas. ... Mount Pinatubo eruption, 1991 A natural disaster is the consequence of a natural hazard (e. ...

Contents

Geological history

Taal Volcano is part of a chain of volcanoes along the western side of the island of Luzon, which were formed by the subduction of the Eurasian Plate underneath the Philippine Mobile Belt. Taal Lake lies within a 25–30 km caldera formed by four explosive eruptions between 500,000 and 100,000 years ago. Each of these eruptions created extensive ignimbrite deposits, reaching as far away as where Manila stands today. The Juan de Fuca plate sinks below the North America plate at the Cascadia subduction zone. ...  The Eurasian plate, shown in green The Eurasian Plate is a tectonic plate covering Eurasia (a landmass consisting of the continents Europe and Asia) except that it does not cover the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian subcontinent, and the area east of the Verkhoyansk Range in East Siberia. ... Ignimbrite is a volcanic pyroclastic rock, often of dacitic or rhyolitic composition. ... Nickname: Motto: Linisin Ibangon Maynila Map of Metro Manila showing the location of Manila Coordinates: 14°35 N 121° E Country Region Districts 1st to 6th districts of Manila Barangays 897 Incorporated (city) June 10, 1574 Government  - Mayor Alfredo Lim (2007-2010 GO)  - Vice Mayor Isko Moreno (AM/PDP-Laban...


Since the formation of the caldera, subsequent eruptions have created another volcanic island, within the caldera, known as Volcano Island. This island covers an area of about 23 km², and consists of overlapping cones and craters. 47 different cones and craters have been identified on the island.


Crater Lake & Vulcan Point

Volcano Island contains a lake about 2 km across, called Crater Lake. Within Crater Lake is yet another volcanic island, called Vulcan Point. Vulcan Point is the world's largest island within a lake on an island within a lake on an island.[1]


Recent activity

There have been 33 recorded eruptions at Taal since 1572. A devastating eruption occurred in 1911, which claimed more than a thousand lives. The deposits of that eruption consisted of a yellowish, fairly decomposed (non-juvenile) tephra with a high sulfur content. January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ...


The most recent period of activity lasted from 1965 to 1977, and was characterized by the interaction of magma with the lake water, which produced violent phreatic explosions. In particular, the 1965 eruption led to the recognition of base surge[2] as a process in volcanic eruption (due to the fact that one of the American geologists, who visited the volcano shortly after the 1965 eruption, had witnessed an atomic bomb explosion when he was a soldier). The eruption generated base surges and cold pyroclastic flows, which traveled several kilometers across Lake Taal, devastating villages on the lake shore and, killing about a hundred people. The population of the island was evacuated only after the onset of the eruption. Precursory signs were not interpreted correctly until after the eruption. Eruptions in 1968 and 1969 were characterized partly by Strombolian activity and produced a massive lava flow that reached the shore of lake Taal. The 1977 eruption merely produced a small cinder cone within the main crater. Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Phreatic eruption at the summit of Mount St. ... Pyroclastic flows sweep down the flanks of Mayon Volcano, Philippines, in 1984 Pyroclastic flows are a common and devastating result of some volcanic eruptions. ...


Although the volcano has been dormant since 1977, it has shown signs of unrest since 1991, with strong seismic activity and ground fracturing events, as well as the formation of small mud geysers on parts of the island. Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Strokkur geyser, Iceland A geyser is a type of hot spring that erupts periodically, ejecting a column of hot water and steam into the air. ...


Eruption precursors at Taal

In light of its proximity to populated areas and violent eruptive history, Taal has been designated one of sixteen Decade Volcanoes, making it a focus for research efforts and disaster mitigation plans. While seismic activity is a common precursor to eruptive activity, another useful indicator at Taal is the temperature of Lake Taal. Before the 1965 eruption began, the lake's temperature rose to several degrees above normal. However, the lake's temperature does not always rise before an eruption. Before some eruptions, the dissolution of acidic volcanic gases into the lake has resulted in the death of large numbers of fish. A map showing locations of the 16 Decade Volcanoes The Decade Volcanoes are 16 volcanoes identified by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earths Interior (IAVCEI) as being worthy of particular study in light of their history of large, destructive eruptions and proximity to populated areas. ...


Earthquake precursors in the Taal region

An interesting observation on Volcano Island was made in 1994. Volcanologists measuring the concentration of radon gas in the soil on the island measured an anomalous increase of the radon concentration by a factor of six in October 1994. This increase was followed 22 days later by a magnitude 7.1 earthquake on November 15, centred about 50 km south of Taal, off the coast of Luzon. Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... General Name, Symbol, Number radon, Rn, 86 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 6, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass (222) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8 Physical properties Phase gas Density (0 °C, 101. ... The Richter magnitude test scale (or more correctly local magnitude ML scale) assigns a single number to quantify the size of an earthquake. ... An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of stored energy in the Earths crust that creates seismic waves. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The epicenter or epicentre (ancient Greek: επίκεντρον) is the point on the Earths surface that is directly above or below the center of a localized explosive event or point of seismic energy release. ...


A typhoon had passed through the area a few days before the radon spike was measured, but when Typhoon Angela, one of the most powerful to strike the area in ten years, crossed Luzon on almost the same track a year later, no radon spike was measured. Therefore, typhoons were ruled out as the cause, and there is strong evidence that the radon originated in the stress accumulation preceding the earthquake. Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004. ... The name Angela has been used for two tropical cyclones in the western Pacific Ocean, and two in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


Images

Map showing major volcanoes of the Philippines

References

  • Lowry A.R., Hamburger M.W., Meertens C.M., Ramos E.G. (2001), GPS monitoring of crustal deformation at Taal Volcano, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v.105, p.35-47
  • Richon P., Sabroux J.-C., Halbwachs M., Vandemeulebrouck J., Poussielgue N., Tabbagh J., Punongbayan R. (2003), Radon anomaly in the soil of Taal volcano, the Philippines: A likely precursor of the M 7.1 Mindoro earthquake (1994), Geophysical Research Letters, Volume 30, Issue 9, pp. 34-1
  1. ^ http://www.elbruz.org/islands/Islands%20and%20Lakes.htm
  2. ^ http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Glossary/volcano_terminology.html#Base%20surge: Turbulent, low-density cloud of rock debris and water and (or) steam that moves over the ground surface at high speed. Base surges are generated by explosions. (Miller, 1989)

See Also

Satellite image showing Taal Lake Taal Lake is a freshwater lake on the island of Luzon in the Philippines, situated within a caldera formed by very large eruptions between 500,000 and 100,000 years ago. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Taal Volcano Bulletin (0 words)
Taal Volcano manifested a sustained moderate level of seismic activity since 18 November 2006, characterized by occasional large amplitude volcanic earthquakes.
PHIVOLCS reiterates Alert Level 1 over Taal Volcano, which means that the Main Crater should be strictly off-limits to the public because sudden steam explosions may occur and high concentrations of toxic gases may accumulate.
Furthermore, the public is reminded that the entire Volcano Island is a high risk area and a Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) because it may be affected by various processes during eruptions that might originate anywhere in the island.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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