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Encyclopedia > TWA Flight 800
TWA Flight 800

Reconstruction of TWA 800 wreckage at the Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant
Summary
Date July 17, 1996 [July 18 UTC]
Type Mid-air explosion and in-flight breakup
Site Atlantic Ocean near East Moriches, New York
Origin John F. Kennedy International Airport
Stopover Charles de Gaulle International Airport
Destination Leonardo Da Vinci International Airport
Passengers 212
Crew 18
Fatalities 230
Survivors 0
Aircraft
Type Boeing 747-131
Operator Trans World Airlines (TWA)
Tail number N93119

Trans World Airlines (TWA) Flight 800 was a scheduled international passenger flight from John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK), New York, New York, to Charles de Gaulle International Airport (CDG), Paris, France and then to Leonardo Da Vinci International Airport (FCO) in Rome, Italy; the Boeing 747-131 used for the route, N93119, exploded in mid-air and crashed on July 17, 1996, about 20:31 EDT (00:31, July 18 UTC), in the Atlantic Ocean near East Moriches, New York. Image File history File links TWA800reconstruction. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... UTC redirects here. ... The Boeing 747, sometimes nicknamed the Jumbo Jet,[4][5] is a long-haul, widebody commercial airliner manufactured by Boeing in the United States. ... Trans World Airlines (IATA: TW, ICAO: TWA, and Callsign: TWA), commonly known as TWA, was an American airline company that was acquired by American Airlines in April 2001. ... Trans World Airlines (IATA: TW, ICAO: TWA, and Callsign: TWA), commonly known as TWA, was an American airline company that was acquired by American Airlines in April 2001. ... For the regional airport in Wisconsin, see John F. Kennedy Memorial Airport. ... New York, New York redirects here. ... Charles de Gaulle International Airport (IATA: CDG, ICAO: LFPG) (French: ), also known as Roissy Airport (or just Roissy in French), in Paris, is one of worlds principal aviation centres, as well as Frances main international airport. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Leonardo da Vinci International Airport (IATA: FCO, ICAO: LIRF), also known as Fiumicino International Airport, is Italys largest airport, with over 30 million passengers in the year 2006. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The Boeing 747, sometimes nicknamed the Jumbo Jet,[4][5] is a long-haul, widebody commercial airliner manufactured by Boeing in the United States. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Eastern Daylight Time or EDT is equal to: In North America, Eastern Standard Time + 1, or UTC − 4 hours. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... UTC redirects here. ... East Moriches is a census-designated place located in Suffolk County, New York. ... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ...


The flight departed JFK about 20:19, with two pilots, two flight engineers, 14 flight attendants, and 212 passengers on board. All 230 people on board were killed, and the airplane was destroyed.[1] The name PILOT is an acronym, and stands for Programmed Instruction, Learning, Or Teaching. ... In aviation, a flight engineer (also referred to as systems operator ) is a member of the aircrew of an aircraft who is responsible for checking the aircraft before and after each flight, and for monitoring aircraft systems during flight. ... Flight attendant in an Embraer ERJ 145 LR of PBair, Thailand In aviation, flight attendants - formerly known as sky girls, stews, air hostesses, stewardesses or stewards - are members of a flight crew employed by airlines to ensure the safety and comfort of the passengers aboard commercial flights. ...


While investigators from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) arrived on scene the following day, much initial speculation centered on a terrorist attack,[2][3] and consequently the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) initiated a parallel investigation into the crash. On November 18, 1997, the FBI announced that no evidence had been found of a criminal act,[4] and the NTSB assumed sole control on the investigation. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) is an independent organization responsible for investigation of accidents involving aviation, highway, marine, pipelines and railroads in the United States. ... F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ...


The NTSB investigation ended with the adoption of their final report on August 23, 2000. In it they concluded that the probable cause of the accident was "an explosion of the center wing fuel tank (CWT), resulting from ignition of the flammable fuel/air mixture in the tank. The source of ignition energy for the explosion could not be determined with certainty, but, of the sources evaluated by the investigation, the most likely was a short circuit outside of the CWT that allowed excessive voltage to enter it through electrical wiring associated with the fuel quantity indication system."[1] {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ...


Many alternative theories exist as to the cause of this crash, most of which propose that evidence may exist that points to an external missile strike or on-board bomb, either as a terrorist act, or an unintentional shootdown by a U.S. Navy vessel.[5][6][7] The NTSB investigation considered the possibility that a bomb or missile caused the mishap, but "none of the damage characteristics typically associated with a high-energy explosion of a bomb or missile warhead (such as severe pitting, cratering, petalling, or hot gas washing) were found on any portion of the recovered airplane structure".[8] USN redirects here. ...

Contents

Accident flight

Flight path of TWA Flight 800. Colored rectangles are the major debris fields from the crash
Seat plan of N93119, used for Flight 800, from the NTSB
Seat plan of N93119, used for Flight 800, from the NTSB

On the day of the crash the airplane departed Athens, Greece, as TWA Flight 881, and arrived at the gate at JFK about 16:38. Upon arrival at JFK there was a crew change, and the aircraft was refueled. In charge of the crew this evening was Captain Steven Snyder, an experienced veteran of more than 6,000 flying hours.[9] TWA Flight 800 was scheduled to depart JFK for CDG around 19:00, but the flight was delayed for just over an hour due to a disabled piece of ground equipment and a passenger/baggage mismatch.[10] After it was confirmed the owner of the baggage in question was on board, the flight crew prepared for departure, and the aircraft pushed back from the gate about 20:02.[9] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) is a U.S. government organization responsible for investigation of accidents involving aviation, highway, marine, pipelines and railroads in the United States. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ...


Data recovered from the Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR) and Flight Data Recorder (FDR) indicated a normal departure from JFK about 20:19.[11][12] TWA 800 then received a series of generally increasing altitude assignments and heading changes as it climbed to its intended cruising altitude.[13] The last radio transmission from the airplane occurred at 20:30 after the flight crew received and then acknowledged instructions from Boston Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC) to climb to 15,000 feet.[13] TWA 800 was in the process of climbing when the CVR and FDR both abruptly stopped recording data at 20:31:12.[11][12] This was the same time as the last recorded radar transponder return from the airplane was recorded by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) radar site at Trevose, Pennsylvania.[9] Cockpit Voice Recorder (Exhibit in Deutsches Museum, Munich, Germany). ... An example of a FDR (Flight Data Recorder). ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... This temporary flight restriction map from the Federal Aviation Administration shows the boundaries of the regions controlled by the Area Control Centers within and adjoining the continental United States, as well as the IATA airport code of each such Center operated by the United States. ... A Cessna ARC RT-359A Transponder (the beige box) mounted beneath a Bendix/King KY197 VHF communication radio mounted in the instrument panel of an 1970 model American Aviation AA-1 Yankee. ... “FAA” redirects here. ... Trevose is a town in Pennsylvania, which is north of and borders northeastern Philadelphia. ...


At 20:31:50 the captain of an Eastwind Airlines Boeing 737 first reported to Boston ARTCC that he "saw an explosion out here", adding "ahead of us here...about 16,000 feet or something like that, it just went down into the water."[13] Subsequently, many Air Traffic Control (ATC) facilities in the New York/Long Island area received reports of an explosion from other pilots operating in the area.[13] Other witnesses on land and sea later stated that they saw and/or heard explosions, accompanied by a large fireball over the ocean, and observed debris, some of which was burning, falling into the water.[9] About one-third of these witnesses reported that they observed a streak of light moving upward in the sky to the point where a large fireball appeared.[9] Eastwind Airlines was a start-up airline formed in mid-1995 and headquartered in Trenton, New Jersey, United States[1], and later in Greensboro, North Carolina. ... The Boeing 737 is an American short to medium range, single aisle, narrow body jet airliner. ... For the Canadian musical group, see Air Traffic Control (band). ... This article is about the island in New York State. ...


Individuals in various civilian, military, and police vessels reached the crash site and initiated a search within minutes of the initial water impact. They did not find survivors.[9]


Family members of Flight 800 victims, investigators, media members, and TWA employees gathered at the Ramada Inn at JFK Airport, causing the hotel to be called "Crash Central." [14] New U.S. & Canada logo in 2005 U.S. & Canada logo (Soon to be retired). ...


Nationalities

Nationality Passengers Crew Total
Flag of Algeria Algeria 9 0 9
Flag of Belgium Belgium 4 0 4
Flag of Denmark Denmark 6 0 6
Flag of France France 42 0 42
Flag of Germany Germany 2 0 2
Flag of Ireland Ireland 4 0 4
Flag of Israel Israel 1 0 1
Flag of Italy Italy 8 1 9
Flag of Norway Norway 2 0 2
Flag of Spain Spain 1 0 1
Flag of Sweden Sweden 1 0 1
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom 7 0 7
Flag of the United States United States 125 17 144
Total 212 18 230

Image File history File links Flag_of_Algeria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Initial investigation

Sources of debris
Debris pathways

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Wreckage recovery

Search and recovery operations were conducted by federal, state, and local agencies, as well as their contractors.[15] The first priority of the early search and recovery efforts was the recovery of the victims; wreckage recovery was the second priority.[9] Remote-operated vehicles (ROV), side-scan sonar, and laser line-scanning equipment were used to search for and investigate underwater debris fields.[15] Victims and wreckage were recovered by Scuba divers and ROVs; later scallop trawlers were used to recover wreckage embedded in the ocean floor.[15] Numerous recovery divers required hyperbaric oxygen treatments for decompression sickness.[16] This article is about the federal government of the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... Variety of ROVs: Work Class, General, Mini Remotely operated underwater vehicles (ROVs) is the common accepted name for tethered underwater robots in the offshore industry. ... Diagram of sidescan sonar Side scan sonar (also sometimes called side-scan sonar, sidescan sonar, side looking sonar and side-looking sonar) is a category of sonar system that is used to efficiently create an image of large areas of the sea floor. ... Scuba diving is swimming underwater while using self-contained breathing equipment. ...


As the wreckage recovery progressed, three main debris fields emerged. The yellow zone, red zone, and green zone contained wreckage from front, center and rear sections of the airplane, respectively.[9] The red zone was the most widespread and contained primarily fuselage structure from stations 840 to 1000. It also contained most of the wing center section Front Spar, Span Wise Beam 3 and the forward portion of the keel beam and cabin floor from above the forward center section. Some pieces of wreckage from the red zone had light soot deposits, none contained either moderate or heavy soot deposits. There was no evidence of other exposure to fire on wreckage recovered from the red zone.[17] The yellow zone contained the nose of the airplane forward of station 840, including the cockpit. This structure hit the water basically intact and showed extensive crushing damage. Wreckage recovered from the yellow zone showed no evidence of soot, fire or heat.[18] The green zone with the aft portion of the fuselage, wings and engines, was located the furthest along the flight path. Wreckage from the green zone showed varying amounts of soot, fire and heat damage, much of it extensive, depending upon location and when they separated from the rest of the structure.[19]


The pattern of fire damage upon the wreckage shows that the wreckage resulting from the initial breakup (red zone) had only slight indications of combustion, the nose section which fell further along the flight path had none, and all major evidence of fire occurred upon the wreckage of the aft fuselage and wings which were furthest down the flight course. This shows that aside from the initial explosion inside the Center Wing Tank all fire happened after the aircraft broke up.[20]


Remains of all 230 victims and over 95% of the airplane wreckage were eventually recovered.[15][21] A temporary morgue facility at the United States Coast Guard station at East Moriches initially documented the human remains which were then transported to a permanent morgue facility at the Suffolk County Medical Examiner's Office in Hauppauge, New York.[21] Mortuary, a film directed by Tobe Hooper, see Mortuary (film). ... USCG HH-65 Dolphin USCG HH-60J JayHawk USCG HC-130H departs Mojave USCG HC-130H on International Ice Patrol duties The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is at all times a branch of the U.S. military, a maritime law enforcement agency, and a federal regulatory body. ... Suffolk County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York. ... Hauppauge (pronounced ) is a hamlet in the Town of Islip and the Town of Smithtown in Suffolk County, New York, United States. ...


Pieces of wreckage were transported by boat to shore and then by trucks to leased hangar space at the former Grumman Aircraft facility in Calverton, New York for storage, examination and reconstruction (this facility became the command center and headquarters for the investigation).[15] NTSB and FBI personnel were present to observe all wreckage transfers to preserve the evidentiary value of the wreckage.[15] The Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation, later Grumman Aerospace Corporation, was a leading producer of military and civilian aircraft of the 20th century. ... Calverton is a census-designated place located in Suffolk County, New York. ...


Initial examination of the wreckage revealed potential explosive residue on three samples of material from separate locations in the airplane wreckage; further testing determined that one contained traces of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), another nitroglycerin, and the third a combination of RDX and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN).[9] None of the sample locations correlated to the source of the explosion in the center wing tank. There was none of the readily apparent damage caused by a high-explosive detonation in an aircraft found on any of the structure or contents.[22] RDX redirects here. ... Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin, and glyceryl trinitrate, is a chemical compound. ... PETN (Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate, also known as Penthrite) is one of the strongest known high explosives, with a relative effectiveness factor (R.E. factor) of 1. ...


The wreckage is now permanently stored in a facility in a NTSB facility in Ashburn, Virginia which was custom built for the purpose. The reconstructed aircraft is used to train accident investigators.[23][1] The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) is a U.S. government organization responsible for investigation of accidents involving aviation, highway, marine, pipelines and railroads in the United States. ... Ashburn, Virginia is an unincorporated area located in Loudoun County, Virginia, 30 miles west of Washington, D.C., and is part of the Washington Metropolitan Area. ...


Cockpit Voice Recorder and Flight Data Recorder evidence

There was nothing unusual on the Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR) tape until 20:29:15 when the Captain stated: “"Look at that crazy fuel flow indicator there on number four. . . see that?"[24] Boston Air Route Traffic Control Center cleared TWA 800 to climb to and maintain 15,000 feet at 20:30:15, followed by the Captain ordering "climb thrust" and acknowledging the ATC clearance in the next few seconds. At 20:30:35 the Flight Engineer said "power's set."[24] At 20:30:42 the Cockpit Area Microphone recorded a mechanical movement in the cockpit, followed by an unintelligible word at 20:31:03, followed by sound similar to "recording tape damage" at 20:31:05. The tape suddenly ended at 20:31:12. Sound spectrum analysis revealed that during the last second of recording there were two unusual events on the Captain's microphone channel where a brief 400 Hertz sound was recorded. (The aircraft's AC power system normally operates at 400 Hz line frequency.)[25] Other background electrical noise normally recorded on that channel ceased during the two transient events, .73 and .68 seconds before the end of the tape. The other CVR channels recorded normally.[26] The last event on the CVR tape occurred on all channels, and involved a very short, loud noise lasting .117 seconds before the tape ended. The CVR tape ended with power failure at 20:31:12, which was the same time as the last radar transponder return was received from the aircraft.[26]


The loud transient noise at the end of Flight 800s Cockpit Voice Recorder tape was compared to the similar noises on the recorders of two 747s that were destroyed by bombs in the forward cargo compartment, Pan Am 103 and Air India 182. It was also compared to the event on the tape of United 811, a 747-100 which suffered an explosive decompression due to failure of the forward cargo compartment, and with the explosion recorded on the CVR tape of a Philippine Airlines 737 which had suffered a fuel/air mixture explosion in its center wing tank on the ground. The bombed aircraft tapes showed a very rapid rise in noise level, brief duration, and a very rapid decline in the noise of the explosion. In the case of the other three aircraft, including TWA 800, the rate of the rise of the noise was more gradual, the duration of peak noise longer, and the decline of the noise was more gradual.[27] The cockpit landed in a farmers field near a tiny church in Tundergarth, Scotland Pan Am Flight 103 was Pan Ams daily Frankfurt-London-New York-Detroit evening flight. ... Air-India Flight 182 was a Boeing 747 that exploded on June 23, 1985 while at an altitude of 31,000 feet (9500 m) above the Atlantic Ocean, south of Ireland; all 329 on board were killed, of whom 136 were children and 280 were Canadian citizens. ...


The flight data recorder data was consistent with an aircraft in a normal, wings level climb when the recorder suddenly stopped due to termination of electrical power.[28]


Witnesses

Example of a FBI witness statement summary, the name and address of informants have been blacked out to preserve their privacy.
Example of a FBI witness statement summary, the name and address of informants have been blacked out to preserve their privacy.

Interviews with potential witnesses to the TWA 800 crash were conducted by the FBI; the NTSB was asked not to interview or re-interview witnesses because multiple interviews could lead to difficulties in any potential future criminal prosecution.[29] No verbatim records of the witness interviews were produced; instead the agents who conducted the interviews wrote summaries of the interviews which they then submitted.[29] Witnesses were not asked to review or correct the documents.[29] After the FBI closed their active criminal investigation, the summaries were handed over to the NTSB (with personal information of the witnesses redacted), who then formed a witness group to review these documents.[29] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 505 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (827 × 981 pixel, file size: 128 KB, MIME type: image/png) sample image from . ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 505 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (827 × 981 pixel, file size: 128 KB, MIME type: image/png) sample image from . ...


The NTSB witness group reviewed the summaries and determined they contained 736 witness accounts.[30] Of these, the group determined that 670 witnesses reported seeing something that probably related to the accident, and almost 250 reported hearing something that was likely related to the accident.[30] 239 reported hearing something variously described as an "explosion, boom, rumble, [or] thunder" mostly along the South Shore of Long Island, at 15 to 20 km slant range distance.[31] 258 accounts were characterized as "streak of light" witnesses ("an object moving in the sky...variously described [as] a point of light, fireworks, a flare, a shooting star, or something similar.")[30] Of these 258 witnesses, 38 reported that the streak was ascending vertically or nearly so, 18 indicated that it originated from the surface of the earth, and 7 reported that it originated at the horizon.[30]


599 witnesses reported a fireball; of these 264 reported seeing the fireball originate, 200 reported seeing the fireball split into two, and 217 reported observing the fireball hit the surface of the water, or disappear below the horizon.[30] 210 witnesses reported seeing both a fireball and a streak of light.


Local dentist Stephen Curtis was on his boat fishing at the time. He heard the bang and looked up into the sky and saw the falling fireball. Immediately Dr. Curtis went toward where the plane had crashed into the ocean. When he arrived he searched through the wreckage looking for survivors, but all he could find were dead passengers still belted into their seats. Dr. Curtis can be seen in the TWA Flight 800 10 year anniversary Newsday article about his heroic effort.[30]


Further investigation and analysis

Accident sequence

Careful analysis of the distribution of the wreckage, the damage found, and patterns of soot and burning, all contributed to understanding the sequence of events during the breakup of the aircraft. Fire was not present at the beginning of the event, and was produced as the result of the systematic failure of the aircraft structure and tanks containing fuel.[32]


The destruction sequence started with a low-order explosion originating within the center fuel tank. The explosion inside the center fuel tank caused the spanwise beam, which was the front of the tank, to fail, rotating it downward and forward, where it struck the front spar (one of two major structural components carrying lift loads across the span of the wing); it caused bowing and fractures of the front spar. At this time the over-pressure escaping the center wing tank caused the upper wing skin to separate from the front spar, followed by the lower wing skin and keel beam being forced downward. The fractures were continued to the lower pressure bulkhead and caused cracking of the fuselage skin starting immediately forward of the wing spar. This led to the destruction of the lower fuselage comprising the forward cargo compartment. That was followed by the propagation of cracking upward around the fuselage sides forward of the wing center section. The pattern of cracks spreading upward caused a compression failure of the window belt above the hole in the lower fuselage, followed by complete failure of the fuselage structure above the leading edge of the center section, and separation of the entire nose.[32]


At this point the aircraft pitched up due to the aft shift in the center of gravity, which induced a climb and imposed aerodynamic loads which soon caused failure of the wing center section by bending loads. The bending loads caused the left wing to come off. It was during this sequence that evidence of fire started to appear on the aircraft due to the burning of fuel leaking from ruptured tanks (92% of all victims with burns were seated over the Center Section Fuel Tank, which remained attached to the aft fuselage).[33] Most fire damage on the left wing was outboard of the number 1 engine. There was severe fire damage to the left end of the number 2 Span Wise Beam as well as extensive burning of the cabin area over the Center Wing Tank, which may account for the streak seen rising by some witnesses. Soot stains indicated that the right wing came off the fuselage after the left, and in stages, leaving a stub attached to the aft fuselage. This area and the area behind it along the fuselage showed the most extensive fire damage. The progressive fragmentation and burning of the right wing would have produced a 'fireball' when viewed from a distance. The majority of the after fuselage struck the water as a single large piece further down the flight path than the nose and much further than the fuselage fragments created by the disintegration of the fuselage structure just forward of and above the center fuel tank.[34]


The wreckage from the area immediately forward of the wing, and parts of the center section were distributed widely almost below where radar indicated the breakup started. The nose section was within the outermost area of the that wreckage and further along the flight heading. The wings and aft fuselage, which pitched up when the nose came off, continued in crippled flight briefly, then fell farther along the flight path.[34]


The distribution of the parts of the wings and fuselage down the flight path, and the soot damage from the in-flight fires coincided, proving the order in which the structure disintegrated.[32]


Possible reasons for the in-flight breakup

Witness reports and the distribution of wreckage indicated a catastrophic in-flight breakup of TWA 800.[9] The NTSB considered as possible causes "structural failure and decompression; detonation of a high-energy explosive device, such as a bomb exploding inside the airplane or a missile warhead exploding upon impact with the airplane; and a fuel/air explosion in the center wing tank (CWT)."[9]


Structural failure and decompression. Close examination of the wreckage revealed no evidence of structural faults such as fatigue, corrosion or mechanical damage that could have contributed to the in-flight breakup.[9] It was also suggested that the breakup could have been started with an in-flight separation of the forward cargo door; however all evidence indicated that the door was closed and locked at impact.[9] The NTSB determined that "the in-flight breakup of TWA flight 800 was not initiated by a preexisting condition resulting in structural failure and decompression."[9]

NTSB plot of radar data from TWA 800 crash. The "30 knot track", presumably a surface vessel, was never identified and later the cause of much speculation.
NTSB plot of radar data from TWA 800 crash. The "30 knot track", presumably a surface vessel, was never identified and later the cause of much speculation.

High-energy explosive device detonation. Factors such as heightened security and safety concerns because of the 1996 Olympics, that TWA 800 was an international flight, witness reports of a streak of light and then a fireball, as well unexplained targets near TWA 800 recorded by a radar site at Islip, New York, led the NTSB to consider the possibility that a bomb exploded inside the airplane or that a shoulder-launched missile exploded upon impact with the airplane.[9] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 572 pixelsFull resolution (1504 × 1076 pixel, file size: 110 KB, MIME type: image/png) NTSB radar data plots around TWA 800 flightpath. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 572 pixelsFull resolution (1504 × 1076 pixel, file size: 110 KB, MIME type: image/png) NTSB radar data plots around TWA 800 flightpath. ... (Redirected from 1996 Olympics) Categories: 1996 Summer Olympics ... Islip may refer to: Central Islip, New York East Islip, New York Islip (town), New York Islip (CDP), New York Islip, Northamptonshire Islip, Oxfordshire West Islip, New York This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


The backs of several damaged passenger seats were observed to have an unknown red/brown-shaded substance on them; subsequent investigation along with testing by NASA determined this substance to be consistent with adhesive used in the seats.[9] Earlier, the FBI had detected trace amounts of explosive residue on three separate pieces of the wreckage (described as a piece of canvas-like material and two pieces of a floor panel).[9] However, no damage typically associated with a high-energy explosion of a bomb or missile warhead ("severe pitting, cratering, petalling, or hot gas washing") were found on the recovered wreckage, including the pieces which tested positive for explosives.[9] Of the 5 percent of the fuselage that was not recovered, none of the missing areas were large enough to have covered all the damage that would have been caused by the detonation of a bomb or missile.[9] In addition, none of the victims' remains showed evidence of injuries that could have been caused by high-energy explosives.[9] For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ...


The NTSB considered possible reasons why the wreckage would test positive for explosive residue, including the aircraft's use in 1991 transporting troops during the Gulf War, as well as its use in a dog-training explosive detection exercise about one month before the crash.[9] However, testing by the FAA's Technical Center concluded that residues of the type of explosives found on the wreckage would completely dissipate after just 2 days of immersion in salt water, and would not be detectable.[9] The NTSB concluded that it was "quite possible" that the explosive residue detected was deposited during or after wreckage recovery operations.[9] When the radar data from the Islip facility was analyzed, none of the unexplained radar returns intersected TWA 800's flight path at any time, and all of them were moving away from the airplane.[9] The lack of any corroborating evidence associated with a high-energy explosion led the NTSB to conclude that "the in-flight breakup of TWA flight 800 was not initiated by a bomb or missile strike."[9] For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ...

The NTSB determined that the initial event in the breakup sequence was a failure of the Spanwise Beam #3 in the Center Wing Fuel Tank. Video: Part 1, Part 2 (.rm format)
The NTSB determined that the initial event in the breakup sequence was a failure of the Spanwise Beam #3 in the Center Wing Fuel Tank. Video: Part 1, Part 2 (.rm format)

Fuel/air explosion in the center wing fuel tank. The NTSB established a sequencing group to determine the sequence of the airplane's structural breakup and compare proposed accident scenarios with the structural observations.[9] The group concluded that the first event in the breakup sequence was a failure in the structure of the CWT, caused by excessive pressure ("overpressure") within the CWT.[9] This led to a series of structural failures, culminating in the complete separation of the forward fuselage and destruction of the airplane.[9] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... RealMedia is a multimedia container format created by RealNetworks. ...

Scale-model test of a CWT fuel/air vapor explosion
Scale-model test of a CWT fuel/air vapor explosion

The investigation then focused on the fuel/air vapors present in the CWT (only a residual amount of fuel was present in the CWT for the flight), and whether they were flammable and the cause of the overpressure event. Examination of the heat flow around the CWT revealed that the airplane's air conditioning packs, located underneath the CWT, may have contributed to heating of the fuel/air vapor while operating for 2 1/2 hours at the gate at JFK.[9] Tests recreating the conditions of the flight showed temperatures of the fuel/air vapor in the CWT ranging from 101 to 127 °F (38 to 53 °C)[9] while Jet A fuel/air vapors under the same conditions as the flight were flammable at temperatures as low as 96.4 °F (35.8 °C).[9] Questions were raised whether a fuel/air vapor explosion in the CWT would generate enough force to break apart the CWT and cause the destruction of the airplane.[9] Computer modeling and quarter-scale experiments using models of the CWT were used to investigate the mechanics of a CWT explosion.[9] During these experiments "quenching" of explosions within the CWT was observed, where the internal structure of the multi-compartment fuel tank did not allow for explosions to develop with enough force to cause the expected damage.[9] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Jet fuel is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in jet-engined aircraft. ...


Further computer modeling was conducted, and in July and August 1997, using an out-of-service 747 at Bruntingthorpe Airfield, England, tests simulated a fuel/air explosion in the CWT by igniting a propane/air mixture. These tests resulted in the failure of the CWT structure due to overpressure.[9] The NTSB acknowledged that these test conditions were not fully comparable to the conditions that existed on TWA 800 at the time of the accident, but previous accidents involving CWT explosions of Jet A fuel, notably Avianca Flight 203 and Philippine Airlines Flight 143 led the NTSB to conclude "On the basis of the accident airplane's breakup sequence; wreckage damage characteristics; scientific tests and research on fuels, fuel tank explosions, and the conditions in the CWT at the time of the accident; and analysis of witness information, the Safety Board concludes that the TWA flight 800 in-flight breakup was initiated by a fuel/air explosion in the CWT."[9] The Bruntingthorpe Aerodrome and Proving Ground is a privately-owned airport in Leicestershire near the village of Bruntingthorpe. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Avianca Airlines Flight 203 was a Boeing 727 that was destroyed by a bomb over Colombia on November 27, 1989. ... Philippine Airlines, also known historically as Philippine Air Lines (PAL), is the national airline of the Philippines. ...


Possible ignition sources of the center wing fuel tank

In an attempt to determine what ignited the flammable fuel/air vapor in the CWT and caused the explosion, the investigation evaluated numerous potential ignition sources. All but one were considered "very unlikely", while one was considered "likely"[9]


Missile fragment. The NTSB had already reached the conclusion that a missile-strike did not cause the structural failure of the airplane. The NTSB considered the possibility that a missile could have exploded close enough to TWA 800 for a missile fragment to have entered the CWT and ignited the fuel/air vapor, yet far enough away not to have left any damage characteristics of a missile strike.[9] Using data provided by the Naval Air Warfare Center, Survivability/Vulnerability Information Analysis Center, and Missile and Space Intelligence Center, computer simulations were constructed to simulate a missile detonating in a location such that a fragment from the warhead could penetrate into the CWT.[9] Based on these simulations the investigation concluded that it was "very unlikely" that a warhead detonated in such a location where a fragment would penetrate the CWT, but no other fragments impact the surrounding airplane structure.[9] The Naval Air Warfare Center was a former U.S. Navy military installation located in Warminster, Pennsylvania. ... Missile and Space Intelligence Center The Missile and Space Intelligence Center (MSIC) is an intelligence organization that is part of the Defense Intelligence Agency. ...


Small explosive charge. Similarly, the investigation considered the possibility that a small explosive charge placed on the CWT could have been the ignition source.[9] Testing by the NTSB and the British Defence Evaluation and Research Agency demonstrated that when the metal of the same type and thickness of the CWT was penetrated by a small charge, there was petalling of the surface where the charge was placed, pitting on the adjacent surfaces, and visible hot gas washing damage in the surrounding area.[9] Since none of the recovered CWT wreckage exhibited these damage characteristics, and none of the areas of missing wreckage were large enough to encompass all the expected damage, the investigation concluded that this scenario was "very unlikely"[9] The Defence Evaluation and Research Agency (normally known as DERA), was a part of the UK Ministry of Defence (MOD) until July 2, 2001. ...


Other potential sources. The NTSB also investigated whether the fuel/air mixture in the CWT could have been ignited by lightning strike, meteor strike, auto ignition or hot surface ignition, a fire migrating to the CWT from another fuel tank via the vent system, an uncontained engine failure, a turbine burst in the air conditioning packs beneath the CWT, a malfunctioning CWT jettison/override pump, a malfunctioning CWT scavenger pump, or static electricity.[9] After analysis the investigation determined that these potential sources were "very unlikely" to have been the source of ignition.[9]


Fuel quantity indication system. The FAA and airplane manufacturers had assumed that a flammable fuel/air mixture would exist at all times in fuel tanks; consequently airplane designers attempted to eliminate all possible sources of ignition in the fuel tanks. The primary means of ensuring this is to keep voltages and currents being used by the fuel quantity indication system very small, and to protect all devices from intrusion of vapor.[9] In the case of the 747-100 series, the only wiring located inside the CWT was wiring associated with the Fuel Quantity Indication System (FQIS).


As part of the NTSB's investigation, Boeing submitted a fault tree analysis of possible ignition mechanisms in the CWT (such an analysis was not performed nor required in December 1969 when the 747-100 series was certified by the FAA).[9] This analysis concluded that the probability of an FQIS wiring fault producing an ignition source in the CWT as being 1 x 10-6 events per hour.[9] Regulatory guidelines that were later adopted in April 1970 by the FAA required probabilities of such failures to be less than 1 x 10-9 (this was considered to be "extremely improbable" and "not anticipated to occur during the entire operational lifetime of all airplanes of one type.")[9] However a review of Boeing's fault tree analysis by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) strongly criticized the accuracy of its findings, concluding that the fault tree analysis quantifications "cannot stand up to peer review and should not be viewed as realistic."[9] Further study by MSFC personnel indicated that "realistic" numbers used in a fault tree analysis would indicate a much higher probability of ignition through the FQIS wiring system.[9] Safety engineering is an applied science strongly related to systems engineering and the subset System Safety Engineering. ... Aerial view of the test area at Marshall Space Flight Center The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is a lead NASA center for propulsion, Space Shuttle propulsion, external fuel tank, crew training and payloads, International Space Station (ISS) design and construction, for computers, networks, and information management. ...


The FQIS was designed to use voltage so low as to prevent it from being a possible ignition source.[9] Therefore, in order for the FQIS to be the ignition source, a transfer of higher than normal voltage to the FQIS needed to have occurred, as well as some mechanism whereby the excess energy got released by the FQIS wiring into the CWT.[9] While the NTSB determined that factors suggesting the likelihood of a short circuit event existed,[9] they added that "neither the release mechanism nor the location of the ignition inside the CWT could be determined from the available evidence."[9] Nonetheless, the NTSB concluded that "the ignition energy for the CWT explosion most likely entered the CWT through the FQIS wiring."[9]


Though the FQIS itself was designed to prevent danger from its normal operation, this requires the use of very low voltages and currents. The innermost tube of the FQIS compensator showed damage similar to that of the compensator tube which was the ignition source for the surge tank fire which destroyed a 747 near Madrid in 1976.[35] This was not considered 'proof' of a source of ignition. There was evidence of arcing in a wire bundle which included FQIS wiring which connected with the Center Wing Tank.[36] There was also arcing evidenced on two wires sharing a cable raceway with FQIS wiring at station 955.[36]


The Captain's Cockpit Voice Recorder channel showed two 'dropouts' of background power harmonics in the second before the recording ended (with the separation of the nose).[37] This might well be the signature of an arc on cockpit wiring adjacent to the FQIS wiring. The captain commented on the "crazy" readings of the number 4 engine fuel flow gauge about 2-1/2 minutes before the CVR recording ended.[38] Finally, the Center Wing Tank fuel quantity gage was recovered and indicated 640 pounds instead of the 300 pounds which was loaded into that tank.[38] Experiments showed that applying power to a wire leading to the fuel quantity gauge can cause the digital display to change by several hundred pounds before the circuit breaker trips. Thus the gauge anomaly could have been caused by a short to the FQIS wiring.[38] The NTSB concluded that the most likely source of sufficient voltage to cause ignition was a short from damaged wiring, or within electrical components of the FQIS. As not all components and wiring were recovered, it is not possible to pin-point the source of the necessary voltage.

Most witness observations of a streak of light were determined by the NTSB to be consistent with the calculated flightpath of TWA 800 after the CWT explosion. The NTSB produced this animation of what a hypothetical witness on the shore would see of the crippled flight. Video: View from beach of TWA 800 (.mov format)

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... QuickTime is a multimedia technology developed by Apple Computer, capable of handling various formats of digital video, sound, text, animation, music, and immersive virtual reality panoramic images. ...

Analysis of reported witness observations

Numerous witnesses in the vicinity of the accident reported a streak of light. As the NTSB noted, "There was intense public interest in these witness reports and much speculation that the reported streak of light was a missile that eventually struck TWA flight 800, causing the airplane to explode."[9] The NTSB Witness Group concluded that the streak of light reported by witnesses might have been the accident airplane during some stage of its flight before the fireball developed, noting that most of the 258 streak of light accounts were generally consistent with the calculated flightpath of the accident airplane after the CWT explosion.[9]


However, 38 witnesses described a streak of light that ascended vertically, or nearly so, and these accounts "seem[ed] to be inconsistent with the accident airplane's flightpath."[9] In addition, 18 witnesses reported seeing a streak of light that originated at the surface, or the horizon, which was "not consistent with the airplane's flightpath."[9] With regard to these differing accounts, the NTSB noted that in previous investigations witness data was "often inconsistent with the known facts or other witnesses' reports of the same events."[9] The interviews conducted by the FBI focused on the possibility of a missile attack (some suggested interview questions given to FBI agents were "Where was the sun in relation to the missile launch point?" and "How long did the missile fly?"), and as a consequence there was possible interviewer/interviewee bias.[30] The NTSB concluded that given the large number of witnesses in this case, they "did not expect all of the documented witness observations to be consistent with one another"[9], and "did not view the apparent anomalous accounts as being persuasive evidence that some witnesses might have observed a missile."[9]


The investigation determined that if witnesses had observed a missile attack they would have seen the following: (1) a light from the burning missile motor ascending very rapidly and steeply for about 8 seconds; (2) the light disappearing for up to 7 seconds; (3) upon the missile striking the aircraft and igniting the CWT another light, moving considerably slower and more laterally than the first, for about 30 seconds; (4) this light descending while simultaneously developing into a fireball falling toward the ocean.[9] None of the witness documents provided to the NTSB described such a scenario, and the investigation concluded that "the witness observations of a streak of light were not related to a missile and that the streak of light reported by most of these witnesses was the burning fuel from the accident airplane in crippled flight during some portion of the post-explosion, pre-impact breakup sequence."[9]


Conclusions

In addition to the probable cause, the NTSB found the following contributing factors to the accident:[9]

  • The design and certification concept that fuel tank explosions could be prevented solely by precluding all ignition sources
  • The certification of the Boeing 747 with heat sources located beneath the CWT with no means to reduce the heat transferred into the CWT or to render the fuel tank vapor nonflammable.

During the course of their investigation, and in their final report, the NTSB issued 15 safety recommendations, mostly covering fuel tank and wiring-related issues.[9] Among the recommendations was that significant consideration should be given to the development of modifications such as nitrogen-inerting systems, for new airplane designs and, where feasible, to existing airplanes (such an inerting system prevents fuel tank explosions by pumping nitrogen into fuel tanks to displace oxygen).[9] An inerting system is a device that attempts to increase the safety of a fuel tank, ball mill, or other sealed or closed-in tank that contains highly flammable material, by pumping nitrogen, steam, carbon dioxide, or some other inert gas or vapor into its air space in order to...


TWA Flight 800 International Memorial

TWA Memorial
TWA Memorial

The TWA Flight 800 International Memorial was dedicated in a 2-acre parcel immediately adjoining the main pavilion at Smith Point County Park in Shirley, New York on July 14, 2004. Funds for the memorial were raised by the Families of TWA Flight 800 Association. The memorial includes landscaped grounds, flags from the 14 countries of the victims and a curved black granite memorial with the names engraved on one side and an illustration on the other of a wave releasing 230 seagulls into the sky. In July 2006 an abstract design of a 10-foot high lighthouse in black granite designed by Harry Edward Seaman who had lost his cousin in the crash was added. The lighthouse sits above a tomb holding many of the victims' personal belongings.[39] Smith Point County Park its situated in eastern Long Island, on the Atlantic Ocean shore. ... Shirley is a hamlet (and census-designated place) in Suffolk County, New York, United States. ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ...


Alternative theories

Further information: TWA Flight 800 alternative theories

The NTSB's conclusions about the cause of the TWA 800 disaster took four years and one month to be published. The FBI's earliest investigations and interviews, later used by the NTSB, were performed under the assumption of a missile attack, a fact noted in the NTSB's final report. Six months into the investigation, the NTSB's chairman, Jim Hall, was quoted as saying, "All three theories — a bomb, a missile or mechanical failure — remain."[40] It is, however, normal for the NTSB to make such a statement when asked about an ongoing investigation. Speculation was fueled in part by early descriptions, visuals, and eyewitness accounts of this jet disaster, including a sudden explosion and trails of fire in the sky; particularly, trails of fire moving in an upward direction. Trans World Airlines (TWA) Flight 800, a Boeing 747-131, N93119, crashed on July 17, 1996, about 20:31 EDT (00:31, July 18 UTC), in the Atlantic Ocean near East Moriches, New York. ...


The two most prevalent specific theories around TWA 800 are that of a terrorist bomb on board, or a missile striking the plane (attributed to American armed forces by some and to terrorists by others). Those supporting these alternative explanations for the crash typically claim that the NTSB's explanation, above, was created as a cover-up; that the NTSB did not investigate sufficiently; or that the NTSB did not have all the evidence they should have had to reach the correct conclusion.


Peter Lance's 2005 book Cover Up: What the Government Is Still Hiding About the War on Terror enters the theory that TWA 800 was blown up using a bomb similar to the one that would have been used in Bojinka. Using official FBI 302s informant documents, Peter Lance asserts that Ramzi Yousef orchestrated the attack from prison in an effort to get a mistrial for master minding the Bojinka plot. According to Lance, the terrorist would smuggle the bomb on to an airplane and places it so that it causes a relatively small explosion that then ignites the center fuel tank. Backing the theory is the fact that the FBI found residues of the same explosive that would have been used in a bomb like this. Operation Bojinka (also known as Project Bojinka, Bojinka Plot, Bojinga, from Arabic: بجنكة – slang in many dialects for explosion and pronounced Bo-JIN-ka, except in Egyptian where it is Bo-GIN-ka) was a planned large-scale attack on airliners in 1995, and was a precursor to the September...


An electrical short in the center main fuel tank's scavenge pump, or the wiring to the scavenge pump. This scavenge pump removes the last 50 gals of ullage Jet-A from the CMT to the number two (left main wing) tank. This transfer of fuel is normally done between 10,000' and 15,000' with the center main tank empty on takeoff, or when the center main fuel tank is run dry with the four center main fuel tank override/jettison pumps. (2 FWD, 2 AFT) For other uses, see Short circuit (disambiguation). ... Harvestman eating the tail of a five-lined skink The word scavenger, in zoology, refers to animals that consume already dead organic life-forms. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... An aviation fuel truck. ...


The scavenge pump from TWA Flight 800 has not been recovered.


Notable victims

Some of the notable passengers on TWA 800 included:[41]

David Hogan (1949? - July 17, 1996) was a composer and musical director of CIGAP -- Le Choeur Intl Gai de Paris -- a choir made up of men who loved music and wanted to show pride in their identity as gay men. ... Marcel Dadi (1951-July 17, 1996) was a French guitarist known for his country & western music. ... Mohammed Samir Ferrat was a wealthy Algerian businessman who was killed July 17, 1996 aboard TWA flight 800. ... The University of Arkansas is a public co-educational land-grant university. ... All-American, a Broadway musical with book by Mel Brooks, music by Charles Strouse, and lyrics by Lee Adams, opened in New York on March 19, 1962, and played 80 performances. ... Andy Warhols Bad is the title of a 1977 film by Jed Johnson, starring Susan Tyrrell. ... Houston redirects here. ... Wayne Shorter (born August 25, 1933) is an American jazz composer and saxophonist. ... Map of Lycoming County, Pennsylvania highlighting Montoursville Montoursville is a borough in Lycoming County, Pennsylvania, in the United States. ...

TWA 800 in the media

  • The incident was used as the basis for the 2000 horror movie Final Destination.
  • CNN produced a two-hour documentary on the crash titled No Survivors: Why TWA 800 Could Happen Again.
  • Nelson DeMille wrote a fictional novel, Night Fall, regarding the events surrounding TWA 800. In the novel, a couple conducting an illicit affair on the beach inadvertently capture the disaster on video.[43]
  • The crash was the subject of an episode of the documentary series Seconds From Disaster.
  • The incident was used as the inspiration for "Dee's Heaven," one of the stories in the first issue of a comic book entitled Serina, Blade of the Pharaoh.[44]
  • The DC Comics character Stargirl, previously the second Star-Spangled Kid, was created by Geoff Johns, who is said to have based her personality on that of his sister Courtney Johns, who died in the explosion.[45]
  • Flight 800 was the subject of the premiere episode of Best Evidence, a documentary show on Discovery Channel.
  • The same aircraft (N93119) that became TWA 800 can be seen taking off mid-way through the film Nine to Five.
  • Rapper Immortal Technique refers to 'Flight 800' in his song Leaving the Past on his album Revolutionary Vol. 2 as having been shot down by a Navy missile
  • An article in the satirical newspaper The Onion describes plans for the reconstructed aircraft to be put back into service.

The Final Destination series is the series of horror films created by James Wong and Glen Morgan, beginning in 2000, based on an unused X-Files script, also created by James Wong from his work with Chris Carter and distributed by New Line Cinema. ... Nelson Richard DeMille (born August 23, 1943) is an American author. ... Night Fall is a 2004 novel by American author Nelson DeMille. ... Seconds From Disaster was a documentary television series that investigates the worst man-made disasters and several natural disasters in modern history, and analyses the causes and events that led up to each disaster. ... DC Comics is an American comic book and related media company. ... Courtney Whitmore is the fictional superheroine Stargirl in the DC Comics Universe. ... Geoff Johns (born 25 January 1973 in Detroit, Michigan) is an American comic book writer, best known for his work for DC Comics. ... Best Evidence is a 2007-present documentary television series on the Discovery Channel and Discovery Times channel. ... Discovery Channel is a cable and satellite TV channel founded by John Hendricks which is distributed by Discovery Communications. ... Nine to Five, also known as 9 to 5, is a 1980 comedy movie starring Jane Fonda, Lily Tomlin, Dolly Parton, and Dabney Coleman and a television series of the same name starring Rachel Dennison, Rita Moreno, and Valerie Curtin. ... Felipe Coronel (born February 19, 1978), better known as Immortal Technique, is a hip hop MC and political activist. ... Extended artwork Back artwork Revolutionary Vol. ... The Onion is a United States-based parody newspaper published weekly in print and daily online. ...

See also

Pan Am Flight 214 was a domestic scheduled passenger flight whose loss dispelled the myth that airliners in flight were impervious to damage from lightning strikes. ...

References

  1. ^ a b NTSB AAR-00/03 Abstract
  2. ^ TIME Magazine: "Who wishes us ill?" July 29, 1996
  3. ^ CNN: "Bomb still leading theory in TWA crash" August 1, 1996
  4. ^ CNN: "FBI concludes no criminal evidence in TWA 800 crash" November 18, 1997
  5. ^ TWA Flight 800: Charles Basset and the Red Residue
  6. ^ Association of Retired Airline Professionals
  7. ^ Flight 800 Independent Researchers Organization (FIRO)
  8. ^ NTSB Report pgs 257-8
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp NTSB AAR-00/03 Final Report
  10. ^ Operational Group Chairman's Factual Report
  11. ^ a b Flight Data Recorder Group Chairman's Factual Report
  12. ^ a b Cockpit Voice Recorder Group Chairman's Factual Report
  13. ^ a b c d Air Traffic Control Group Chairman's Factual Report
  14. ^ "After the Crash," Houston Press 3.
  15. ^ a b c d e f NTSB AAR-00/03 Appendixes
  16. ^ Recompression treatments during the recovery of TWA Flight 800
  17. ^ National Transportation Safety Board, "Aircraft Accident Report, In-flight Breakup Over the Atlantic Ocean, Trans World Airlines Flight 800, Boeing 747-131, N93119, Near East Moriches, New York, July 17, 1996," Washington D.C., 2000, 69
  18. ^ NTSB Report pg 70
  19. ^ NTSB Report pg 71
  20. ^ NTSB Report pg 86
  21. ^ a b Medical/Forensic Group Chairman's Factual Report
  22. ^ NTSB Report pgs 257-258
  23. ^ "Aircraft Boneyards", Boneyard, History Channel. Retrieved on 2007-08-09. 
  24. ^ a b NTSB Report, pg 2
  25. ^ Operational Factors Factual Report, National Transportation Safety Board
  26. ^ a b NTSB Report pg 3
  27. ^ NTSB Report pgs 60-61
  28. ^ NTSB Report pg 62
  29. ^ a b c d Witnesses Group Chairman's Factual Report
  30. ^ a b c d e f g Witness Group Study Report
  31. ^ Shepard, J.E. and H.G Hornung (2005). "Sound generation by explosive decompression of an airplane", in Zonglin Jiang (Editor): Shock Waves: Proceedings of the 24th International Symposium on Shock Waves, Beijing, China, July 11-16 2004, Vol. 1 and 2. Berlin: Springer, p. 977. ISBN 3-540-22497-1. 
  32. ^ a b c NTSB Report Section 2.2
  33. ^ NTSB, "Medical/Forensic Group Chairman's Factual Report of Investigation," Washington, D.C., NTSB Docket SA-516, Exhibit 19A
  34. ^ a b NTSB Report, Section 1.12
  35. ^ NTSB final report pages 293-4
  36. ^ a b NTSB report pg 288
  37. ^ NTSB Report pg 289
  38. ^ a b c NTSB Report pg 290
  39. ^ Remembering Flight 800 - Newsday - July 18, 2006
  40. ^ CNN: "Six months later, still no answer to the TWA Flight 800 mystery" January 17, 1997
  41. ^ WashingtonPost.com list of passengers and crew
  42. ^ CNN: "Town still mourns 10 years after TWA 800"
  43. ^ Nelson DeMille - Night Fall
  44. ^ Serina, Blade of the Pharaoh (Antarctic Press, Issue #1, September 2000)
  45. ^ Newsarama.Com - Behind The Pages: Geoff Johns (Part 1 - Stargirl-TWA 800 connection)

is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... The Houston Press is an alternative weekly newspaper published in Houston, Texas. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ...

External links

Coordinates: 40°39′1″N, 72°38′0″W The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... The Houston Chronicle is a daily newspaper in Houston, Texas, United States. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... Aviation encompasses all the activities relating to airborne devices created by human ingenuity, generally known as aircraft. ... This is a timeline of aviation history. ... This list of aircraft is sorted alphabetically, beginning with the name of the manufacturer (or, in certain cases, designer). ... This is a list of aircraft manufacturers (in alphabetic order). ... List of aircraft engines: // Two- and four-stroke rotary, radial, inline. ... This is a list of aircraft engine manufacturers both past and present. ... This is a list of airlines in operation (by continents and country). ... This is a list of air forces, sorted alphabetically by country, followed by a list of former countries air forces. ... This is an incomplete list of aircraft weapons, past and present. ... Below is a list of (links to pages on) missiles, sorted alphabetically by name. ... A Boeing 720 being flown under remote control as part of NASAs Controlled Impact Demonstration The following is a list of Unmanned aerial vehicles developed and operated by various countries around the world. ... This is a list of experimental aircraft. ... The SR-71 Blackbird is the current record holder. ... Flight distance records without refueling. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with List of altitude records reached by different aircraft types. ... The flight endurance record is the amount of time spent in the air. ... Aircraft with a production run greater than 5,000 aircraft. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
TWA Flight 800: Lineup (2056 words)
This is the photograph released by the NTSB of the starboard side of the reconstruction of flight 800.
EDT (CNN) -- A key investigator of the crash of TWA Flight 800 declined Friday to confirm or deny a CNN report that a trace of explosives had been found in the wreckage of the passenger cabin.
Officially, the cause of the explosion aboard TWA 800 remains undetermined and the FBI says its latest trace findings are not enough to declare the crash a case of sabotage.
TWA Flight 800 (4111 words)
She lost friends on flight 800, and as rumors of a missile kill of flight 800 began to circulate within TWA, James was asked to look into the matter.
The official explanation for the crash of TWA flight 800 is that the eyewitnesses who were there are all idiots.
TWA 800 Controversy Heats Up On a warm June evening in Kansas City, the historic home of TWA and the current site of its huge overhaul base, a group of 75 or so airline pilots watched the documentary Silenced : Flight 800 and the Subversion of Justice in stunned horror.
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