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Encyclopedia > TSR, Inc
TSR, Inc.
Type Private (defunct)
Founded Lake Geneva, Wisconsin (1973)
Headquarters Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, USA
Key people Gary Gygax, Don Kaye, Brian Blume, Lorraine Williams
Industry Role-playing game publisher
Products Dungeons & Dragons

TSR, Inc. was an American game publishing company most famous for publishing the Dungeons & Dragons role-playing game. Image File history File links TSR_logo,_1998_BG1. ... A privately-held corporation is one whose ownership shares are not publicly traded. ... Lake Geneva is a city located in Walworth County, Wisconsin. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Lake Geneva is a city located in Walworth County, Wisconsin. ... Ernest Gary Gygax, 2004 Ernest Gary Gygax (born July 27, 1938 in Chicago, Illinois) is best known as the author of the well known fantasy role-playing game Dungeons & Dragons (D&D), co-created with Dave Arneson and co-published with Don Kaye in 1974 under the company Tactical Studies... A role-playing game (RPG, often roleplaying game) is a type of game in which the participants assume the roles of fictional characters and collaboratively create or follow stories. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... A role-playing game (RPG, often roleplaying game) is a type of game in which the participants assume the roles of fictional characters and collaboratively create or follow stories. ...

Contents

History

Tactical Studies Rules was formed in 1973 as a partnership between Gary Gygax and Don Kaye as a means to formally publish and sell the rules of Dungeons & Dragons, one of the first role-playing games. The partnership was subsequently joined by Brian Blume and (temporarily) by Dave Arneson. When Don Kaye died of a stroke in 1975, Brian Blume and Gary Gygax, the remaining owners, incorporated a new company, TSR Hobbies, Inc., of which Blume acquired the larger share. The assets of the original company were transferred to the new one, and Tactical Studies Rules was dissolved. In 1983, the word "Hobbies" was dropped from the name, resulting in the final name of TSR, Inc. 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Ernest Gary Gygax, 2004 Ernest Gary Gygax (born July 27, 1938 in Chicago, Illinois) is best known as the author of the well known fantasy role-playing game Dungeons & Dragons (D&D), co-created with Dave Arneson and co-published with Don Kaye in 1974 under the company Tactical Studies... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... This article is about traditional role-playing games. ... David L. Arneson is an American game designer born in 1955. ... Ernest Gary Gygax, 2004 Ernest Gary Gygax (born July 27, 1938 in Chicago, Illinois) is best known as the author of the well known fantasy role-playing game Dungeons & Dragons (D&D), co-created with Dave Arneson and co-published with Don Kaye in 1974 under the company Tactical Studies...


TSR emerged as a leading developer of the modern Role Playing Game, or RPG. Its flagship product, Dungeons & Dragons, served as the model for the new field. Dungeons and Dragons proved to be a financial success, and also was instrumental in developing the new RPG genre and introducing it to new market segments such as children and teens. This article is about traditional role-playing games. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ...


TSR's games proved extremely popular, and extremely profitable. Gygax left for Hollywood to found Dungeons & Dragons Entertainment, which attempted to license D&D products to movie and television executives. His work would eventually lead to only a single license for what later became the Dungeons & Dragons cartoon.[1] After Gygax's departure, Brian Blume and his brother Kevin Blume assumed control of the company. The Blumes were forced to leave after being accused of misusing corporate funds and accumulating large debts in the pursuit of spinoffs such as latchhook rug kits that were thought to be too broadly targeted.[citation needed] Within a year of the ascension of the Blumes, the company was forced to post a net loss of 1.5 million US dollars, resulting in layoffs for approximately 75% of the staff. Some of these staff members went on to form other prominent game companies such as Pacesetter Games, Mayfair Games and to work with Coleco's video game division. Dungeons & Dragons is an American animated television series that was a co-production of Marvel Productions and TSR, and made in the United States during the 1980s. ... Mayfair Games is a publisher of board and roleplaying games in the United States and United Kingdom. ... Coleco was a company founded in 1932 by Maurice Greenberg as Connecticut Leather Company to sell leather supplies to shoemakers. ...


Gygax, who at that time owned only approximately 30% of the stock, wrote to the Board of Directors, asking them to remove the Blumes as a way of restoring financial health to the company. In an act many saw as retaliation, the Blumes sold their stock to Lorraine Williams.[2] Gygax tried to have the sale declared illegal; after that failed, Gygax sold his remaining stock to Williams and used the capital to form New Infinity Productions.


Williams was a financial planner who saw the potential for transforming the debt-plagued company into a highly profitable one. However, she disdained the gaming field, viewing herself as superior to gamers.[3][4] Williams implemented an internal policy under which playing games was forbidden at the company.[citation needed] This resulted in many products being released without being playtested (some were playtested "on the sly") and a large number of products being released that were incompatible with the existing game system.


Through Williams' direction, TSR solidified its expansion into other fields, such as magazines, paperback fiction, and comic books. Williams controlled the Buck Rogers license and encouraged TSR to produce Buck Rogers games. TSR would end up publishing a board game and a role-playing game.[2] This entry is for the science fiction character Buck Rogers. ...


During this time, in the early 1980s, TSR developed the Dragonlance series, which consisted of an entirely new game world and rules. Margaret Weis and Tracy Hickman also produced a trilogy of novels set in the Dragonlance universe, which became the first game company fiction to reach the Best Seller list in the United States. During the height of its success, TSR made an annual profit of over one million U.S. dollars, and maintained a staff of 400 employees.[citation needed] Dragonlance is a large series of fantasy books, and a Dungeons & Dragons campaign setting. ...


However, TSR gradually lost its ability to innovate.[citation needed] After the emergence of collectible card games, TSR released several new collectable game lines: Dragon Dice and Spellfire. Neither found great success in the market place. At the same time, TSR began retaliating against fan fiction and other creative work derived from TSR intellectual property, which angered many long-time customers and fans. Other new entrants into the RPG genre introduced competing fantasy worlds, which fragmented the RPG community, further reducing TSR's already wilting consumer base. These and other factors led to TSR ending accumulating over $30 million in debt by 1996, and having to endure multiple rounds of layoffs.[4] Collectible card games (CCGs), also called trading card games (TCGs) or customizable card games (a phrase specific to two Decipher, Inc. ... Some Dragon Dice Dragon Dice is a competitive collectible dice game made by TSR, Inc. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ...


With the decline of TSR, Wizards of the Coast, publishers of the wildly popular collectible card game Magic: The Gathering, inherited the title of "Lord of the RPGs". Wizards of the Coast purchased TSR and its intellectual properties in 1997, ending the company's slow fall from grace.[5] TSR employees were given the opportunity to transfer to Wizards of the Coast's offices in Washington; some accepted the offer. Corporate offices in the Lake Geneva office were closed. Over the next few years, various parts of the company were resold to other companies, while in 1999, Wizards of the Coast was itself purchased by Hasbro, Inc. In 2002 Gen Con was sold to Peter Adkison's Gen Con, LLC.[6] Also in 2002 TSR's magazines were transferred to Paizo Publishing.[7] The TSR brand name continued for several years, then was retired. Soon after, TSR trademarks were allowed to expire. Wizards of the Coast (often referred to as WotC or simply Wizards) is a publisher of games, primarily based on fantasy and science fiction themes. ... Magic: The Gathering (colloq. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Hasbro (NYSE: HAS) is an American toy and game company. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Peter Adkison has been an avid gamer all his life. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Paizo Publishing is a publishing company that specializes in magazines aimed at audiences interested in role-playing games and other gaming-related hobbies. ...


Products

TSR's main products were role-playing games, the most successful of which was Dungeons & Dragons. However, they also produced other games like card, board and dice games, and published both magazines and books. // For the game on The Price Is Right, please see Card Game (pricing game). ... A board game is a game played with counters or pieces that are placed on, removed from, or moved across a board (a premarked surface, usually specific to that game). ... Dice games are quite universal. ...


Role-playing games

Alternity was a science fiction role-playing game (RPG) published by TSR in 1998. ... Amazing Engine was a series of role-playing game books that were published by TSR, Inc. ... Boot Hill is a western role-playing game designed by Brian Blume and Gary Gygax. ... Buck Rogers XXVC is a game setting created by TSR, Inc. ... Hither came Conan, the Cimmerian, black-haired, sullen-eyed, sword in hand, a thief, a reaver, a slayer, with gigantic melancholies and gigantic mirth, to tread the jeweled thrones of the Earth under his sandalled feet. ... Dragonlance is a large series of fantasy books, and a Dungeons & Dragons campaign setting. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... The Empire of The Petal Throne is a role-playing game system created by Professor M. A. R. Barker. ... Gamma World is a science fantasy role-playing game, originally created by James M. Ward and Gary Jaquet, and first published by TSR in 1978. ... Gangbusters is a 1920s based role-playing game published by TSR, Inc. ... The Adventures of Indiana Jones Role-Playing Game was a role-playing game designed and published by TSR, Inc. ... The Marvel Super Heroes (MSH) RPG is a role playing game set in the Marvel Universe, first published by TSR under license from Marvel Comics in 1984. ... Metamorphosis Alpha is a science fiction role-playing game created by James Ward and originally produced by TSR, the makers of Dungeons & Dragons. ... Star Frontiers is a science fiction role-playing game produced by TSR during the 1980s. ... Top Secret is an espionage role-playing game first published in 1980 by TSR, the company best known for making the Dungeons & Dragons game. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Top Secret (role-playing game). ...

Wargames

Cavaliers and Roundheads (1973) Cavaliers and Roundheads is a set of rules for English Civil War miniature wargaming. ... Cover for the third edition of Chainmail (1975). ... Dont Give Up The Ship! (1971) is a set of rules published by Guidon Games for conducting Napoleonic era naval wargames. ... Fight In The Skies is a board wargame written by Mike Carr which models World War I style air combat. ... Sniper! (properly spelled with an exclamation mark at the end) was a board game originally released in 1973. ... Terrible Swift Sword: The Three Days of Gettysburg (often abbreviated as TSS) is a classic grand tactical, regimental level board game depicting the Battle of Gettysburg of the American Civil War. ... Tractics (1975) Tractics is a set of rules for conducting World War II style combat with miniatures. ... Tricolor (1975) Tricolor is a rulebook for wargaming with Napoleonic miniatures. ... William I ( 1027 – September 9, 1087), was King of England from 1066 to 1087. ...

Other games

  • 4th Dimension (board game)
  • Dragon Dice collectible dice game
  • Dungeon! (1975)
  • Endless Quest gamebooks
  • Spellfire collectible card game
  • Blood Wars collectible card game
  • Chase (board game)
  • Kage (board game)
  • Steppe (board game)
  • Attack Force (microgame)
  • Icebergs (microgame)
  • Remember the Alamo (microgame)
  • Revolt on Antares (microgame)
  • Saga (microgame)
  • They've Invaded Pleasantville (microgame)
  • Vampyre (microgame)
  • Viking Gods (microgame)

Some Dragon Dice Dragon Dice is a competitive collectible dice game made by TSR, Inc. ... Dungeon! is a 1975 adventure board game designed by David R. Megarry, Gary Gygax, Michael Gray, Steve Winter and S. Schwab, published by TSR, Inc. ... Endless Quest is two series of gamebooks released by TSR. The first series of 36 books was released from 1982 to 1987, the second series of 13 from 1994 to 1996. ... A gamebook is a book with a branching storyline that serves as a medium for gameplay. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Collectible card games (CCGs), also called trading card games (TCGs) or customizable card games (a phrase specific to two Decipher, Inc. ...

Magazines

Amazing Stories magazine, sometimes retitled Amazing Science Fiction, began in April 1926, becoming the first science fiction magazine and one of the pioneers of science fiction in the United States. ... The cover of the 300th issue Dragon, first published in 1976, is one of the two official magazines for source material for the Dungeons & Dragons role-playing game. ... Dungeon Adventures, commonly called simply Dungeon, is a magazine targeting people who play role playing games, particularly Dungeons & Dragons. ...

Fiction

In 1984, TSR started publishing novels based on their games. Most D&D campaign settings had their own novel line, the most successful of which were the Dragonlance and Forgotten Realms lines with dozens of novels released in each. 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A novel (from French nouvelle Italian novella, new) is an extended, generally fictional narrative in prose. ... A campaign setting is a fictional fantasy world which serves as a setting for a role-playing game or wargame, such as Dungeons & Dragons, Warhammer and various d20 System games. ... Dragonlance is a large series of fantasy books, and a Dungeons & Dragons campaign setting. ... The Forgotten Realms third edition logo. ...


TSR also published the 1995 novel Buck Rogers: A Life in the Future by Martin Caidin, a standalone reimagining of the Buck Rogers universe and unrelated to TSR's Buck Rogers XXVC game. Martin Caidin (1927-1997) was an American author and an authority on aeronautics and aviation. ... This entry is for the science fiction character Buck Rogers. ... Buck Rogers XXVC is a game setting created by TSR, Inc. ...


Over the years, TSR published a number of fantasy and science fiction novels unconnected with their gaming products, such as L. Dean James' "Red Kings of Wynnamyr" novels, Sorcerer's Stone (1991) and Kingslayer (1992) and Mary H. Herbert's five "Gabria" novels (Valorian, Dark Horse, Lightning's Daughter, City of the Sorcerers and Winged Magic); but never devoted a major portion of their budget or energy toward becoming a major publisher in the field.


Criticism

After its initial success faded, the company turned to legal defenses of what it regarded as its intellectual property. In addition, there were several legal cases brought regarding who had invented what within the company and the division of royalties. These actions reached their nadir when the company threatened to sue individuals supplying game material on Internet sites (illegitimately, as under special circumstances U.S. copyright law holds that guidelines and rules may not be copyrighted).[8] In the mid-1990s, this led to frequent use of the nickname "T$R" in discussions on RPG-related Internet mailing lists and Usenet, as the company was widely perceived as attacking its customers. Increasing product proliferation didn't help matters; many of the product lines overlapped and were separated by what seemed like minor points (even the classic troika of Greyhawk, the Forgotten Realms and Dragonlance suffered in this regard). In law, intellectual property (IP) is an umbrella term for various legal entitlements which attach to certain types of information, ideas, or other intangibles in their expressed form. ... A mailing list is a collection of names and addresses used by an individual or an organization to send material to multiple recipients. ... Usenet (USEr NETwork) is a global, distributed bulletin board system (BBS). ... The Greyhawk logo Greyhawk is a campaign setting for the Dungeons & Dragons role-playing game. ... The Forgotten Realms third edition logo. ... Dragonlance is a large series of fantasy books, and a Dungeons & Dragons campaign setting. ...


In addition, TSR's corporate culture tried to convince its creative staff that the company was their only refuge for employment. In response, ex-employees banded together in a loose organization called "CTHULHU" (Confederation of TSR Hirelings Undaunted by Leaving the Hideous Uglyheads).


Trivia

The company was the subject of an urban myth stating that it tried to trademark the term "Nazi". This was based on a supplement for the Indiana Jones RPG in which some figures were marked with "NAZI(tm)". This notation was in compliance with the list of trademarked character names supplied by Lucasfilm's legal department. Later references to the error would forget its origin and slowly morph into stories of TSR's trying to register such a trademark, possibly aided by TSR's own reputation late in its existence as a "trademark Nazi" company. Urban Legend is also the name of a 1998 movie. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Harrison Ford as Indiana Jones Dr. Henry Indiana Jones, Jr. ... Lucasfilm Ltd. ...


Marvel Comics also supplied a list of trademarked Marvel characters which included the term "NAZI(tm)". Marvel Comics is an American comic book line published by Marvel Entertainment, Inc. ...


See also

TSR, Inc. ...

References

  1. ^ Rausch, Allen (2004-08-16). Gary Gygax Interview - Part 2. Gamespy. Retrieved on 2006-07-05.
  2. ^ a b Magic & Memories: The Complete History of Dungeons & Dragons - Part II: Mazes & Monsters 5. Gamespy (2004-08-16). Retrieved on 2006-07-05.
  3. ^ gygaxfaq: What Happened to Gygax - TSR?. gygax.com. Archived from the original on 1999-01-28. Retrieved on 2006-07-04.
  4. ^ a b Magic & Memories: The Complete History of Dungeons & Dragons - Part III: Mazes & Monsters 1. Gamespy (2004-08-17). Retrieved on 2006-07-04.
  5. ^ Tidwell, Ken (1997-04-10). Wizards of the Coast to acquire TSR. http://www.gamecabinet.com. The Game Cabinet.
  6. ^ Biography, Peter D. Adkison. Gen Con LLC. Retrieved on 2006-07-04.
  7. ^ Wizards of the Coast Signs Exclusive Publishing Agreement With Paizo Publishing, LLC To Produce Top Hobby Industry Magazines. Wizards of the Coast, Inc. (2002-07-08).
  8. ^ U.S. Copyright Office - Games. U.S. Copyright Office (www.copyright.gov).

2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 5 is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 179 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 5 is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 179 days remaining. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... January 28 is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the United States holiday, the Fourth of July, see Independence Day (United States). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the United States holiday, the Fourth of July, see Independence Day (United States). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the United States holiday, the Fourth of July, see Independence Day (United States). ...

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