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Encyclopedia > TRS connector
TRS connector
TRS connector
"Triple contact plug" as described in 1907.
"Triple contact plug" as described in 1907.

A TRS connector, also called an Audio Jack (UK) or phone plug (U.S.), is a common audio connector. It is cylindrical in shape, typically with three contacts, although sometimes with two (a TS connector) or four (a TRRS connector). It was invented for use in telephone switchboards in the 19th century and is still widely used, both in its original quarter-inch (6.3 mm) size and in miniaturized versions. The connector's name is an acronym derived from the names of three conducting parts of the plug: Tip, Ring, and Sleeve[1] – hence, TRS. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 442 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (536 × 727 pixel, file size: 200 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Jack plug ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 442 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (536 × 727 pixel, file size: 200 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Jack plug ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 478 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (573 × 719 pixel, file size: 296 KB, MIME type: image/png) Partial page from 1907 book International Textbook Company, Scranton, PA; copyright expired. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 478 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (573 × 719 pixel, file size: 296 KB, MIME type: image/png) Partial page from 1907 book International Textbook Company, Scranton, PA; copyright expired. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... Audio Audio connectors are electrical connectors designed and used for audio frequencies. ... Telephone switchboard, 1974 A switchboard (also called a manual branch exchange) is a device used to manually connect a group of telephones from one to another or to an outside connection. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the UK, the terms jack plug and jack socket are commonly used for the respectively male and female TRS connectors.[2]


In the U.S., a female connector is called a jack. The terms phone plug and phone jack are commonly used to refer to TRS connectors,[3] but are also sometimes used colloquially to refer to RJ11 and older telephone plugs and the corresponding jacks that connect wired telephones to wall outlets. (The similar terms phono plug and phono jack refers to RCA connectors.) To unambiguously refer to the connectors described here, the diameter or other qualifier is often added, e.g. 1/4-inch phone plug", "3.5 mm phone jack, and balanced phone jack or stereo phone plug for the three-contact version. In electronics, a jack is a socket. ... RJ-11 is a physical interface often used for terminating twisted pair type cables. ... A telephone plug is a plug which allows a telephone to connect to the local telephone network. ... RCA Plugs for composite video and stereo audio An RCA jack, also referred to as a phono connector or CINCH/AV connector, is a type of electrical connector that is commonly used in the audio/video market. ...

Contents

Modern connectors

2.5 mm (3/32") mono (TS), 3.5 mm (1/8") mono and stereo (TRS), and 6.3 mm (1/4") stereo (TRS) jack plugs
2.5 mm (3/32") mono (TS), 3.5 mm (1/8") mono and stereo (TRS), and 6.3 mm (1/4") stereo (TRS) jack plugs

Modern TS and TRS connectors are available in three standard sizes. The original 1/4" (6.35 mm) version dates from 1878, for use in manual telephone exchanges—making it possibly the oldest electrical connector standard still in use. The 3.5 mm or miniature and 2.5 mm or subminiature sizes were originally designed as two-conductor connectors for earpieces on transistor radios. The 3.5 mm and 2.5 mm sizes are also referred to as 1/8" and 3/32" respectively in the United States, though those dimensions are only approximations. All three sizes are now readily available in two-conductor (unbalanced mono) and three-conductor (balanced mono or unbalanced stereo) versions. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1626x1513, 306 KB) Summary Description: Jack plugs Author, date of creation: selfmade by Shaddack, 6 November 2005 Source: self-made Copyright: Public Domain (PD) Comments:Jack connectors 2. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1626x1513, 306 KB) Summary Description: Jack plugs Author, date of creation: selfmade by Shaddack, 6 November 2005 Source: self-made Copyright: Public Domain (PD) Comments:Jack connectors 2. ... For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ... Regency TR-1. ... Balanced audio connections are extremely important in sound recording and production because they allow for the use of very long cables with reduced introduction of outside noise. ... Label for 2. ...


Four and five conductor versions of the 3.5 mm plug are used for certain applications. A four conductor version is becoming a de facto standard output connector for compact camcorders, providing stereo sound plus a video signal. This interface is also seen on some laptop computers. Proprietary interfaces using both four and five conductor versions exist, such as the audio connector on the first four generations of iPod MP3 players (the 5th generation player now uses a standard 3 conductor cable), where the extra conductors were used to supply power for accessories. There is also an optical connector used for TOSLINK (mainly on things like portable equipment; hi-fi separates and similar tend to use the standard square connector) that is the same size as a 3.5 mm jack. Sockets exist that can make either an optical connection to such a plug or an electrical connection to a stereo jack plug, such as the headphone jacks on many laptops. Sony DV Handycam A camcorder is a portable electronic device for recording video images and audio onto an internal storage device. ... An ultraportable IBM X31 with 12 screen on an IBM T43 Thin & Light laptop with a 14 screen HCLs $329 miniature notebooks with 6 TFT touchscreens launched in India on January 29, 2008. ... This article is about the machine. ... iPod is a brand of portable media players designed and marketed by Apple Inc. ... For other uses, see MP3 (disambiguation). ... TOSLINK is a standardized optical fiber connection system. ...


A three or four conductor version of the 2.5 mm plug is widely used on cell phone handsfree headsets, providing mono (three conductor) or stereo (four conductor) sound and a microphone input. It should be noted that the use of common stereo headphones with the 2.5 mm plug are often not compatible with this type of socket. Motorola T2288 mobile phone A mobile phone is a portable electronic device which behaves as a normal telephone whilst being able to move over a wide area (compare cordless phone which acts as a telephone only within a limited range). ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Although relatively unknown in modern electronics, the professional audio world and the telecommunication industry rely heavily on tiny telephone (TT) connectors which use mid-size phone plugs with a 4.4 mm (0.173-inch) diameter shaft. In the telecom world, this is known as a "bantam" plug. Due to their compactness and reliability, TTs are often used for professional console and outboard patchbays in studios and live sound applications, in which a single patch panel may require hundreds of patch points in a limited space. The TRS versions of TT connectors are capable of handling balanced line signals and are preferred in pro audio installations. Reliability concerns quality or consistency. ... A remote broadcast trailers jackfield A patch bay for patching circuits to stage lighting instruments A patch panel or patch bay is a panel, typically rackmounted, that houses cable connections. ... For the illustrated magazine, see Studio Magazine. ... A remote broadcast trailers jackfield A patch bay for patching circuits to stage lighting instruments A patch panel or patch bay is a panel, typically rackmounted, that houses cable connections. ... In telecommunications, a balanced line or balanced signal pair is a transmission line consisting of two conductors in the presence of ground, which relies on balanced impedances to minimize interference. ...


Both two-conductor and three-conductor versions of the three standard sizes are readily available in male and female inline versions, and panel-mounting female versions. Panel-mounting male versions of these also exist but are rare, as they are vulnerable to mechanical damage and therefore unreliable. Female inline versions are also notoriously unreliable and are avoided by many users. In electrical and mechanical trades and manufacturing, each of a pair of mating connectors or fasteners is conventionally assigned the designation male or female. ...


The most common arrangement remains to have the male plug on the cable and the female socket mounted in a piece of equipment: the original intention of the design. A considerable variety of line plugs and panel sockets is available, including plugs suiting various cable sizes, right angle plugs, and both plugs and sockets in a variety of price ranges and with current capacities up to 15 amperes for certain heavy duty 1/4" versions. For other uses, see Ampere (disambiguation). ...


Less commonly used sizes, both diameters and lengths, are also available from some manufacturers, and are used when it is desired to restrict the availability of matching connectors, such as .210 inch inside diameter jacks for fire safety communication jacks in public buildings, the same size found in vintage 16mm projector speaker jacks.[4]

A dual 310 patch cable, two pin jack plug
A dual 310 patch cable, two pin jack plug
  • A two-pin version, known to the telecom industry as a "310 connector" consists of two TRS 6.3 mm jack plugs at a centre spacing of 1". The socket versions of these can be used with normal jack plugs provided the plug bodies are not too large, but the plug version will only mate with two jack sockets at 1" centre spacing, or with line sockets, again with sufficiently small bodies. These connectors are still widely used today in telephone company central offices on "DSX" patch panels for DS1 circuits. A similar type of 3.5 mm connector is often used in the armrests of aircraft, as part of the on-board entertainment system. Plugging a stereo plug into one of the two mono jacks typically results in the audio coming into only one ear. Adaptors are available.
  • A short-barrelled version also exists, once used on high-impedance mono headphones, and in particular those used in World War II aircraft. It is physically possible to use a normal plug in a short socket, but a short plug will neither lock into a normal socket nor complete the tip circuit. These are still manufactured but are now regarded as a non-standard size.

Double jack plug. ... Double jack plug. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

Mono and stereo compatibility

Old profile jack plugs. The leftmost plug has three conductors; the others have two.At the top is a three-conductor jack from the same era.
Old profile jack plugs. The leftmost plug has three conductors; the others have two.
At the top is a three-conductor jack from the same era.
Modern profile 2-conductor 1/4" jack plugs.
Modern profile 2-conductor 1/4" jack plugs.

In the original application in manual telephone exchanges, many different configurations of 1/4" jack plug were used, some accommodating five or more conductors, with several tip profiles. Of these many varieties, only the two-conductor version with a rounded tip profile was compatible between different manufacturers, and this was the design that was at first adopted for use with microphones, electric guitars, headphones, loudspeakers, and many other items of audio equipment. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Download high resolution version (600x619, 18 KB)Old style jack plugs This is an original photograph by Andrew Alder, taken on 11 November 2003. ... Download high resolution version (600x619, 18 KB)Old style jack plugs This is an original photograph by Andrew Alder, taken on 11 November 2003. ... Jack plugs This is an original photograph by Andrew Alder, taken on 11 November 2003. ... Jack plugs This is an original photograph by Andrew Alder, taken on 11 November 2003. ... Microphones redirects here. ... Two different electric guitars. ... For other uses, see Headphones (disambiguation). ... An inexpensive low fidelity 3. ...


When a three-conductor version of the 1/4" jack was introduced for use with stereo headphones, it was given a sharper tip profile in order to make it possible to manufacture jacks (sockets) that would accept only stereo plugs, to avoid short-circuiting the right channel amplifier. This attempt has long been abandoned, and now the normal convention is that all plugs fit all sockets of the same size, regardless of whether they are balanced mono, unbalanced mono or stereo. Most 1/4" plugs, mono or stereo, now have the profile of the original stereo plug, although a few rounded mono plugs are also still produced. The profiles of stereo miniature and subminiature plugs have always been identical to the mono plugs of the same size. Label for 2. ...


The results of this physical compatibility are:

  • If a two-conductor plug of the same size is connected to a three-conductor socket, the result is that the ring (right channel) of the socket is grounded. This property is deliberately used in several applications, see "tip ring sleeve", below. However, grounding one channel may also be dangerous to the equipment if the result is to short circuit the output of the right channel amplifier. In any case, any signal from the right channel is naturally lost.
  • If a three-conductor plug is connected to a two-conductor socket, normally the result is to leave the ring of the plug unconnected (open circuit). In the days of valves ("tubes" in the U.S.) this was also potentially dangerous to equipment but most solid state devices tolerate this condition well. A 3-conductor socket could be wired as an unbalanced mono socket to ground the ring in this situation, but the more conventional wiring is to leave the ring unconnected, exactly simulating a mono socket.

For alternate meanings see Short circuit (disambiguation) A short circuit (sometimes known as simply a short) is a fault whereby electricity moves through a circuit in an unintended path, usually due to a connection forming where none was expected. ... For the British rock band of the same name, see Amplifier (band). ... Structure of a vacuum tube diode Structure of a vacuum tube triode In electronics, a vacuum tube, electron tube, or (outside North America) thermionic valve or just valve, is a device used to amplify, switch or modify a signal by controlling the movement of electrons in an evacuated space. ...

Uses

Some common uses of jack plugs and their matching sockets are: Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

  • Headphone and earphone jacks on a wide range of equipment. 1/4 in. plugs are common on standalone equipment, while 3.5 mm plugs are nearly universal for portable audio equipment. 2.5 mm plugs are not as common, but are sometimes used on communication equipment such as two-way radios and mobile phones.
  • Microphone inputs on tape and cassette recorders, sometimes with remote control switching on the ring.
  • Patching points (insert points) on a wide range of equipment.
  • Personal computer sound cards. Stereo 3.5 mm jacks are used for:
    • Line in (stereo)
    • Line out (stereo)
    • Headphones/loudspeaker out (stereo)
    • Microphone input (mono, sometimes with 5v power available on the ring. Note that traditional, incompatible, use of a stereo plug on a microphone is for balanced output)
    • LCD monitors with built-in speakers will require a 3.5mm male-male cable from the sound card.
  • Electric guitars. Almost all electric guitars use a ¼ in mono jack (socket) as their output connector. Some makes (such as Shergold) use a stereo jack instead for stereo output, or a second stereo jack, in addition to a mono jack (as with Rickenbacker).
  • Instrument amplifiers for guitars, basses and similar amplified musical instruments. ¼ in jacks are overwhelmingly the most common connectors for:
    • Inputs. A shielded cable with a mono ¼ in jack plug on each end is commonly called a guitar cord or a patching cord, the first name reflecting this usage, the second the history of the jack plug's development for use in manual telephone exchanges.
    • Loudspeaker outputs, especially on low-end equipment. Speakon connectors are generally considered superior and so are usually preferred on higher-end equipment, although it is not uncommon to find both provided for compatibility. Heavy-duty ¼ in loudspeaker jacks are rated at 15 A maximum which limits them to applications involving less than 1800 watts. ¼ in loudspeaker jacks commonly aren't rigged to lock the plug in place and will short out the amplifier's output circuitry if connected or disconnected when the amplifier is live.
    • Line outputs.
    • Foot switches and effects pedals. Stereo plugs are used for double switches (for example by Fender). There is little compatibility between makers.
    • Effects loops, which are normally wired as patch points.
  • Electronic keyboards use jacks for a similar range of uses to guitars and amplifiers, and in addition
    • Sustain pedals.
    • Expression pedals.
  • Electronic drums use jacks to connect sensor pads to the synthesizer module or MIDI encoder. In this usage, a change in voltage on the wire indicates a drum stroke.
  • Some compact and/or economy model audio mixing desks use stereo jacks for balanced microphone inputs.
  • The majority of professional audio equipment uses mono jacks as the standard unbalanced input or output connector, often providing a ¼ in unbalanced line connector alongside (or in a few cases in the middle of!) and as an alternative to an XLR balanced line connector.
  • Modular synthesizers commonly use monophonic cables for creating patches.
  • ¼ in connectors are widely used to connect external processing devices to mixing consoles' insert points (see Insert (effects processing)). TRS or TS connectors might be used in pairs as separate Send and Return jacks or a single TRS jack might be employed for both Send and Return in which case the signals are unbalanced. The single unbalanced combination Send/Return TRS insert jack saves both panel space and component complexity. Note that mixing console insert points can also be XLR, RCA or Bantam TT (tiny telephone) jacks, depending on the make and model.
  • Some small electronic devices such as audio cassette players, especially in the cheaper price brackets, use a two-conductor 3.5 mm or 2.5 mm jack as a DC power connector.
  • Some photographic studio strobe lights have ¼ in or 3.5 mm jacks for the flash synchronization input. A camera's electrical flash output (PC socket or hot shoe adapter) is cabled to the strobe light's sync input jacks. Some examples: Calumet Travelite, and Speedotron use a ¼ in mono jack as the sync input; White Lightning uses ¼ in stereo jacks; Pocket Wizard (radio trigger) and Alien Bees use 3.5 mm mono jacks.
  • Some cameras (for example, Canon, Sigma, and Pentax DSLRs) use the 2.5mm stereo jack for the connector for the remote shutter release (and focus activation); examples are Canon's RS-60E3 remote switch and Sigma's CR-21 wired remote control.
  • Some miniaturized electronic devices use 2.5 or 3.5 mm jack plugs as serial port connectors for data transfer and unit programming. This technique is particularly common on graphing calculators, such as the TI-83 series, and some types of amateur and two-way radio, though in some more modern equipment USB mini-B connectors are provided in addition to or instead of jack connectors. The second-generation iPod Shuffle from Apple has a single TRS jack which serves as headphone, USB, or power supply, depending on the connected plug.
  • On CCTV cameras and video encoders, mono audio in (originating from a microphone in or near the camera) and mono audio out (destined to a speaker in or near the camera) are provided on a single three-conductor connector, where one signal is on the tip conductor and the other is on the ring conductor.[5]

In-ear headphones Headphones (also known as earphones, stereophones, headsets, or the slang term cans) is a transducer that receives an electrical signal from a media player or receiver and uses speakers placed in close proximity to the ears (hence the name earphone) to convert the signal into audible sound... In-ear headphones Headphones (also known as earphones, stereophones, headsets, or the slang term cans) is a transducer that receives an electrical signal from a media player or receiver and uses speakers placed in close proximity to the ears (hence the name earphone) to convert the signal into audible sound... Motorola HT1000 hand-held two-way radio A two-way radio is a radio that can both transmit and receive (a transceiver), unlike a broadcast receiver which only receives content one way. ... Microphones redirects here. ... In effects processing and sound reinforcement, an insert is a tip-ring-sleeve connector on the back of a sound board, used for creating a loop through an effects processor. ... A sound card (also known as an audio card) is a computer expansion card that can input and output sound under control of computer programs. ... Two different electric guitars. ... 1976 Shergold Modulator guitar Shergold Guitars, or Shergold Woodcrafts Limited, was established in October 1967 by former Burns employees Jack Golder and Norman Houlder. ... Rickenbacker 330JG Rickenbacker International Corporation, also known as Rickenbacker (pronounced ) [1]), is an electric guitar manufacturer, notable for having invented the first electric guitar during the 1930s. ... An instrument amplifier is an electronic amplifier designed for use with an electric or electronic musical instrument, such as an electric guitar. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making music. ... An inexpensive low fidelity 3. ... Neutrik Speakons are a type of cable connector commonly used in pro audio systems for connecting loudspeakers to amplifiers. ... Fender redirects here. ... An electronic keyboard. ... Basic electronic drum set made by Pintech. ... Synth redirects here. ... Musical Instrument Digital Interface, or MIDI, is a system designed to transmit information between electronic musical instruments. ... BBC Local Radio Mark III radio mixing desk In professional audio, a mixing console, mixing desk (Brit. ... The XLR connector is a rugged electrical connector design. ... Sine, square, triangle, and sawtooth waveforms The modular synthesizer is a type of synthesizer consisting of separate modules which must be connected by wires (patch cords) to create a so-called patch. ... A patch, in terms of music synthesizers, is a sound setting. ... In professional audio, a mixing console, digital mixing console, mixing desk (Brit. ... In effects processing and sound reinforcement, an insert is a tip-ring-sleeve connector on the back of a sound board, used for creating a loop through an effects processor. ... Connectors for supplying direct current (DC) power are poorly standardized compared to domestic AC power plugs and sockets. ... U-shaped Xenon Flash Lamp A xenon flash lamp is a gas discharge lamp designed to produce extremely intense, incoherent, full-spectrum white light for very short durations. ... In a camera, flash synchronization is required for the firing of a photographic flash to coincide with the shutter admitting light to the photographic film. ... Canon 350D Hot shoe A hot shoe is a mounting point on the top of a camera to attach a flash unit. ... A digital single lens reflex or DSLR camera is a single-lens reflex camera (SLR) which records images using an electronic sensor (Usually a CCD or CMOS chip) instead of film. ... A male DE-9 connector used for a serial port on a PC style computer. ... A typical graphing calculator. ... The TI-83 (original design) The TI-83 series of graphing calculators is manufactured by Texas Instruments. ... Amateur radio station with modern solid-state transceiver featuring LCD and DSP capabilities Amateur radio, often called ham radio, is both a hobby and a service that uses various types of radio communications equipment to communicate with other radio amateurs for public service, recreation and self-training. ... Motorola HT1000 hand-held two-way radio A two-way radio is a radio that can both transmit and receive (a transceiver), unlike a broadcast receiver which only receives content one way. ... USB redirects here. ... iPod shuffle is an iPod digital audio player designed and marketed by Apple Inc. ... This article refers to a surveillance system. ...

Switch contacts

A jack plug breaks the contact of a normally closed switch.
A jack plug breaks the contact of a normally closed switch.
Miniature jack plugs and jacks. All are 3.5 mm except the gold-plated plug, which is 2.5 mm. All the jacks are two-conductor (TS). The tan-colored jacks have a normally-closed switch.
Miniature jack plugs and jacks. All are 3.5 mm except the gold-plated plug, which is 2.5 mm. All the jacks are two-conductor (TS). The tan-colored jacks have a normally-closed switch.

Panel-mounting jacks are often provided with switch contacts. Most commonly, a mono jack is provided with a single normally closed (NC) contact, which is connected to the tip (live) connection when no plug is in the socket, and disconnected when a plug is inserted. Stereo sockets commonly provide two such NC contacts, one for the tip (left channel live) and one for the ring or collar (right channel live). Some designs of jack also have such a connection on the sleeve, as this contact is usually ground it is not much use for signal switching but could be used to indicate to electronic circuitry that the socket was in use. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Jack-plug--socket-switch. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Jack-plug--socket-switch. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1314x749, 133 KB) Jack plugs and. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1314x749, 133 KB) Jack plugs and. ...


Less commonly, some jacks are provided with normally open (NO) or change-over contacts, and/or the switch contacts may be isolated from the connector.


The original purpose of these contacts was for switching in telephone exchanges, for which there were many patterns. Two sets of change-over contacts, isolated from the connector contacts, were common. The more recent pattern of one NC contact for each signal path, internally attached to the connector contact, stems from their use as headphone jacks. In many amplifiers and equipment containing them, such as electronic organs, a headphone jack is provided that disconnects the loudspeakers when in use. This is done by means of these switch contacts. In other equipment, a dummy load is provided when the headphones are not connected. This is also easily provided by means of these NC contacts.


Other uses for these contacts have been found. One is to interrupt a signal path to enable other circuitry to be inserted. This is done by using one NC contact of a stereo jack to connect the tip and ring together when no plug is inserted. The tip is then made the output, and the ring the input (or vice versa), thus forming a patch point. In electronic audio technology, a patch point is a connection that allows a signal to be withdrawn from a device, modified in some way, and returned. ...


Another use is to provide alternative mono or stereo output facilities on some guitars and electronic organs. This is achieved by using two mono jacks, one for left channel and one for right, and wiring the NC contact on the right channel jack to connect the two connector tips together when the right channel output is not in use. This then mixes the signals so that the left channel jack doubles as a mono output.


Where a 3.5 mm or 2.5 mm jack is used as a DC power inlet connector, a switch contact may be used to disconnect an internal battery whenever an external power supply is connected, to prevent incorrect recharging of the battery.


A three-conductor signal input socket is used on some battery-powered guitar effects pedals to eliminate the need for a separate power switch. When the user plugs in a two-conductor guitar or microphone lead, the resulting short-circuit between earth and ring connects an internal battery to the unit's circuitry, ensuring that it powers up or down automatically whenever a signal lead is inserted or removed. A side effect is the risk of inadvertently discharging the battery if the lead is not removed after use, for example if equipment is left connected overnight. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Effects unit. ...


Tip/ring/sleeve terminology

1. Sleeve: usually ground 2. Ring: Right-hand channel for stereo signals, negative phase for balanced mono signals, power supply for power-requiring mono signal sources 3. Tip: Left-hand channel for stereo signals, positive phase for balanced mono signals, signal line for unbalanced mono signals 4. Insulating rings
1. Sleeve: usually ground
2. Ring: Right-hand channel for stereo signals, negative phase for balanced mono signals, power supply for power-requiring mono signal sources
3. Tip: Left-hand channel for stereo signals, positive phase for balanced mono signals, signal line for unbalanced mono signals
4. Insulating rings

In twisted pair wiring to this day, the non-inverting and/or "live" (or "hot") wire of each pair is known as the ring, while the inverting and/or "earthy" (or "neutral") wire is known as the tip, inherited from the traditional connection via the TRS connector in telephone systems. If the pair is shielded, or if the pair is accompanied by a dedicated earth wire, this third conductor is known as the sleeve. This usage corresponds to the connection to a three-connector jack plug in a manual telephone exchange. This appears to have originated with the use of TRS jacks by switchboard operators with the tip and ring wires attached to the corresponding parts of the jack. Originally, the hot and ground were reversed, but often the metallic desktops of the switch boards were scarred by the discharge from the tips and the system was reversed to the present usage.[citation needed] Image File history File links Jack_plug. ... Image File history File links Jack_plug. ... 25 Pair Color Code Chart 10BASE-T UTP Cable Twisted pair cabling is a common form of wiring in which two conductors are wound around each other for the purposes of cancelling out electromagnetic interference known as crosstalk. ... Telephone switchboard, 1974 A switchboard (also called a manual branch exchange) is a device used to manually connect a group of telephones from one to another or to an outside connection. ... This article is about operators in mathematics, for other kinds of operators see operator (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The term tip ring sleeve is more common in some English-speaking countries than others. Outside of the USA the term stereo jack plug is probably more common, even for connectors not used for stereo. The modern profile three-conductor jack plug was originally designed for stereo signal connections, with left channel on the tip, right on the ring and common return on the body or sleeve. The term TRS is particularly appropriate to distinguish these three-conductor (stereo) plugs used in other than stereo applications.

Unbalanced Output Unbalanced Input Unbalanced Insert Balanced Stereo
Tip Signal Signal Send or Return signal Positive/"Hot" Left channel
Ring Ground or No Connection Ground or No Connection Return or Send signal Negative/"Cold" Right channel
Sleeve Ground Ground Ground Ground Ground
Note that the first version of the popular Mackie 1604 mixer, the CR1604, used a Tip Negative, Ring Positive jack wiring scheme on the main left and right outputs. [6] [7]
Note that early QSC amplifiers used a Tip Negative, Ring Positive input jack wiring scheme. [8]
Whirlwind Line Balancer/Splitters do not use the Sleeve as a conductor on their unbalanced ¼ in TRS input. Tip and Ring are wired to the transformer's two terminals; Sleeve is not connected. [9]

Usage

Audio

When a TRS is used to make a balanced connection, the two active conductors are both used for a monaural signal. The ring, used for the right channel in stereo systems, is used instead for the inverting input. This is a common use in small audio mixing desks, where space is a premium and they offer a more compact alternative to XLR connectors. Another advantage offered by TRS connectors used for balanced microphone inputs is that a standard unbalanced signal lead using a mono jack plug can simply be plugged into such as input. The ring (right channel) contact then makes contact with the plug body, correctly grounding the inverting input. Balanced audio connections are extremely important in sound recording and production because they allow for the use of very long cables with reduced introduction of outside noise. ... Label for 1. ... BBC Local Radio Mark III radio mixing desk In professional audio, a mixing console, mixing desk (Brit. ... XLR3 cable connectors, female on left and male on right The XLR connector is a rugged electrical connector design. ...


The disadvantage of using TRS jacks for balanced audio connections is that the ground mates last and the socket grounds the plug tip and ring when inserting or pulling out the plug. This causes bursts of hum, cracks and pops and may stress some outputs as they will be short circuited briefly, or longer if the plug is left half in. Professional audio equipment uses XLR connectors which mate the ground signal on pin 1 first.


TRS connectors are also commonly used as unbalanced audio patch points (or insert points, or simply inserts), with the output on many mixers found on the tip (left channel) and the input on the ring (right channel). This is often expressed as "tip send, ring return." Other mixers have unbalanced insert points with "ring send, tip return." One advantage of this system is that the switch contact within the panel socket, originally designed for other purposes, can be used to close the circuit when the patch point is not in use. An advantage of the "tip send" patch point is that if it is used as an output only, a 2-conductor mono jack plug correctly grounds the input. In the same fashion, use of a "tip return" insert style allows a mono jack plug to bring an unbalanced signal directly into the circuit, though in this case the output must be robust enough to withstand being grounded. Combining Send and Return functions via single 6.35 mm TRS connectors in this way is seen in very many professional and semi-professional audio mixing desks, due to the halving of space needed for insert jack fields which would otherwise require two jacks, one for Send and one for Return. The tradeoff is that unbalanced signals are more prone to buzz, hum and outside interference.


In some TRS inserts, the concept is extended by using specially designed TRS jacks that will accept a mono jack plug partly inserted "to the first click" and will then connect the tip to the signal path without breaking it. Most standard TRS jacks can also be used in this way with varying success, but neither the switch contact nor the tip contact can be relied upon unless the internal contacts have been designed with extra strength for holding the plug tip in place. Even with stronger contacts, an accidental mechanical movement of the inserted plug can interrupt signal within the circuit. For maximum reliability, any usage involving "first click" or "half-click" positions will instead rewire the plug to short Tip and Ring together and then insert this modified plug all the way into the jack.


The TRS Tip Return, Ring Send unbalanced insert configuration is mostly found on older mixers. This allowed for the insert jack to serve as a standard-wired mono line input that would bypass the mic preamp (and likely a resistive pad, as well as other circuitry, depending on the design), and thus improve sound quality. However tip send has become the generally accepted standard for mixer inserts since the early-to-mid 1990s. The TRS Ring Send configuration is still found on some compressor sidechain input jacks such as the dbx 166XL.[10]


In some very compact equipment, 3.5 mm TRS jacks are used as patch points.


Some sound recording devices use a TRS as a mono microphone input, using the tip as the signal path and the ring to connect a standby switch on the microphone. Methods and media for sound recording are varied and have undergone significant changes between the first time sound was actually recorded for later playback until now. ...


Computer sound

Personal computer sound cards from Creative Labs, Sound Blaster or compatible to these use a 3.5 mm TRS as a mono microphone input, and deliver a 5 V polarising voltage on the ring to power electret microphones from the card manufacturer. Sometimes called phantom power, this is not a suitable power source for microphones designed for true phantom power and is better called bias voltage. Compatibility between different manufacturers is unreliable. A sound card (also known as an audio card) is a computer expansion card that can input and output sound under control of computer programs. ... Creative Technology Ltd. ... The Sound Blaster logo The Sound Blaster family of sound cards was for many years the de facto standard for audio on the IBM PC compatible system platform, before PC audio became commoditized, and backward-compatibility became less of a feature. ... Electret (formed of elektr- from electricity and -et from magnet) is material that has been permanently electrically charged (polarised). ... Phantom power (labeled as +48 V on some audio equipment) is a method that sends a DC electrical voltage through microphone cables. ...


Normally, 3.5 mm 3-conductor sockets are used in computer soundcards for stereo output. Thus, for a soundcard with 5.1 output, there will be 3 sockets to accommodate 6 channels - front left & right, rear left & right, and center & subwoofer. But the 6.1 and 7.1 channel soundcards from Creative Labs are equipped with 1 and 2 sockets of 3.5 mm 4-conductor sockets respectively. This is to accommodate rear-center (6.1) or side left & right (7.1) channels without additional sockets on the sound card. But speaker have normal 3-conductor sockets. In Creative's documentation, the word "pole" is used instead of "conductor".


The Apple PlainTalk microphone jack used on some older Macintosh systems is designed to accept an extended 3.5 mm TRS; in this case, the tip carries power for a preamplifier inside the microphone. If a PlainTalk-compatible microphone is not available, the jack can accept a line-level sound input, though it cannot accept a standard microphone without a preamp. Apple Inc. ... PlainTalk is the collective name for several speech synthesis (MacInTalk) and speech recognition technologies, developed by Apple Computer. ... An example of a typical high-end stereo preamplifier. ... Line level is a term used to denote the strength of an audio signal used to transmit analog sound information between audio components such as CD and DVD players, TVs, audio amplifiers, and mixing consoles. ...


Nowadays, all of Apple's computers have combination electric/optical 3.5 mm TRS jacks for both input and output. This allows for conventional stereo input and output with electrical connections, or 5.1 digital input and output with a mini-Toslink cable. TOSLINK is a standardized optical fiber connection system. ...


Plug-in power ( from: http://www.epanorama.net/circuits/microphone_powering.html )


Recording equipment

Stereo devices which use "plug-in power": the electret capsules are wired in this way
Stereo devices which use "plug-in power": the electret capsules are wired in this way

Many small video cameras, laptops, Minidisc recorders and other consumer devices use a 3.5 mm microphone connector for attaching a (mono/stereo) microphone to the system. These fall into three categories: Image File history File links Jackplug-wiring. ... Image File history File links Jackplug-wiring. ... See also IBMs VM operating system family, where minidisk refers to a logical unit of storage. ...

  • Devices (usually of the "toy" variety), which use an un-powered microphone: usually a cheap dynamic or piezo microphone. The microphone generates its own voltage, and does not require power.
  • Devices (usually very expensive recorders, for hi-fi or broadcast use) which use a self-powered microphone: usually an expensive dynamic microphone with internal battery-powered amplifier.
  • Devices (most consumer equipment) which use a "plug-in powered" microphone: an electret microphone containing an internal FET amplifier. These provide a good quality signal, in a very small microphone. However, the internal FET requires a DC power supply, which is provided as a bias voltage.

Plug-in power is supplied on the same line as the audio signal, using an RC filter. The DC bias voltage supplies the FET amplifier (at a low current), while the capacitor decouples the DC supply from the AC input to the recorder. Typically, V=1.5 V, R=1 kΩ, C=47 µF. A microphone with a cord A microphone, sometimes called a mic (pronounced mike), is a device that converts sound into an electrical signal. ... A microphone with a cord A microphone, sometimes called a mic (pronounced mike), is a device that converts sound into an electrical signal. ... A microphone with a cord A microphone, sometimes called a mic (pronounced mike), is a device that converts sound into an electrical signal. ... A microphone with a cord A microphone, sometimes called a mic (pronounced mike), is a device that converts sound into an electrical signal. ...


If a recorder provides plug-in power, and the microphone does not need it, everything will usually work ok, although the sound quality may be lower than expected. In the converse case (recorder provides no power; microphone requires power), no sound will be recorded. Neither misconfiguration will damage consumer hardware, but it could destroy a broadcast-type microphone.


Aircraft headsets

Aviation plug type U-174/U, commonly used on military aircraft and civil helicopters.
Aviation plug type U-174/U, commonly used on military aircraft and civil helicopters.

Commercial and general aviation civil airplane headset plugs are similar, but with a difference. A standard 1/4-inch monaural plug, type PJ-055, is used for headphones, paired with special tip-ring-sleeve, 0.206 inch diameter plug, type PJ-068, for the microphone. The extra connection in the microphone plug is used by an optional push-to-talk switch. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A general aviation scene at Kemble Airfield, England. ...


Military aircraft and civil helicopters have another type similar to a standard 1/4-inch stereo plug, but with a 0.281-inch diameter short shaft with an extra sleeve, known by the designation U-174/U. This provides four connections in one plug, allowing for a pair of monaural headphones, a microphone, a push-to-talk switch and a common ground conductor.


Some mobile phones such as the Nokia N95, the Apple iPhone and the HP IPAQ 500 Voice Messenger also use a similarly-wired plug for their headphone/microphone set.
N95 redirects here. ... For the Internet appliance line, see Linksys iPhone. ... iPAQ presently refers to a Pocket PC and personal digital assistant first unveiled by Compaq in April 2000; the name was borrowed from Compaqs earlier iPAQ Desktop Personal Computers. ...


Configurations and schematic symbols

Image:Phone jack symbols.png Image File history File links Phone_jack_symbols. ...


These examples are meant to illustrate each possible component of such jacks, but many other configurations using these basic components are available. All examples in the above figure are oriented so the plug 'enters' from the right.


A. A simple two-conductor jack. The connection to the sleeve is the rectangle towards the right, and the connection to the tip is the line with the notch. Wiring connections are illustrated as white circles.


B. A three-conductor, or TRS, jack. The upper connector is the tip, as it is farther away from the sleeve. The sleeve is shown connected directly to the chassis, a very common configuration. This is the typical configuration for a balanced connection. Some jacks have metal mounting connections (which would make this connection) and some have plastic, to isolate the sleeve from the chassis, and provide a separate sleeve connection point, as in A.


C. This three-conductor jack has two isolated SPDT switches. They are activated by a plug going into the jack, which disconnects one throw and connects the other. The white arrowheads indicate a mechanical connection, while the black arrowheads indicate an electrical connection. This would be useful for a device that turns on when a plug is inserted, and off otherwise, with the power routed through the switches. Electrical switches. ... Electrical switches. ...


D. This three-conductor jack has two normally closed switches connected to the contacts themselves. This would be useful for a patch point, for instance, or for allowing another signal to feed the line until a plug is inserted. The switches open when a plug is inserted. A common use for this style of connector is a stereo headphone jack that shuts off the default output (speakers) when the connector is plugged in.


Color Codes

These codes were standardized by Microsoft and Intel in 1999 for computers as part of the PC99 standard. See: PCxx Standards. Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ...

green TRS 3.5mm stereo output, front channels
black TRS 3.5mm stereo output, rear channels
grey TRS 3.5mm stereo output, side channels
gold TRS 3.5mm dual output, center and subwoofer
blue TRS 3.5mm stereo input, line level
pink TS 3.5mm mono microphone input

a 12 subwoofer driver A subwoofer refers to either a woofer, or a complete loudspeaker dedicated to the reproduction of bass audio frequencies, typically from 150 Hz down to 20 Hz. ... Line level is the strength of an audio signal used to transmit analog sound information between audio components such as CD and DVD players, TVs, amplifiers, and mixing consoles. ... Microphones redirects here. ...

See also

Electronics Portal
  • RCA connector
  • XLR connector
  • Coaxial power connector
  • 3D Model of a 3.5 mm (1/8") stereo (TRS) to 6.3 mm (1/4") stereo jack adapter

Image File history File links Nuvola_apps_ksim. ... RCA Plugs for composite video and stereo audio An RCA jack, also referred to as a phono connector or CINCH/AV connector, is a type of electrical connector that is commonly used in the audio/video market. ... XLR3 cable connectors, female on left and male on right The XLR connector is a rugged electrical connector design. ...

References

  1. ^ (1907) International Library of Technology: ...Principles of Telephony.... International Textbook Company, Scranton, PA. 
  2. ^ Robert McLeish (2005). Radio Production. Newnes. ISBN 0240519728. 
  3. ^ Gary D. Davis and Ralph Jones (1989). The Sound Reinforcement Handbook. Hal Leonard. ISBN 0881889008. 
  4. ^ Switchcraft TELEPHONE JACK AND TELEPHONE PLUG MATING CHART
  5. ^ http://boschsecurity.us/pdf/EN/VideoJet_10_Manual.pdf, page 137
  6. ^ Sweetwater inSync
  7. ^ Silent Way's recording tricks- Mackie CR-1604
  8. ^ Frequently Asked Questions
  9. ^ http://www.whirlwindusa.com/ftp/Blackbox/manuals/lbs.pdf
  10. ^ dbx 166XL compressor with balanced TRS "Tip Send" input and output jacks as well as a single TRS "Ring Send" sidechain jack

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

External links

  • WikiRecording's Article on TRS Connectors

  Results from FactBites:
 
Semi-Virtual Diskette (SVD) - TRS-80 Model I (2733 words)
If you are using the original cable, it is important to understand that each of the four connectors on the cable are "keyed." That is, some of the pins on the connector have been removed making each one specific for a particular disk drive.
This spare connector should be placed as indicated on the existing floppy cable.
But in general, either connect the SVD to the first keyed connector (corresponding to drive #0) or use a non-keyed connected to connect the SVD.
TRS connector - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (970 words)
TRS connectors are also commonly used as audio patch points (or insert points, or simply inserts), with the output on the tip (left channel) and the input on the ring (right channel).
Some sound recording devices use a TRS as a mono microphone input, using the tip as the signal path and the ring to connect a standby switch on the microphone.
TRS connectors come in 6.35 mm (1/4 in), 3.5 mm (1/8 in) (miniature) and 2.5mm (subminiature) sizes.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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