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Encyclopedia > TRPC

The phrase Transient receptor potential or TRP is appended to at least three classes of ion channels which mediate the response of a cell to external stimuli (electrical charge, substances, and forces) by increasing or decreasing its selective permeability to particular ions. The effect of this change is to modify the potential difference between inside and outside of the cell. Hence "receptor," for sensitivity to the environment, and "potential" for this difference. Ion channels are pore-forming proteins that help to establish and control the small voltage gradient that exists across the plasma membrane of all living cells (see cell potential) by allowing the flow of ions down their electrochemical gradient. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell. Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... Permeability has several meanings: In electromagnetism, permeability is the degree of magnetisation of a material in response to a magnetic field. ... “Multivalent” redirects here. ... In biological cells that are electrically at rest, the cytosol possesses a uniform electric potential or voltage compared to the extracellular solution. ...


Transient receptor potential ion channels are named after the role of the channels in Drosophila phototransduction. Ion channels are pore-forming proteins that help to establish and control the small voltage gradient that exists across the plasma membrane of all living cells (see cell potential) by allowing the flow of ions down their electrochemical gradient. ... Type Species Musca funebris Fabricius, 1787 Drosophila is a genus of small flies whose members are often called small fruit flies, or more appropriately vinegar flies, wine flies, pomace flies, grape flies, and picked fruit-flies. ... Visual phototransduction is a process by which light is converted into electrical signals in the rod cells and cone cells of the retina of the eye. ...

Contents

Genes

They are encoded by at least 21 channel subunit genes and divided in three subunits: For other meanings of this term, see gene (disambiguation). ...

  • TRPC (canonical): TRPC1, TRPC2, TRPC3, TRPC4, TRPC5, TRPC6, TRPC7
  • TRPV (vanilloid): TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPV5, TRPV6
  • TRPM (melastatin): TRPM1, TRPM2, TRPM3, TRPM4, TRPM5, TRPM6, TRPM7, TRPM8

TRPV

TRPV1 to TRPV4 can basically be seen as thermometers on a molecular level, and are activated by various means. TRPV1 is for example activated by noxious heat, acidic pH and capsaicin [1]. The chemical compound capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is the active component of chili peppers, which are plants belonging to the genus Capsicum. ...


TRPV5 and TRPV6 are calcium entry channels responsible for calcium absorption in kidney and intestine. They were originally named ECaC [2] and CAT1 [3] and expression is regulated by the vitamin D endocrine system through the active metabolite calcitriol. TRPV6 is a membrane calcium channel which is responsible for the first step in calcium absorption in the intestine. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ...


TRPM

TRPM5 is involved in the sensory transduction pathway of taste cells.


TRPM6 is a magnesium entry channel in epithelial tissues mediating magensium reabsorption in the kidney and absorption in the intestine [4]


ANKTM1 (or TRPA1) is a member of the TRP ion channel family responsible for the irritating effects of tetrahydrocannabinol, mustard oil, [5] and cinnamaldehyde. Tetrahydrocannabinol, also known as THC, Δ9-THC, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol), Δ¹-tetrahydrocannabinol (using an older numbering scheme), or dronabinol, is the main psychoactive substance found in the Cannabis plant. ... The term mustard oil is used for two different oils that are made from mustard seeds: a fatty vegetable oil resulting from pressing the seeds, an essential oil resulting from grinding the seeds, mixing them with water, and extracting the resulting volatile oil by distillation. ... Cinnamic aldehyde or cinnamaldehyde (more precisely trans-cinnamaldehyde, the only naturally-occurring form) is the chemical compound that gives cinnamon its spice. ...


TRPM8 is a Ca2+ permeable channel which can be activated by low temperatures, menthol, eucalyptol and icilin [6]. Menthol is a covalent organic compound made synthetically or obtained from peppermint or other mint oils. ... Eucalyptol is a natural organic compound which is a colorless liquid. ...


References

  1. ^ TRPV3 is a temperature-sensitive vanilloid receptor-like protein G. D. Smith, M. J. Gunthorpe, R. E. Kelsell, P. D. Hayes, P. Reilly, P. Facer, J. E. Wright, J. C. Jerman, J.-P. Walhin, L. Ooi, J. Egerton, K. J. Charles, D. Smart, A. D. Nature 186 418 2002 abstract
  2. ^ Molecular identification of the apical Ca2+ channel in 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-responsive epithelia Hoenderop JG, van der Kemp AW, Hartog A, van de Graaf SF, van Os CH, Willems PH, Bindels RJ. J Biol Chem 1999;274:8375-8. abstract
  3. ^ Molecular cloning and characterization of a channel-like transporter mediating intestinal calcium absorption. Peng JB, Chen XZ, Berger UV, Vassilev PM, Tsukaguchi H, Brown EM, Hediger MA. J Biol Chem 1999;274:22739-46. abstract
  4. ^ Hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia is caused by mutations in TRPM6, a new member of the TRPM gene family. Schlingmann KP, Weber S, Peters M, Niemann Nejsum L, Vitzthum H, Klingel K, Kratz M, Haddad E, Ristoff E, Dinour D, Syrrou M, Nielsen S, Sassen M, Waldegger S, Seyberth HW, Konrad M. Nat Genet 2002;31:166-70. abstract
  5. ^ Mustard oils and cannabinoids excite sensory nerve fibres through the TRP channel ANKTM1 Sven-Eric Jordt, Diana M. Bautista, Huai-hu Chuang, David D. McKemy, Peter M. Zygmunt, Edward D. Högestätt, Ian D. Meng, David Julius Nature 260 427 2004 abstract
  6. ^ Characterization of the mouse cold-menthol receptor TRPM8 and vanilloid receptor type-1 VR1 using a fluorometric imaging plate reader (FLIPR) assay H-J Behrendt, T Germann, C Gillen, H Hatt, R Jostock British Journal of Pharmacology 737 141 2004 abstract

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